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LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



JULY-f 1953 

VOL. Llir 2 No. 7-/<2 



IN THIS ISSUE: 



82nd Annual Meeting, 

Canadian Manufacturers' 

Association 

Effects of 
Plant Expansion in 
Ontario, 1948-53 

Minister of Labour 
Addresses ILO 

Highlights of Provincial 
Labour Legislation, 1953 

Wage Rates for Labourers 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 






604153 



Hi* 



o o 



Vol. LIU, No. 7 CONTENTS JULY, 1953 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 967 

Notes ot Current Interest 983 

82nd Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association. . 996 

Effects of Plant Expansion on Employment in Ontario 1 004 

Recent Annual Conventions, Provincial Labour Organizations. . 1006 

Report of N.B. Department of Labour for 1952 101 1 

International Labour Organization: 

Minister of Labour Addresses General Conference 1014 

Teamwork in Industry 1019 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1020 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1020 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1025 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1030 

Labour Law: 

Highlights of Labour Laws Enacted by Provinces, 1953. . . 1033 

1953 Labour Legislation in British Columbia and Quebec. . 1040 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1043 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1046 

Decision of the Umpire 1 047 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1049 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Wage Rates for Male Labourers in Manufacturing 1052 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 054 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 056 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1 057 

Labour Statistics 1062 



Subscriptions — Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 

Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LI! I, No. 8 CONTENTS AUGUST 1953 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1099 

Notes of Current Interest 1115 

Labour Day Messages 1 125 

Two Systems ot Forced Labour Found to Exist in World 1 131 

Job Counselling for Older Workers 1 137 

Causes of Industrial Peace: 

1 0— "Scanlon Plan" Helps Maintain Harmonious Relationship 1 1 38 

11— Mature, Productive Relationship Follows Long Unrest. 1141 

Two States Enact Laws to Curb Waterfront Racketeering 1143 

International Labour Organization: 

36th General Conference Approves Two Recommendations. 1145 

122nd Session of Governing Body 1151 

Teamwork in Industry 1 1 53 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1 154 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1155 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1 1 60 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1 165 

Industrial Standards Acts, etc 1 168 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1 170 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1179 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1 193 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 1 94 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 196 

Prices and the Cost of Living . 1 1 99 

Strikes and Lockouts 1201 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1202 

Labour Statistics 1 206 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per vear; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each: special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes - 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



AUGUST 
VOL. Llll 



1953 
No. 8 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Labour Day Messages 

Forced Labour 
Found to Exist 

Job Counselling 
for Older Workers 

Causes of Industrial 
Peace, Studies 10 and 11 

36th General Conference 

of ILO Approves 

Two Recommendations 




Published Monthly . p. , 

DEPARTMENT 53 
OF LABOUR . 6 vJ 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 



Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. Llll, No. 9 CONTENTS SEPTEMBER 1953 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1241 

Notes ot Current Interest 1 257 

Guaranteed Wage Plans in Collective Agreements 1269 

68th Annual Convention of the Trades and Labour Congress. . 1273 

Number of Workers Affected by Collective Agreements 1294 

Fatal Industrial Accidents during First Quarter, 1953 1301 

Immigration Target Charted 1302 

Factory Inspection in the United Kingdom 1 304 

Teamwork in Industry 1313 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1314 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1314 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1322 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1326 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Manitoba, 1953 1330 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1336 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1342 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1351 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 352 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1355 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1358 

Strikes and Lockouts 1361 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1362 

Labour Statistics 1 366 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager^ 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



SEPTEMBER 1953 
VOL. LI 1 1 No. 9 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Guaranteed Wage Plans 
in Collective Agreements 

68th Annual Convention 

of Trades and Labour 

Congress 

Number of Workers 

Affected by 

Collective Agreements 

Labour Legislation 
in Manitoba, 1953 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 



' 



Toward removal of 



^ii^>tM4U41^Z^^n^ 



in employmen 




The federal government has recently introduced three 
measures intended to sofeqaord the right of equality 
of opportunity in employment 

The CANAOA FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICED 
ACT. which come into effect on July I. 1953. is desic 
"to prevent end eliminate practices of discrimination 
against persons m regard to employment and in rega/d 
to membership in a frode union because of race, notioot 
origin, colour or religion 

It opoties to employers engaged in undertakings under 
fede at jumdicton end to unions representing persons 
employed in such under takings 

The UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT was 
omended in July. 1952. to provide that the National 
Employment Service Shalt ensure that there is no 
discrimination in referring workers to |obs 

PEOERAl GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS (or wot 
of construction, repair, remodelling ond demolition, 
and for the manufacture of equipment and supplies 
must no*, by on Order m Council of Octaber. 1952 
inctade a provision prohibiting discriminotten in 
employment by the contractor 



FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABQ 



Display board explaining federal government moves aime 
at the removal of discrimination in employment that was pre! 
duced for the Department of Labour for exhibit at labot 
conventions. A similar board in the French language has als 

been prepared. Photoby Capital Prest Servi.1 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 

Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIU, No. 10 CONTENTS October 1953 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 405 

Notes of Current Interest 1421 

Effects of Plant Expansion on Employment, 1948-53 1431 

13th Annual Convention of Canadian Congress of Labour. . . 1434 

32nd Convention of C. and C. C. of Labour 1458 

International Labour Organization: 

ILO Defines Functions of National Labour Department. ... 1471 

Teamwork in Industry 1 472 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1473 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1475 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1494 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1498 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1502 

Industrial Standards Acts, etc 1506 

Labour Law: 

Legislation Enacted by 21st Parliament, 7th Session 1508 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1515 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1519 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1521 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 522 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1525 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Plant Employees' Working Conditions in Manufacturing.. 1529 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 533 

Strikes and Lockouts 1537 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1 538 

Labour Statistics 1545 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



OCTOBER 1953 
VOL. Llll No. 10 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Effects of Plant Expansion 
on Employment, 1948-53 

Annual Conventions of 
the Canadian Congress 

of Labour, 

Canadian and Catholic 

Confederation of Labour 

Legislation Enacted by 
Parliament at 7th Session 

Plant Employees' 

Working Conditions, 

Manufacturing Industry 




Published Monthly 
he 



by (he 



DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 

Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIN, No. 11 CONTENTS NOVEMBER 1953 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1579 

Notes ot Current Interest 1595 

Apprenticeship Training Advisory Committee Meets 1608 

Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada, 2nd Quarter 1609 

41st Annual Convention of N.B. Federation of Labour 161 1 

1st Annual Convention of B.C. Trade Union Congress 1616 

72nd Annual Convention of American Federation of Labour. . 1617 

35th Annual British Trades Union Congress 1620 

International Labour Organization: 

ILO's Third Asian Regional Conference 1624 

Teamwork in Industry 1 626 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1627 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1628 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1631 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1635 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in 1953 in N.B., Ont., and Sask 1638 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1653 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1658 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 659 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1661 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Office Employees' Working Conditions in Manufacturing.. 1665 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 668 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 670 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1671 

Labour Statistics 1 677 



Subscriptions — Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 






%/?s,rvon# 



NOVEMBER 1953 
VOL. LI 1 1 No. 11 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Fatal Industrial 
Accidents during 
Second Quarter 

Annual Conventions of 
N.B. Federation of Labour, 
B.C. Trade Union Congress, 

American Federation of 

Labour and British Trades 

Union Congress 

Office Employees' 

Working Conditions, 

Manufacturing Industry 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. Llll, No. 12 



CONTENTS 



DECEMBER 1953 



Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1715 

Notes of Current Interest 1731 

Extracts from Hansard of Interest to Labour 1741 

Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation of Disabled 1746 

Vocational Training Advisory Council Meeting 1749 

Chamber of Commerce Presents Annual Brief to Cabinet. . . 1753 
Annual Conventions: 

Industrial Federation of Labour of Alberta (CCL) 1755 

New Brunswick Council of Labour (CCL) 1755 

Saskatchewan Provincial Federation of Labour (TLC) — 1756 

New Year's Messages 1757 

International Labour Organization: 

Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works Committee. 1764 

Teamwork in Industry 1 767 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1768 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1770 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1790 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1792 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1797 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Alta., Nfld., N.S. and P.E.I, in 1953. 1799 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1808 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1814 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Report of Unemployment Insurance Advisory Committee. 1819 

Monthly Report on Operations 1821 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 822 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1825 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 829 

Strikes and Lockouts 1831 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1832 

Labour Statistics 1 835 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



DECEMBER 1953 
VOL. LI 1 1 No. 12 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Advisory Committee on 
Rehabilitation of Disabled 

Vocational Training 
Advisory Committee 

Chamber of Commerce 
Brief to Cabinet 

1953 Report of the 

Unemployment Insurance 

Advisory Committee 

New Year's Messages 




BR. 



Published Monthly 
byllij 

7 OF "TO* 
DEPARTMENT 

OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 





CURRENT JULY,5 ' ,9S3 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Branch, Canadian Department of Labour 

Current Manpower Situation 

THE usual yearly influx of students into the labour market occurred 
in June. This increase in labour supplies was more than matched 
by the further expansion of seasonal employment activities and hiring 
by employers to replace an increasing number of workers on vacation. 
The expansion of construction work continued to maintain employment 
levels in that industry well above last year's levels. By the first of 
July, work on most construction projects in the country was nearing 
peak seasonal levels. 

The demand for labour continued to be more evenly distributed than 
last year; 85 local labour markets out of a total of 115 in were approxi- 
mate balance by the first of July, compared with 80 at the beginning 
of June and only 75 at July 1, 1952. At the same date last year, 26 
local areas had labour surpluses and 15 labour shortages, compared 
with only 22 and 8 respectively this year. 

The monthly Labour Force Survey, which provides an over-all pic- 
ture of current manpower utilization patterns, estimates that for the 
week ending June 20, 1953, there were 5,387,000 persons in the civilian 
labour force, an increase of 66,000 from the week ending May 16. Of 
this total, 4,888,000 were at work for 35 hours or more during the week, 
an increase of 168,000 from May 16; 284,000 were at work for fewer 
than 35 hours, a decrease of 104,000; and 125,000 had jobs but were 
not at work, an increase of 26,000. 

The number of persons without jobs and seeking work dropped to 
90,000, a decrease of 24,000 or 21 per cent during the month. This, 
together with the expansion in the size of the labour force noted above, 
accounts for the monthly increase of 90,000 in the number of persons 
with jobs, which reached a total of 5,297,000 by June 20. 

Of the 284,000 persons who were working fewer than 35 hours 
during the week, about 195,000 were reported as usually working part 
time. The remaining 89,000 represented a considerable drop from the 
previous month because the observance of a religious holiday in May 
had reduced total working hours for 59,000 workers. 

Of the 120,000 persons who had jobs but did not work at all during 
the survey week, illness (48,000) was an important factor contributing 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 

967 



CURRENT LABOUR TRENDS 




THOUSANDS 




CENTS PI 

140 
130 

120 
110 
100 







I9D1 




♦r*"* 




w**& 


1952 




1 Averages 










AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 




!,.» J...., 


< 1. 1 i: ■..•■■•' i-... < ■■■<• I 





AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 

munufa. taring 




H 1953 




„.'^ 


£?-$£ ' 1952 N- 


►*►•• 


• 

/ 
/ 
/ 


jAveragesl 




i 1 j ..-».-. .-.«.':.. 



ER WEEK 
44 
43 

42 
41 
40 



120 



1952 




CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 




INDEX 




INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

1935-39 KM) 



1953 




^mm 




r^H1952- 



S ' FMAMJJASONDJ 



S^JFMAMJJASONDJ 



to their absence, although the figure decreased by 6,000 from the pre- 
vious month. About 50,000 persons were away because of vacations, 
this total being 30,000 higher than at May 16. 

It was estimated that 90,000 persons were without jobs and seeking 
work during the survey week. Another 11,000 worked part of the survey 
week but were also actively seeking other work, making a total of 
101,000 persons actively seeking work during the week ending June 20. 
This is a drop of about 23,000 from May 16, and of 75,000 during the 
last two months. 

Supplementary information with respect to regional labour market 
patterns is available from data on registrations for employment collected 
at local National Employment Service offices. At June 18, applications 
on file totalled 179,282, a drop of 62,722 or more than 25 per cent from 
the previous month. Once again, the Quebec and Atlantic regions showed 
the greatest decreases, with monthly declines of 29,067 and 12,532 
applicants respectively. 

The Quebec total of 63,051 at June 18 was slightly below the figure 
a year earlier, while that for the Atlantic region (25,877) was still 
moderately higher than last year's. In the Ontario region, there was 
a smaller decline of 5,147 in applications for employment but the total 
at June 18 (48,151) was still well below last year's, when there were 
more than 59,500 applications on hand at local offices. 

The figure for the Prairie region dropped by 9,500 during the month 
to a total of 19,064 on June 18. This was slightly higher than last year. 
In the Pacific region, applications on file at June 18 totalled 23,139, 
a decrease of 6,400 from May 14 and 6,241 from the same date in 1952. 
The latter figure does not permit a valid year-to-year comparison, how- 
ever, since there were a good many construction and forestry workers 
on strike during June, 1952. 

While labour surpluses declined steadily in most regions, a few 
areas, mainly in Eastern Canada, still reported an excess of supply 
over demand at the end of June. In most of the smaller areas affected, 
the main factors contributing to this situation v. ere fewer job oppor- 
tunities this year in the primary industries and construction. In the 
larger centres, on the other hand, lay-offs in the primary textiles and 
aircraft industries added to the available labour supply. A lay-off of 
about 1,200 men also occurred in a coal mining centre in Cape Breton. 

Employment levels in the industrial areas of Canada, particularly 
in Ontario, continued to exceed last year's levels. The production of 
durable goods in May was nearly 15 per cent higher than last year and 
the output of non-durables about eight per cent higher. During the same 
month, the number of dwelling units begun was about 40 per cent higher 
than last year and the number of units actually under construction at 
June 1, 1953, about 34 per cent higher. The output of items such as 
automobiles and television and radio sets has been considerably higher 
than last year. This high production level is reflected in retail sales 
which, for the first five months of 1953, were nearly seven per cent 
higher than last year. Sales of appliances were more than 20 per cent 
higher and of automobiles nearly 15 per cent higher. To date, therefore, 
demand has generally kept pace with rising output which, in turn, has 
resulted in increased over-all employment. 

969 



Labour— Management Relations 

»Y early summer, the industrial relations picture for 1953 was be- 
coming clearer. In many of the most significant bargaining situ- 
ations, settlements had been reached or negotiations were well under 
way. Wage increases were generally smaller this year than in 1952 but 
the trend towards improvements in such 'fringe* items as hours, vacations 
and pension and welfare plans continued. Many of the wage settlements 
gave special consideration to skilled workers by increasing pay differ- 
entials which had tended to narrow on a percentage basis as a result of 
flat across-the-board increases common during the recent period of a 
rising cost of living. 

The continued trend towards shorter hours is reflected in the Eco- 
nomics and Research Branch's survey of working conditions in Canadian 
industry as of April 1, 1953. Preliminary returns for the manufacturing 
industries, covering almost 800,000 plant workers in 6,100 establish- 
ments, indicate that about 42 per cent are now on a 40-hour standard 
work week. About 78 per cent of the plant workers surveyed are on a 
5-day week. Of 180,000 office employees covered in preliminary returns, 
84 per cent are on a 5-day week and about half are on a standard week 
of 37/i hours or less. 

Negotiations for 1953 were accompanied by a minimum of strike 
activity, time loss so far this year being considerably below the post- 
war average. 

Current Negotiations, Although agreements in Canada's basic steel 
industry remain in effect until next year, they provide for re-opening 
negotiations on wages this year. Accordingly, bargaining over wage 
rates began in the latter part of June between the United Steelworkers 
of America (CIO-CCL) and two companies, the Steel Company of Canada 
Limited at Hamilton and the Algoma Steel Corporation at Sault Ste. Marie. 
An 8%-cent-an-hour increase was negotiated in the United States this 
year under a similar wage re-opening arrangement. 

Negotiations for new work contracts in sections of the pulp and 
paper industry were resumed in June (L.G., May, p. 644). Ontario news- 
print and pulp mills failed to reach agreement after several meetings 
with 11 AFL-TLC unions including the International Brotherhood of 
Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers and the International Brotherhood 
of Paper Makers. The dispute centered on wages, the unions seeking a 
five-per-cent increase for the 15,000 workers covered and the companies 
proposing a three-per-cent reduction. A conciliation board has been 
requested. 

In Quebec, two newsprint companies signed new agreements with 
the National Federation of Pulp and Paper Workers (CCCL). New one- 
year agreements covering employees of the Consolidated Paper Corpo- 
ration at Port Alfred, Grand 'Mere and Shawinigan Falls provide for a 
general wage increase of 12 per cent, setting a base rate of $1.41, as 
well as a 40-hour week and increased shift differentials. Price Bros, and 
Co. Limited also signed a new work contract for its Kenogami and Iliver- 
bend mills. The basic rate was increased to $1.38 and the work week 

970 



reduced from 48 to 44 hours, effective immediately. At the request of 
the union, the work week can be further reduced to 40 hours with a 
$1.41 basic rate between August 1 and November 1 of this year. 

Negotiations are also reported to be in progress between the In- 
ternational Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers and 
the International Brotherhood of Paper Makers and pulp and paper mills 
in British Columbia employing about 5,500 workers. 

A one-year agreement was reached between the Coal Operators' 
Association of Western Canada and District 18 of the United Mine Workers 
of America (CCL), following several months of bargaining and concilia- 
tion. Applying to more than 6,000 miners employed by 19 companies, the 
agreement is similar to that recommended by a conciliation board, al- 
though some of the recommended changes in the vacation plan are not 
incorporated in the new contract. A wage increase is not provided but 
employer payments to the welfare fund are to be increased by five cents 
per ton of coal mined. 

In Nova Scotia, the other major coal mining area, agreement had 
not yet been reached between the Dominion Coal Company and District 
26 of United Mine Workers of America. In a vote July 7, the workers 
turned down a conciliation board report which recommended that both 
parties drop their demands and renew last year's contract. 

In the automobile industry, the settlement at Ford Motor Company 
of Canada was reported last month (L.G., June, p. 798). Since that 
time, the United Automobile Workers (CIO-CCL) reached agreement 
with the Chrysler Corporation of Canada Ltd. for a 6-cent across-the- 
board increase for 6,000 employees at Windsor and Chatham. Subject 
to ratification by the union members, agreement was reached between 
General Motors of Canada Limited and its subsidiaries and the United 
Automobile Workers on revisions to their five-year contracts covering a 
total of approximately 20,000 workers. These include General Motors 
employees at Oshawa and Windsor, workers at the McKinnon Industries 
in St. Catharines, at Frigidaire Products In Toronto and at the General 
Motors Diesel plant in London. Particulars of this development were 
not available at the time of writing. Some 800 office workers at Ford 
Motor Company of Canada in Windsor, represented by local 240 of the 
union, also had their salaries revised. The new wage structure represents 
an increase of about $10.40 a month for each employee. 

Negotiations have been in progress for some time in important 
areas of the metal-mining industry. In Northern Ontario and Quebec, the 
United Steelworkers of America (CIO-CCL) are still in negotiation with 
two of the largest mines. At Timmins, Ont., bargaining and conciliation 
of Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited so far failed to produce a settle- 
ment. A board of conciliation recommended an increase of seven cents 
an hour, check-off of union dues and other benefits. WTien this was re- 
jected by the company the union members voted in favour of strike action. 
The main item of dispute there appears to be union security, which the 
union has been seeking for some time. Differences between the same 
union and Noranda Mines in Quebec are being dealt with by a board 
of conciliation. Negotiations have also been in progress for some time 

971 



in several of the smaller mines in the Timmins area. During mid-July 
work stoppages occurred at four mines. 

A conciliation board is dealing with a dispute between the Con- 
solidated Mining and Smelting Company and Trail, Kimberley and Calgary 
locals of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
(independent). The pension plan is the major item still unsettled. 

Contract negotiations were in progress or will begin shortly in 
several large Quebec and Ontario textile firms. The United Textile 
Workers of America (AFL-TLC) took advantage of the re-opening pro- 
vision in its two-year agreements with Dominion Textile Limited of 
Montreal and Montreal Cottons Limited of Valleyfield, on the question 
of wages. The union requested a 10-cent-an-hour wage increase; the 
companies proposed a 5-cent-an-hour decrease. In Ontario, the Textile 
Workers Union of America (CIO-CCL) reached an agreement with Cour- 
tauld's, Cornwall, for a 5%-cent wage increase plus incorporation of a 
14/4-cent cost-of-living bonus into wage rates. The same union is ne- 
gotiating at the mills of the Monarch Knitting Company in Toronto, 
Dunnville and St. Catharines and bargaining is expected to begin soon 
at Canadian Cottons Limited in Cornwall and Hamilton. Agreements were 
recently re-negotiated in a number of the smaller textile plants in Quebec 
and Ontario. In many others, bargaining will begin shortly. 

In addition to settlements reported in this Review over the last 
two months, further agreements were reached in many areas across 
Canada for the building trades. Wage increases for the most part ranged 
from five to twelve cents an hour. Important bargaining in this industry 
is continuing, particularly in the Maritimes and in Alberta. The Toronto 
Builders' Exchange settled with the carpenters and electricians, pro- 
viding increases of 10 and 12 cents an hour respectively. 

A wage increase of five cents an hour y plus incorporation into 
basic rates of nine cents of a cost-of-living bonus, was unanimously 
recommended by a conciliation board in the dispute between the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America (CIO-CCL) and Forest Industrial 
Relations Limited, representing British Columbia coastal logging oper- 
ators. Some 32,000 B.C. lumber workers are affected. 

Agreement was reached between the Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild and several west coast shipping firms operating in British Col- 
umbia. The two-year agreement provides a 6-per-cent wage increase, a 
type of 'Rand Formula* and other benefits. Wage rate negotiations may 
be re-opened after one year. Three boards of conciliation dealing with 
differences between the Canadian National Newfoundland Steamship 
Service, the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other 
Transport Workers (CCL) and the Canadian Merchant Service Guild 
reported. The major recommendations are a 5-per-cent wage increase 
effective January 1, 1953, and certain changes in stand-by wages. 

In tne hotel industry, a significant agreement was reached between 
31 Vancouver hotels and the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' and 
Bartenders' International Union (AFL-TLC), providing for a 40-hour 
week and other benefits. Negotiations for a 40-hour week and other 
matters were also in progress between the Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers and the Lotel Vancouver. 
Bargaining between the same union and other railway hotels across the 
country is also beginning. 

972 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



LABOUR surpluses in local 
areas continued to decline 
during June as labour requirements 
in such seasonal activities as 
construction continued to increase. 
The seasonal increase in activity, 
though not as great as that which 
occurred in the previous month, 
was large enough to produce a 
substantial change in labour market 
classifications. By the beginning 
of July, labour surplus areas had 
decreased to 22 from 28 a month 
earlier, areas of balanced labour 
supply and demand had increased 
from 80 to 85 and areas of labour 
shortage from four to eight. 



CANADA 

Proportion of paid workers within each 
of tho four labour market groups. 



Par C*nt 



July 1 

■..'•: .Y.".- ••••• . • :: . " :• 1QS7 :•:•:•:•:• 


MmM^^Mjuly' 


iiilij 


/.■.i.*^^..^^^^w^s* 


': 1952 




1 




■;.:r^r:^:r 1 




1 




, | 




■ 








"""■■■":■'■" • ■ 





Put C»nt 

90 
8C 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP l GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



The demand for labour continued to be more evenly distributed 
than it was last year. Eighty-five labour markets covering 77 per cent 
of all paid workers were in balance by the first of July, compared with 
75 areas and 73 per cent of all paid workers at July 1, 1952. The in- 
crease was spread fairly evenly over all types of areas except the 
metropolitan centres. In this classification St. John's, Nfld., failed to 
move into the balanced group as quickly as it did last year owing to a 
less rapid expansion of construction activity. 

Labour demand was not, however, evenly balanced with supply 
in all parts of the country. Eighteen of the 22 surplus areas were located 
in the Quebec and the Atlantic regions. On the other hand, the Prairie 
region contained six of the eight shortage areas. Almost all areas in 
Ontario and the Pacific region were in balance, the most notable ex- 
ception being Vancouver — New Westminster where moderate surpluses 
continued. 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approximate 
Balance* 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1952 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1952 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1952 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1952 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


- 


1 


2 
10 

10 


1 
12 

12 


7 
20 
12 
46 


8 
16 
10 
41 


1 
1 

5 

1 


1 
3 

7 
3 


Total 


- 


1 


22 


25 


85 


75 


8 


14 



♦See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 



973 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, JULY 1, 1953 





APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 


Group 1 Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 






St. John's 


Calgary 


Edmonton 






Vancouver -New 


Hamilton 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Westminster 


Montreal 




(lobour force 75,000 or more) 






Ottawa -Hull 
Quebec - Levis 
Toronto 
Winnipeg 








Brantford 


Corner Brook 


Kitchener 






Cornwall 


Farnham -Granby 








Lac St. Jean 


Fort William- 








Moncton 


Port Arthur 








New Glasgow 


Guelph 








Rouyn-Val d'Cr 


Halifax 








Saint John 


Kingston 








Shawinigan Foils 


London 








Trois Rivieres 


Niagara Falls 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Valleyfield- 


Oshawa 




(labour force 25,000-75,000: 




Beauharnois 


Peterborough 




60 per cent or more in 






Sarnia 




non-agricultural industry) 






Sherbrooke 
St. Catharines 
St. Hyactnthe 
Sudbury 
Sydney 
Timmins — 

Kirkland Lake 
Vicforio 
Welland 
Windsor 










Borrie 


Brandon 








Charlottetown 


Red Deer 








Chatham, Ont. 


Regina 








Joliette 


Swift Current 


MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 






Kentville 


Yorkton 


(labour force 25,000-75,000: 






Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 
North Cattleford 




40 per cent or more in agriculture) 














Prince Albert 










Riviere du Loup 










Saskatoon 










Thetford Mines 








Gothurst 


Belleville -Trenton 


Brampton 






Buckingham 


Lracebridge 








Drummondville 


Bridgewater 








Gaspe 


Campbellton 








La Malbaie 


Central Vancouver 








Newcastle 


Island 








Prince George 


Chilliwack 








Rimouski 


Cronbrook 








St. Georges Est 


Dauphin 








Sorel 


Dawson Creek 
Drumheller 
Edmundston 
Fort Erie - 

Port Colborne 
Fredericton 
Gait 

Goderich 
Grand Falls 
In jersoll 
Kamloops 
Kenoro —Sioux 

Lookout 
Lachute - 

Ste. Therese 




MINOR AREAS 






Leamington 
Lindsay 
L istowel 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 














Medicine Hat 










Montragny 










Korth Bay 










Ckonagan Valley 










Owen Sound 










Pembroke 










Portage la Prairie 










Prince Rupert 










Sault Ste. Marie 










Simcoe 










Ste. Agathe - 










St. Jerome 










St. Jean 










Stratford 










Summerside 










St. Thomas 










Troil - Nelson 










Truro 










Victoriaville 










Walkerton 










Weyburn 










Woodstock, Ont. 










Woodstock, N.C. 










Yarmouth 





ATLANTIC 



ATLANTIC 



>f th* four I 



paid 

oboor 



market groups, 1953. 




SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP * 



EMPLOYMENT increased season- 
ally in all parts of the Atlantic 
region in June. During the four 
weeks ending June 20, full-time 
workers increased by 18,000 to a 
total of 468,000. Part of this in- 
crease resulted from further season- 
al additions to the labour force and 
part from a reduction in the number 
of persons without jobs and seeking 
work. 

Seasonal industries such as 
construction, sawmilling, agri- 
culture and mining exploration 
were chiefly responsible for in- 
creased employment in the region. 

Construction, after starting slowly this spring, became quite active 
during June and it is anticipated that the demand for construction work- 
ers will further increase in the months ahead as work advances on large 
projects such as the expansion of naval facilities in Halifax, the im- 
provement of Newfoundland's transportation system and the extension 
of the pier at Saint John, N.B; While the employment total for the region 
is about the same as a year ago, some of the industrial areas reported 
shortages of skilled workers. Most of the existing shortages were in the 
metalworking, electrical and skilled construction occupations. 

The general increase in activity in the region brought five additional 
labour market into balance during June. By the beginning of July, 14 of 
the 20 areas had balanced labour markets compared with 13 a year earlier 
and nine at the beginning of May. However, since the areas that moved 
into balance were relatively small, the number of wage earners in the 
surplus category declined only slightly during the month (see bar chart). 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas, Although the labour supply 
in St. John's, Nfld., diminished both as a result of increasing activity 
and because workers took employment outside the area, the decrease was 
not sufficient to bring the area's labour market into balance. Manufac- 
turing employment continued at stable levels except for a small lay-off 
of steel workers following a mechanical failure at a plant. The fishing 
industry experienced a contraction of its working force this year as 
workers found more lucrative employment in logging and construction. 

The continuing high levels of manufacturing and logging employment 
and the increasing demands for construction workers brought the Corner 
Brook labour market into balance. Sydney remained in the balanced 
labour market category, though 1,100 coal miners were laid off at the 
Glace Bay colliery. Increased activity in fishing, construction and logging 
and the re-hiring of steel workers who had been on an indefinite lay-off 
since last winter offset the decline in coal mining in this area. In Halifax 
there was a fairly heavy influx of tradesmen from other areas, including 
immigrants from the United Kingdom, and although most of them found 



976 



employment a shortage of certain skills continued. Requests for aircraft 
inspectors, aircraft fitters and mechanics were forwarded to other areas. 
Surpluses continued in Moncton despite a fairly heayy demand for nearly 
all types of skilled workers. This situation was the result of below- 
normal activity in trucking, and reduced lumber and pulp cutting. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas, Labour supplies in almost all 
these areas declined rapidly during the month. Moderate labour surpluses 
existed only in Bathurst and Newcastle. 

QUEBEC 



EMPLOYMENT in construction and 
other seasonal industries continued 
to increase in Quebec during June 
but decreased in some manufac- 
turing industries. The primary 
textile industry reported lay-offs 
and a good deal of short time. In 
addition, a considerable number of 
workers were released in the air- 
craft and ancillary industries. On 
the whole, however, employment 
in the region increased. Persons 
at work at June 20, totalling 
1,447,000, exceeded the number 
reported both a month and a year 
earlier. 



QUEBEC 

Proportion of paid workers within each 
of tho four labour market groups, 1953. 



Per Cent 



Per Cent 




July 1 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



The labour market situation in the major industrial areas remained 
unchanged during the month. Of the minor and agricultural areas, how- 
ever, two reduced their surpluses sufficiently to be classified in the 
moderate surplus group and three eliminated them, thus bringing their 
labour markets into balance. By the end of June, 13 areas covering 78 
per cent of the wage and salary earners in the province were in the 
balanced group. The 12 remaining areas still had some surplus labour. 

Metropolitan Areas, More than 1,500 workers were laid off in the 
aircraft industry in Montreal during June and several hundred more were 
released from sub-contracting firms as a result of the cancellation of 
a $100 million order for aircraft by the United States Government. Al- 
though other orders have been placed, it was not considered likely that 
employment in the industry would regain its former high levels. Labour 
supplies were further increased by seasonally unemployed clothing 
workers and by high school students registering for work. Stable employ- 
ment conditions in most industries, however, kept the area in the ba- 
lanced category. 

The labour market in Quebec city was balanced during June as 
labour requirements for the construction industry increased both locally 
and in northern areas. Manufacturing employment continued at a higher 
level than in the same period last year and seasonal lay-offs in the 
boot and shoe industry were at a minimum. 



977 



Major Industrial Areas. Very little change occurred in the industrial 
centres in Quebec during June, five out of eight continuing to have 
moderate labour surpluses. The heavier surpluses of the winter months 
had greatly diminished and further reductions were anticipated in most 
areas. Job opportunities, however, were fewer than last year in the 
Lac St. Jean and Rouyn — Val d'Or areas. Employment was lower in 
logging and mining in these districts and fewer alternative jobs were 
available in construction. While decreasing employment in the primary 
textile industry added to the labour supply, it did not change the general 
labour market situation in the four areas in the Eastern Townships. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. Labour surpluses declined in 
most of the 15 major agricultural and minor areas during the month. 
Areas with balanced labour markets increased from five to eight and 
those with moderate surpluses decreased from eight to seven. Further 
improvement was expected as more workers leave for employment at 
resource development sites. Labour surpluses of considerable size 
continued, however, in smaller manufacturing centres such as Drummond- 
ville and Sorel, where workers were released from textile and defence- 
connected industries. 



ONTARIO 



ONTARIO 

Proportion of paid workers within oach 
of tho four labour market groups, 1953. 

P*r C«nt 



P«r Com 



June W >||J 

CZZ3 M I arfyTl 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



EMPLOYMENT levels in Ontario 
continued to rise during June, 
bringing the total number of full- 
time workers to 1,763,000 by June 
20, an increase of 45,000 from the 
previous month. Labour supply and 
demand, however, continued in 
approximate balance, since an 
addition of 43,000 to the labour 
force accounted for almost all the 
employment increase. 



Seasonal demand for labour 
continued strong in the farming, 
construction, lake shipping, fishing, 
summer resort, and food processing 
industries during June. The begin- 
ning of the hay harvest accelerated the demand for harvest help but the 
arrival of more than 300 German farm workers and about 350 harvesters 
from the Maritimes helped to meet the demand. Residential construction 
also continued above last year's level and, since building activity is 
more evenly distributed this year than last, the market for construction 
labour was more nearly balanced throughout the region. Most manu- 
facturing plants operated at near capacity but some lay-offs and short- 
time occurred in the farm machinery, textiles, clothing, fur, rubber, 
automobile and truck assembly industries. Although labour was in tight 
supply in most areas of Ontario, there was not much unfilled demand 
except for engineers, electronic and electrical technicians, automobile 
mechanics and repairmen, some types of draughtsmen and farm hands. 
Students seeking summer employment filled many unskilled jobs but 
there was still a surplus of unskilled female workers in some areas. 



978 



During June, there was little change in local labour market situ- 
ations; one area moved from balance into shortage and another moved 
from balance back into moderate surplus. At the beginning of July, 35 
areas had approximately balanced labour markets, two had a general 
shortage of labour and two some labour surplus. Although there were 
fewer people unemployed in Ontario than a year ago, only two areas had 
labour shortages compared with five last year. This indicates that ac- 
tivity, especially construction, is more evenly distributed this summer. 

Metropolitan Areas, The strong demand for engineers, qualified 
stenographers and experienced construction workers continued in Ottawa 
and Toronto but much of this demand was filled by recent graduates 
and by immigrants from the United Kingdom. All three metropolitan areas, 
Toronto, Ottawa — Hull and Hamilton, still had approximately balanced 
labour markets. However, there was a substantial increase in labour 
supply in Hamilton during June and early July as high school students 
looked for summer jobs and as temporary lay-offs occurred in some 
manufacturing industries. 

Major Industrial Areas. Employment in most industrial areas in 
Ontario continued at near-capacity levels, suitable labour being very 
scarce. All but three of the major industrial areas, however, still had 
approximately balanced labour markets. Kitchener still experienced 
some shortage of farm hands, construction workers and automobile me- 
chanics but most of the demand for skilled workers and professional 
people was met. The labour surplus in Brantford continued but was 
gradually being reduced as workers obtained jobs in nearby areas. Corn- 
wall moved back into the surplus category owing to the influx of students 
into the labour force and a number of temporary industrial lay-offs. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. The heavy demand for farm 
labour brought Brampton into the labour shortage category. The labour 
supply was also becoming tight in most of the other major industrial 
and minor areas but most requirements continued to be filled locally. 



PRAIRIE 

DURING June, labour requirements 
in the Prairie region continued to 
expand seasonally although the 
emphasis in activity shifted from 
agriculture to construction. By the 
week ending June 20, full-time 
workers numbered 877,000, an in- 
crease of 4,000 from the previous 
month. At the same time, the agri- 
cultural labour force decreased by 
5,000. 

Crop prospects worsened during 
May and early June as a result of 
heavy rainfall, which delayed plan- 
ting and reduced the acreage seeded 
to grain. With the exception of 



PRAIRIE 

Proportion of poid workers within each 
of the four labour market groups, 1953. 

Per Cent Per Ce 





\ ^B 


H| 


p 




Zpi 




1 




lii 


-te 




III 




■ill 


-J 




. Ill 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



979 



agriculture, however, activities in the region continued to expand. At 
the beginning of May, non-agricultural employment showed a year-to- 
year increase of five and one-half per cent, compared with three and 
one-half per cent for the country as a whole. Two-thirds of this increase 
occurred in trade, manufacturing and construction. One-half of the in- 
crease occurred in Alberta which, in terms of industrial employment, is 
now almost as large as Manitoba. 

The rising level of construction activity during June was accompa- 
nied by a tightening labour supply in urban centres which was only par- 
tially relieved by the steady influx of workers from other parts of the 
country. The flow of workers to the larger cities created, in turn, a rather 
tight labour situation in many of the smaller areas. During the month, 
labour shortages developed in Edmonton, Yorkton and Red Deer, bringing 
the number of areas in the shortage category to six. With the elimination 
of the labour surplus in Drumheller, labour demand and supply in the 
remaining areas of the region were in balance. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas. The large volume of defence, 
industrial and residential construction in Edmonton made strong demands 
on the labour force in spite of its rapid growth. Welders, plumbers and 
motor mechanics were particularly scarce, as were female workers for a 
variety of sales and clerical occupations. About 2,600 construction 
workers will be released gradually during the summer as the new Ca- 
nadian Chemical Company plant in Edmonton is completed but it is 
expected that they will easily find employment in housing construction 
and on defence and industrial sites in Edmonton, Fort Saskatchewan and 
Cold Lake. Several hundred workers were being recruited for the new 
Edmonton chemical plant which will have an initial complement of 
750 employees. 

Apart from the seasonal increase in construction, conditions in 
Calgary and Winnipeg showed little change during June. In Fort William- 
Port Arthur, however, available labour supplies dwindled further as 
summer woods work increased. Employment in aircraft and motor vehicle 
manufacturing and in shipbuilding continued at a high and stable level. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. In these areas, the decline in 
labour requirements resulting from the completion of seeding operations 
was replaced by the increasing needs of the construction and railway 
maintenance activities. Aside from the usual shortages of waitresses 
and domestic service workers, the greatest shortages in most areas were 
of construction tradesmen, welders, automobile mechanics, stenographers 
and office and sales clerks. The shortages were most evident in Brandon, 
Piegina, Red Deer, Swift Current and Yorkton. 

PACIFIC 

AFTER increasing by 14,000 in May, the number of full-time workers 
in the Pacific region rose by a further 2,000 to a total of 389,000 at 
June 20. An exact year-to-year comparison of the employment situation 
was difficult to make because of the forest industries' strike last year 
but it was estimated that the general demand for labour was still not 
quite as strong as at the same time in 1952. 

980 



PACIFIC 

Proportion of paid workers within each 
of the four labour market groups, 1953. 



Per Cent 



P»t Cent 




SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



The temporary labour require- 
ments of berry harvesting and the 
rising level of construction wort 
were mainly responsible for the 
increased employment during the 
month. Expansion of construction 
employment in the region was 
particularly rapid as work pro- 
ceeded on 26 major projects which 
are expected to employ 17,000 men 
during the August peak period. 

Production increased moder- 
ately in logging, fishing and mining, 
industries that had been mainly 
responsible for halting the rising 
trend of employment in the region 

this spring. After a price settlement covering the summer fishing oper- 
ations, fishing and fish-canning activity increased; employment in these 
sectors is expected to rise by a further substantial amount in the coming 
months. Additional logging camps re-opened during the month and those 
already in operation continued unhindered by the fire hazard that usually 
develops at this time. Crews in nearly all camps were still smaller, 
however, than in previous years. This was partly attributed to the un- 
certain outcome of wage negotiations now in progress. In base metal- 
mining, the outlook improved as world lead and zinc prices recovered 
and some of the workers released last fall were rehired. No immediate 
return to the high employment levels of a year ago, however, was gener- 
ally expected. 

Increasing labour requirements cut into local labour surpluses but 
the reductions were not large enough to warrant any changes in classi- 
fication of the areas in the region. By July 1, two areas still had slight 
labour surpluses and eight had balanced labour markets. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas. Although a slight labour 
surplus persisted in Vancouver — New Westminster, increasing activity 
was evident in most industries by the end of June. The labour require- 
ments of an exceptionally large residential construction program, to- 
gether with the continuing demand from projects outside the area, reduced 
the number of idle construction workers to its lowest point in years. 
The workers in greatest demand were trowel tradesmen, welders and 
carpenters with experience in heavy construction work. 

Employment levels in Victoria, with the exception of shipbuilding, 
remained virtually unchanged during June. At one yard 200 men were 
released during the past two months and further lay-offs are in prospect 
unless the firm receives more repair work. There was also a reduction 
in the staff of the naval dockyard. 

Minor Areas. The increase in construction and other seasonal 
activity steadily absorbed the available labour in most minor areas. 
Demand for berry pickers and fruit thinners was heavy during the month, 
particularly in the Okanagan Valley. In Prince George, the lumber in- 
dustry swung into full production after a lapse of six weeks. On Van- 
couver Island, surplus loggers were being steadily rehired. 

981 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1953) 



Principal Items 


Date 


Amount 


Percentage Change 
From 


Previous 
Month 


Previous 
Year 


M empower 


June 
June 

June 

June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 

June 

May 

May 

May 

June 
June 
June 

May 
May 
May 
May 
June 
June 
May 
April 

April 
April 
April 
April 


20 
20 

20 

18 
IE 
18 
18 
18 
18 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


5,387,000 
5,297,000 

90,000 

25,877 
63,051 
48, 15 1 
19,064 
23, 139 
179,282 

143,083 
$12,195,255 

184.1 

20,905 

57,346 

6,452 

31 

$57.54 

$L36 

41.9 

$56.82 

184.8 

114.9 

118.5 

949 

256.1 
272.6 
339.6 
229.8 


+ 1.2 
+ 1.7 

-2L1 

-26.6 
-23.7 

- 5.2 
-26.4 
-17.2 
-19.4 

-33.5 
-25.6 

+ LI 

+29.7 

+ 0.4 
+ 0.5 

- 0.5 
+ 0.1 
+ 0.7 
+ 0.4 

- 0.5 
+ 2.7 

+ 3.9 
+ 2.8 
+ L8 

+ 3.7 








Persons without jobs & seeking 

work (a) 




Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 


+ 2.3 


Quebec 


- 4.5 


Ontario 


-19.2 


Prairie 


+ 1.4 


Pacific 


-2L3 


Total, all regions 


-10.0 


Ordinary claims for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 


- 0.3 


Amount of benefit payments 


+ 17.6 


Index of employment (1939=100) 


+ 3.8 




-27.0(c)* 


Industrial Relations 

Strikes and lockouts — days lost 

(No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 


-84.2(c) 
-78.1(c) 
-29.8(c) 


Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Cost-of-living index (av. 1935-39=100).... 
Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 


+ 5.9 
+ 4.8 
+ 0.5 
+ 5.3 

- 1.3 

- 1.0 
+ 6.2 
+ 1L4 


Industrial Production 

Manufacturing. 

Non-Durables 


+ 11.0 
+ 1L4 
+ 14.8 
+ 8.3 







(a) Estimated by DBS on basis of sample labour force survey. Only those who did not do 
any work in the survey week are here classified as persons without jobs. Labour 
force estimates are based on a sample survey of 30,000 households chosen by area 
sampling methods in more than 100 different areas in Canada. They are subject to 
sampling error. In general the smaller the estimate, the larger the relative sampling 
error. The estimates, however, do show the numbers in the various labour force cate- 
gories with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. 

(b) Total applications on file at NES offices exclude registrations from persons known to 
have a job while applying for another one. Means are also taken to exclude, as far as 
possible, persons who have secured work on their own since registration. Never- 
theless, the figures inevitably include a number of persons who have found employ- 
ment or who have left the labour force by the time the count is made. On the other 
hand, not all the persons who are looking for work register at employment offices. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 

*In the table for June, 1953, this figure should read —37.3. 



982 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 

Federal FEP Act 
In Effect July 1 

The Canada Fair Employment Practices 
Act, passed at the recent session of Parlia- 
ment (L.G., June, p. 832), came into effect 
July 1. 

Like other federal labour legislation, the 
Act applies only to works and businesses 
within federal jurisdiction; but the hope 
was expressed by Parliament that the legis- 
lation would have far-reaching influence all 
across the country. 

Specifically, the Act applies to such 
employments as navigation and shipping, 
railways, canals, telegraphs, aerodromes, air- 
craft and lines of air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations, and banks, as well as 
to works or undertakings declared by 
Parliament to be for the general advantage 
of Canada. It applies also to federal crown 
corporations. 



New Immigration Act 
Proclaimed in Force 

The new Immigration Act and amend- 
ments to the Canadian Citizenship Act 
were proclaimed in force June 1. 

The new Immigration Act clarifies and 
simplifies procedures; the changes in the 
Citizenship Act bring citizenship provisions 
in line with the Immigration Act. The 
new legislation does away with certain 
anomalies brought to light and standardizes 
the procedures in connection with immi- 
gration and with the acquisition of Cana- 
dian citizenship. 



One-Fifth of Households 
Overcrowded in 1951 

Nearly one-fifth of Canadian households 
were overcrowded in 1951, according to the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 

The Bureau, reporting in a 1951 Census 
bulletin on housing* that some 641,820 
households (18-8 per cent of the total) 
were overcrowded, defines a crowded house- 
hold as one in which the number of 



75802—2 



persons exceeds the number of rooms in 
the dwelling. The definition does not take 
into account the ages of the persons or 
the sizes of the rooms. 

Among urban centres, places with popu- 
lations of fewer than 10,000 were found to 
have the largest proportion of crowded 
households, averaging 18-4 per cent, 
followed by localities of 10,000 to 29,999 
with 16-8 per cent, cities of 100,000 or 
more with 15-7 per cent and centres of 
30,000 to 99,999 with 15-4 per cent. 

Sixty per cent of the crowded house- 
holds and 67 per cent of the uncrowded 
were owner households. About 22 per 
cent of Canada's tenant households were 
crowded, compared with 17 per cent of the 
owner households. 

The median rent was lower for crowded 
tenant households at $28 a month than for 
uncrowded tenant households at $36. 



Housing Increase 
Continued in April 

The upswing of new residential construc- 
tion continued in all parts of Canada in 
April with both starts and completions 
substantially outnumbering those of a year 
earlier. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
reported that 9,902 new dwelling units were 
started during the month, a gain of 39 per 
cent over the 7 ; 127 started in April last 
year, and that completions were up 19 per 
cent to 6,325 from 5,325. The average 
length of time under construction was down 
nearly two months to 7-0 from 8-9 months 
in April, 1952. 

Both starts and completions were higher 
than a year earlier in each of the first 
four months of this year, with starts up 
52 per cent to 21,832 from 14,395 and com- 
pletions up 34 per cent to 24,717 from 18,391 
in the January-April period. 



March Housing Total in 
I/.K. Highest Since War 

The number of permanent houses com- 
pleted in Great Britain during March was 
28,729 compared with 21,754 in March 1952. 
This is the highest month's total since 
the war. 

In the first three months of 1953, 69,431 
permanent houses were completed, com- 
pared with 53,609 in the same period 
of 1952. 



*1951 Census Bulletin 3-13: Crowded and 
Uncrowded Households (50 cents). 

983 



May Housing Starts 
Down Slightly in U.S. 

Housing starts in the United States 
totalled 107,000 in May, a decrease of 
about 3,000 units from April, according to 
preliminary estimates of the U.S. Labor 
Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Although the decline was slight, it was 
rather general throughout the country and 
represented the first April-May downward 
movement since the Second World War. 
A rise in housing activity had been 
expected in May after interest rates were 
increased for Federal Housing Administra- 
tion and Veterans Administration mortgage 
loans. 

May was marked by very heavy rainfall, 
md floods in a number of states, which 
may have prompted builders in some p'aces 
to delay obtaining permits and starting 
construction. 

On a seasonally-adjusted basis, prelim- 
inary estimates indicate that total housing 
starts were at an annual rate of 1,057,000 
in May. 



Supreme Cotirt Rules 
On 4 Labour Cases 

On June 8 the Supreme Court of Canada 
handed down four judgments dealing with 
decisions of Labour Relations Boards in 
four provinces. 

The judgments upheld the British 
Columbia Labour Relations Board's deci- 
sion that comptometer operators were not 
"confidential" employees, agreed with the 
Nova Scotia Supreme Court that the prov- 
ince's Labour Relations Board could not 
refuse to certify a union because one of 
the union officers was a Communist, 
rejected a Quebec court decision that 
upheld the decertification of a Montreal 
teachers' union for participation in an 
illegal strike and upheld the setting aside 
by a'n Ontario court of a certification order 
issued by the provincial Labour Rektions 
Board to the Toronto Newspaper Guild. 

In the Safeivay case, the Court allowed 
the appeal of the British Columbia Labour 
Relations Board and the Retail, Wholesale, 
and Department Store Union, Local 580, 
against the decision of the British Columbia 
Court of Appeal (L.G, Feb., p. 284). That 
decision held that the Board exceeded 
its powers in ruling that comptometer 
and Powers machine operators were not 
"employed in a confidential capacity" 
within the meaning of the Industrial Con- 
ciliation and Arbitration Act. The Supreme 
Court of Canada restored the judgment of 
the British Columbia trial court which 



upheld the Labour Relations Board's order 
including such operators in the bargaining 
unit for which it certified Local 580 as 
bargaining agent. 

An appeal from the judgment of the 
Supreme Court of Nova Scotia in the case 
involving the application of the Industrial 
Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers 
of Canada, Local 18, for certification as 
bargaining agent for employees of Smith 
& Rhuland Limited was dismissed. The 
Nova Scotia Supreme Court had quashed 
the order of the Labour Relations Board 
dismissing the union's application on the 
grounds that one of its officers was a 
Communist (L.G.. 1952, p. 937). The 
Supreme Court of Canada upheld the Nova 
Scotia Court's ruling that the Board lacked 
authority to dismiss the application on 
these grounds. 

L' Alliance des Professeurs Catholiques de 
Montreal won its appeal against the judg- 
ment of the Quebec Court of King's Bench 
(Appeal Side) upholding the decertification 
by the Quebec Labour Relations Board of 
L 'Alliance as the bargaining agent for 
teachers in the French Catholic schools of 
Montreal following an illegal strike (L.G., 
1952, p. 301). The Supreme Court of 
Canada, with no dissenting opinion, set 
aside the judgment of the Quebec Appeal 
Court and restored the order of the trial 
court making the decertification order null 
and void. 

In the Globe Printing Company case, the 
Toronto Newspaper Guild lost its appeal 
against the decision of the Ontario Court 
of Appeal (L.G., 1952, p. 615). The 
Supreme Court of Canada held that the 
Ontario High Court of Justice did not 
exceed its authority in setting aside a 
certification order issued by the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board to the Guild in 
respect of Globe employees. 

Reasons for judgment in these cases will 
be reported in the Labour Law section next 
month. 



$137.50 Monthly Pension 
Now Paid hy G.Jfi. 9 Too 

Following the lead of Ford and Chrysler 
(L.G., June, p. 809), General Motors has 
also agreed to raise maximum pension 
benefits to $137.50 a month under its con- 
tract with the United Automobile Workers 
(CIO). 

All three United States automobile 
manufacturers now pay the difference 
between the worker's primary social 
security benefit of S85 a month, up to the 
maximum of $137.50. 



984 



March Labour Income 
Up in Canada and U.S. 

Canadian labour income rose to an esti- 
mated $928,000 in March, compared with 
$862,000 in March last year, the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics has reported. 

Labour income in the United States also 
increased during March. The Bureau of 
Labor Statistics has reported that hourly 
earnings of factory workers producing 
durable goods rose 6-3 per cent between 
March 1952, and March this year. In the 
production of non-durable goods, average 
hourly earnings increased 3-9 per cent 
during the year. 

In Canada, the cumulative total of labour 
income for the first quarter of 1953 was 
$2,785,000,000, an increase of 8-5 per cent 
over last year's first-quarter total of 
$2,566,000,000. 

In the quarter, labour income was higher 
in manufacturing, utilities, transportation, 
communication, storage, trade, finance and 
services, and construction but lower in 
agriculture, logging, fishing, trapping and 
mining. 

Ontario Accident Claims 
Increased Last Year 

An increase in 1952 in claims for work- 
men's compensation is noted in the annual 
report of the Ontario Industrial Accident 
Prevention Associations. 

A total of 94,349 claims was registered 
in 1952, compared with 87,867 in 1951, for 
injuries in the manufacturing industries 
represented by the Associations. Fatalities 
increased from 51 to 68. 

The IAPA embraces 17 out of the 25 
classes of industries covered under Schedule 
1 of the Ontario Workmen's Compensation 
Act. 

The increase in the number of compen- 
sation cases was probably the result of 
the addition of an estimated 40,000 new 
employees in the manufacturing industries 
and of the reduction in the waiting period 
—from seven to five days — which is 
required before an injured worker qualifies 
for compensation, the report pointed out. 

Of the 94,349 accident claims filed, 1,137 
were for permanent disability compared 
with 973 in 1951, 20,343 were for temporary 
disability, compared with 17,231, and 72,801 
were for medical aid only, compared with 
69,612. 

In the annual report, R. G. D. Anderson* 
IAPA General Manager, stated: "Had the 
rate of fatal and permanent disability 



accidents in effect in 1921 continued through 
the years to 1951,. we estimate that 1,621 
workers now enjoying their full regular 
livelihood would have been killed and 
nearly 28,000 more people would have 
suffered injuries causing permanent 
disability." 

Great progress in the prevention of 
industrial accidents has been made in the 
past 30 years, the report points out. 
"Between 1921 and 1951," it states, "death 
cases in IAPA classes have been reduced 
from 1 in every 3,000 employees to 1 in 
every 10,000 employees; permanent dis- 
abilities have likewise been reduced from 
five per thousand employees to 1-5 per 
thousand." 



*Mr. Anderson was incorrectly quoted in 
the May issue (p. 663). 



Que. Compensation Claims 
Highest Ever in 1952 

According to the 1952 report of the 
Quebec Workmen's Compensation Commis- 
sion, 97,177 claims for benefit were made 
during the year, compared with 95,930 in 
1951, an increase of 1,257. The report 
points out that the 1952 total is the largest 
since the establishment of the Commission 
in 1931. 

The increase for all industry over 1951 
was 1-3 per cent while the 17,429 employers 
who comprise the Commission's 20 cate- 
gories registered 63,836 claims, an increase 
of 3,214, or 5-3 per cent, over the previous 
year. It is reported that the increased 
number of accidents was largely due to the 
increase in the number of hours worked 
in 1952. 

During the year, the Commission made 
17,145 visits to employers in order to carry 
out inspections, interviews, inquiries into 
more serious accidents and to assist in 
safety and accident prevention programs. 
The Commission participated in 360 acci- 
dent prevention committees, investigated 
5,324 accidents and issued 18,829 recom- 
mendations concerning dangerous condi- 
tions of employment in factories and 
construction projects. During the year the 
Commission organized safety courses in 21 
industrial firms and held regional confer- 
ences in 31 different areas. 

During the month of June, which was 
designated as a period in which a special 
effort was to be made to reduce accidents, 
some 1,930 special certificates were issued 
to as many firms which had succeeded in 
avoiding a single compensable accident. 

The report concludes by noting that 
despite the protective devices that are 
erected to shield the worker from dangerous 
machinery, approximately 85 per cent of 
accidents are due to the human factor. 



75802— 2i 



985. 



U.S. Worh Injuries 
Declined in 1952 

Preliminary estimates of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate 
that injuries sustained by American workers 
on the job during 1952 numbered 2,031,000, 
a decrease of 3-3 per cent from the 1951 
total of 2,100,000. 

Injuries in manufacturing showed the 
most significant decrease, the total of 
450,000 being 60,000 below the 1951 figure. 
Minor reductions were registered in all 
other industrial groups with the exception 
of mining and quarrying and public utili- 
ties, which remained the same, and trans- 
portation, which showed a slight increase. 

Despite the continued rise of employ- 
ment in manufacturing, injury frequency 
declined during the year, the average rate 
being 13-5, the lowest rate on record for 
any year. This was 7 per cent under the 
previous low of 14-5 for 1949 and 13 per 
cent lower than the 15-5 rate established 
in 1951. 

During 1952, approximately 15,000 deaths 
resulted while 64,000 injuries were sustained 
which resulted in some form of permanent 
disability. The balance of the estimated 
injuries consisted of those which disabled 
a worker for a full day or more but from 
which the injured person recovered with- 
out any permanent disability. 

Approximately 41,000,000 man-days were 
lost in 1952 as a result of injuries, the 
equivalent of a loss to the labour force of 
137,000 full-time workers. 



U.S. Manpower Council 
Urges More Highly -Shilled 

Recommendations urging an increase in 
the number of highly-trained, university- 
educated men and women highlighted the 
report of the National Manpower Council 
recently presented to President Eisen- 
hower. The Council, established at 
Columbia University in the spring of 1951, 
is studying manpower problems during the 
present rearmament period* 



The Council, composed of 20 prominent 
educators, business leaders and laymen, 
pointed out the necessity for the nation to 
keep abreast of the latest developments by 
relying upon the "brain power" of its 
scientists, physicists and engineers and 
through improved and expanded research 
programs. With regard to the need for an 
increased number of professional workers, 
the Council report states that "great care 
must be taken to ensure that the universi- 
ties can continue to meet their major 
responsibilities of discovering new knowl- 
edge and training tomorrow's scientists and 
scholars. Only if this is done will the 
nation be able to reap the full benefits of 
science and technology for defence and for 
its expanding welfare." 

Among the more important recommenda- 
tions of the Council were the following: — 

1. That the President appoint a commis- 
sion composed of representatives of gov- 
ernment, universities and industry to review 
the impact of governmental research and 
development contracts upon the primary 
responsibilities of the colleges and universi- 
ties to advance fundamental knowledge and 
to train future scholars and scientists. 

2. That the public continue to support 
the present program of deferring qualified 
students in order to enable them to com- 
plete their education before induction into 
the armed services. 

3. That scholarship and fellowship pro- 
grams, supported by private and public 
funds, be maintained and expanded to help 
more young people of ability to acquire 
a higher education. 

4. That management intensify its efforts 
to determine the most effective balance 
among the different types of manpower it 
employs — scientific and professional, tech- 
nical, skilled, and semi-skilled — in order 
to provide for efficient and economical 
operations and to provide for the further 
training of the manpower for which it is 
responsible. 



*The Council will be able to carry on its 
work for two more years as a result of a 
$280,000 grant from the Ford Foundation, 
announced June 18. m v 



Department of Labour officials examining the Department's exhibit that will be on 
display at some 35 fairs and exhibitions throughout Canada this summer and fall. 
A. W. Crawford (left), Director, Canadian Vocational Training, explains the working 
of the display's animated centre panel to Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, 
A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister, and J. G. Bisson, Chief Commissioner, Unemployment 
Insurance Commission. The display, in addition to its main theme, Apprenticeship 
Training, publicizes the various functions of the Department and of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Commission. Members of the National Employment Service and 
provincial apprenticeship experts will answer queries at the site of the booth. 

National Film Board Photo 



986 



7 ** . I 

f * 





r 




Technicians, Scientists 
Scarce in Canada, U.S. 

Despite a striking growth since the 
Second World War in Canada's strength 
in scientific and professional personnel, such 
persons will continue in tight supply in the 
forseeable future, according to the results 
of a continuing survey of Canadian pro- 
fessional and scientific manpower strength 
in relation to present and future require- 
ments. 

The survey, begun in 1951 by the 
Technical Personnel Section, Economics 
and Research Branch, Department of 
Labour, has reached the stage where it is 
beginning to provide concrete information. 

In the United States, it has recently 
been announced, the great need for man- 
power with technical knowledge and 
specialized skills has sharply increased 
employment opportunities for all types of 
technicians and has created shortages in 
some fields. An acute shortage of drafts- 
men now exists, particularly in the aircraft 
and electronics industries. 



Stresses Need for More 
Canadian Apprentices 

Industry has never looked upon an 
apprentice as a student; it is forever using 
apprenticeship as a source of cheap labour, 
S. Blackwell of the Ontario Department of 
Labour told a Rotary Club at Sault Ste. 
Marie, according to press reports of the 
meeting. 

He stressed the need for more young 
Canadians to undergo apprenticeship train- 
ing so that they will be able to handle the 
country's top positions. Too many of 
Canada's good jobs are going to immi- 
grants, he said. 

"I have no argument or quarrel with the 
Immigration Department," he added, "but 
by not developing our own tradesmen we 
are putting our young men on the spot." 

Newfoundland Names 
Apprenticeship Board 

The members of Newfoundland's Appren- 
ticeship Board have now been appointed, 
the province's Labour Minister, Hon. C. H. 
Ballam, has announced. 

The Chairman is Dr. G. A. Frecker. 
Employer representatives are W. D. 
McCarter, J. Roland Broadbent and 
Arthur Rowe. Employee representative is 
John Gillingham. 

Frank Templeman represents the Depart- 
ment of Education, W. J. May represents 
the Department of Labour and will serve 
as Secretary of the Board. 



TLC Delegates Approve 
SasUatchewan Federation 

The first step was taken recently in the 
formation of a Saskatchewan Federation of 
Labour when 78 delegates representing 39 
unions and other organizations in the prov- 
ince affiliated with the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada met at a conference in 
Regina. 

Some unions had already approved the 
formation of a federation and had 
empowered their delegates to make 
commitments on their behalf, while others 
sent delegates to obtain information. The 
conference went on record as approving the 
formation of the federation and the indi- 
vidual delegates pledged their support 
in its organization. 

In comp^ance with the draft constitu- 
tion which was adopted unanimously, 
election of the following officers took place : 
President, Andrew Tait, Moose Jaw; First 
Vice-President, Donald Arnold, Saskatoon; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Edward Osiowy, 
Regina. Vice-Presidents were elected on a 
regional basis as follows: Prince Albert, 
Len Sleath; Saskatoon, Ken Moore; 
Regina, Vern Metheral; Moose Jaw, Hugh 
0. Scott; Civil Service Association, 
William Browne. 

Clarence Wyatt, TLC representative in 
Saskatchewan, was appointed Honorary 
Vice-President. 



Year's Holidau with Pan 
Granted in U.S. Contract 

A year's holiday with pay after ten 
years' service is provided in an agreement 
recently signed between Local 1031, Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
(AFL), and Hedco Manufacturing Co., 
Chicago. 

Should the worker decide to stay on the 
job rather than take the year off, he will 
receive double pay for the full year. 

As the company was founded only eight 
years ago and moved to Chicago only two 
years ago, no employee is immediately 
eligible for the year-long holiday. 

The firm has no pension plan or bonus 
system and "a year's vacation with pay 
is a substitute," said Paul M. Davidson, 
President of the company. 

"It will boost employee morale, reduce 
turnover and bring in new workers of a 
high calibre," he said. 

The unprecedented provision was sug- 
gested by Frank Darling, President of the 
local, which has contracts covering 34.000 
employees in 65 Chicago plants. The 
provision covers 158 workers. 



988 



CIO Re-organizing Staff, 
Reduces Regional Offices 

The first major change in the CIO's 
current reorganization of field staff was 
made recently when the number of its 
regional offices in the United States was 
reduced from 50 to 13. 

John V. Riffe, Executive Vice-President 
of the CIO, announced at the end of May 
that the Congress will either close or 
establish sub-regional offices in 37 cities 
where it has maintained regional offices in 
the past. 

He also reported that a number of 
organizers from the national CIO have 
already been assigned to CIO unions in 
the telephone, electrical and chemical 
industries. A further group will be made 
available for an organizing drive among 
textile workers. 

Mr. Riffe said the field staff reorganiza- 
tion program will not mean lay-offs or 
terminations but will call for considerable 
shifting of assignments. 

"It is a long-range program," he said, 
"and will not be completed for perhaps 
15 months or two years. By that time, 
we believe that the CIO will have far more 
men available for organizing than it has 
had in the past. 

"Organizing offices will be set up from 
time to time in those areas where major 
organizing campaigns are being conducted. 
When a campaign is concluded, the offices 
will be closed and the organizing staff 
re-assigned to other organizing activities 
in other areas. 

"It will be the policy of the CIO Depart- 
ment of Organization to make organizers 
available to the various affiliated national 
unions of the CIO for significant organizing 
activities," he said. 



UAW and IAM Renew, 
Widen No-Raiding Pact 

An agreement recently concluded between 
the United Auto Workers (CIO) and the 
International Association of Machinists 
(AFL) renewed a four-year no-raiding pact 
between the two unions and provided for 
co-operation in collective bargaining and 
strikes. The new pact further provides 
that both bodies will forgo any vitupera- 
tion in competitive organizing campaigns. 

The two union presidents, Walter P. 
Reuther of the UAW and Alan J. Hayes 
of the IAM, have called the agreement 
"virtually unprecedented in American labor 
history". 

The agreement provides that in dealing 
with corporations that have multiple plants 



organized by both unions, both organiza- 
tions will exchange information concerning 
plants, locations, contracts and wage rates; 
will convoke joint- conferences to be held 
in localities and on dates mutually agreed 
upon and that meetings with such corpora- 
tions will be conducted when they promise 
to provide the "best possible results" for 
the members of both unions. 

In addition, the agreement also provides 
that when one union is engaged in a strike 
against an employer by whom the other 
union is also recognized, following a joint 
consultation on the issues involved, each 
union will give the other all possible 
support by "joint economic action against 
the employer wherever possible". Picket 
lines are to be respected and "all lawful 
and moral support and assistance" is called 
for in the pact. The non-striking union 
also agrees not to make any settlement 
with the employer which would in any way 
prejudice the position of the striking union. 

With regard to organization campaigns, 
the contract states that where either union 
has 50 per cent or more of the total pro- 
duction and maintenance employees of a 
multiple plant concern under contract, and 
the other union has none, the latter will 
make no attempt to organize the workers, 
and the union with representation will be 
recognized as solely responsible for com- 
pleting the organizing of the company's 
employees. In cases where both unions 
are competing for exclusive bargaining 
rights, they agreed that their campaigns 
should be conducted on an ethical plane 
that did not bring either into disrepute. 

Both unions have agreed that it will be 
considered a serious breach of good faith 
and ethical practices for either "to use, 
directly or indirectly, any propaganda 
alleging or inferring communism, racketeer- 
ing, company unionism, back-door dealing, 
racial prejudice, unwarranted or unnecessary 
strikes, excessive initiation fees, dues or 
assessments in an effort to discredit the 
other party for the purpose of gaining 
organizational advantages". 

In industries such as the aircraft indus- 
try, where both the UAW and the IAM 
have organized a substantial number of 
the workers, it was agreed that joint 
committees of representatives from each 
union should be appointed to co-ordinate 
collective bargaining procedures and rela- 
tionships. 



Thomas McBurney, organizer and first 
president of the Toronto Police Union, died 
June 15 in a Toronto hospital at the age 
of 66 years. 



989 



AFL and CIO Leaders 
Sign No-Raiding Pact 

A plan designed to stop union raiding 
has been agreed upon by the leaders of 
the American Federation of Labour and 
the Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

Described as a first step towards organic 
unity of the two labour groups, the plan 
will go into effect January 1, 1954, if 
ratified, and will run for two years. 

The agreement will ban any transfer of 
or attempt to transfer a recognized group 
of employees from one federation to the 
other. Unresolved disputes will be sub- 
mitted to an impartial umpire whose 
decision will be final. However, no dis- 
ciplinary measures are provided for non- 
compliance. 

Under the agreement, a group of 
employees dissatisfied with its representa- 
tion can go over to a union in the other 
federation only by negotiating its release. 
Otherwise, the receiving union will be 
guilty of raiding. 



The agreement does not deal with juris- 
dictional disputes or with rival claims to 
units of unorganized employees. Nor will 
it prevent an AFL and a CIO national or 
international union from negotiating a 
merger. 

The no-raiding agreement was based 
largely on a study of inter-federation 
raiding in 1951 and 1952. It was found 
there had been 1,245 raids involving 
350,000 workers during that period. Only 
17 per cent of these raids were successful 
and the net change in membership was a 
gain of only 8,000 for the AFL. 

At a joint press conference June 2, 
George Meany, President of the AFL, and 
Walter Reuther, President of the CIO, 
expressed confidence the agreement would 
be adopted by all member unions. It is 
expected that the executive bodies and the 
conventions of both organizations will 
ratify the pact when they meet separately 
later this year. 




Col. J. G. Bisson (right), Chief Commissioner, Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion, acting on behalf of the International Association of Personnel in Employment 
Security, presents to Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, the Association's 
Citation of Merit. The IAPES, which embraces employees of the Canadian Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission and the employment and security agencies of the 
United States and other countries, periodically honours a public figure who has made 
an outstanding contribution in the employment security field. (See citation opposite.) 

— National Film Board Photo 



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75802—3 



991 



Construction Industry 
Safety Code Ready Soon 

The National Building Code, 1953, which 
will be published shortly, includes for the 
first time a section on construction safety 
measures. This section (Part 8) was made 
available recently in pamphlet form by the 
Division of Building Research of the 
National Research Council of Canada 
under the title "A Code of Construction 
Safety Measures". 

The safety measures outlined in this 
part of the Code constitute minimum 
requirements for the building industry, 
provincial and municipal authorities and 
others interested in construction safety. 
Like other parts of the National Building 
Code, this part is not legally enforceable 
unless adopted as legislation by the 
appropriate provincial or municipal 
authorities. 

The subjects covered in the Code of 
Construction Safety Measures include 
requirements for fencing and barricades 
when building operations are located at a 
street line or within seven feet of the 
inside line of a sidewalk; the proper main- 
tenance, handling and storing of materials; 
adequate sanitary and first-aid facilities, 
lighting, heat and steam supply on the 
location; and the construction, maintenance 
and safe operation of equipment. Also 
included are detailed specifications for the 
construction, maintenance and repair of 
hoists and elevators, various types of 
scaffolds, ladders, temporary flooring, stairs 
and ramps, guardrails and toe boards. 
Other sections of the Code set forth the 
precautions to be taken in excavation and 
demolition operations. 

Legal standards for the protection of 
workers employed in the construction in- 
dustry in Canada are in effect in some 
provinces. The Building Trades Protec- 
tion Acts of Ontario and Saskatchewan, 
and regulations made under the Building 
Trades Protection Act of Manitoba, lay 
down rules for the safety of persons 
engaged in the erection, alteration, repair, 
improvement or demolition of a building. 
The Ontario Act requires municipal councils 
to appoint a sufficient number of inspectors 
to enforce the provisions of the Act in the 
municipality. Under the Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan Acts inspectors may be 
appointed by a municipal council, or by 
the Public Service Commission in Saskat- 
chewan or the Department of Labour in 
Manitoba. 

The Accident Prevention Regulations 
made by the Workmen's Compensation 
Boards of Alberta, British Columbia and 



Saskatchewan, and special regulations under 
the Industrial and Commercial Establish- 
ments Act of Quebec, also prescribe 
standards for the safety of construction 
workers. Additional protection for this 
class of worker in Quebec is provided for 
in the Scaffolding Inspection Act, which 
requires municipal authorities in every city 
or town within the limits of which a public 
building is being built or altered to employ 
a competent person to inspect scaffolding 
and lifts used in connection with buildings 
under construction. 

In Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and 
Saskatchewan, municipal councils are 
authorized to make by-laws for the 
regulation and inspection of construction 
operations. 



Williams Quits CCL Post 
To Succeed Cotterill 

Jack Williams, Publicity Director of the 
Canadian Congress of Labour, resigned last 
month to take a similar position with the 
Canadian branch of the United Steel- 
workers of America (CIO-CCL). No 
replacement has yet been announced. 

Mr. Williams succeeds Murray Cotterill, 
recently promoted to the position of 
personal representative in Western Canada 
of C. H. Millard, Canadian Director of the 
Steelworkers. 

CCL Publicity Director since 1946, Mr. 
Williams is a former newspaperman who 
had worked for the Canadian Press and 
the St. Catharines Standard. He assumed 
his new duties July 15. 

Mr. Cotterill served seven years as 
President of the 60,000-member Toronto 
and Lakeshore Labour Council (CCL). In 
his new position, he will be responsible 
for providing additional services for the 
union's 4,000 members in Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia. A member of the Steelworkers 
for the past 12 years, he was Director of 
the CCL Political Action Committee for 
three years. 

To Recruit 2,000 Men 
To Aid Ontario Harvest 

Approximately 1,000 workers are being 
recruited from the Maritime Provinces and 
another 1,000 from the Prairie Provinces 
to assist in general farm work, haymaking 
and harvesting in Ontario this year. 

Recruiting was carried out by the 
National Employment Service under the 
Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Agree- 
ments. 



992 



Steelworhers 9 Director 
Of District 6 Retires 

John Mitchell, Director of District 6, 
United Stee'lworkers of America (CIO- 
CCL), retired recently and was succeeded 
by Larry Sefton of Hamilton. 

A banquet was held in Toronto in 
honour of the 70-year-old union leader who 
spent 58 years in the trade union move- 
ment. Guests at the banquet included 
A. R. Mosher, President of the Canadian 
Congress of Labour; David J. McDonald, 
International President of the United Steel- 
workers; and C. H. Millard, the union's 
director in Canada. 

District 6 includes all Canadian territory 
under USWA jurisdiction west of the prov- 
ince of Quebec and has grown from an 
organization of 5,000 members to 50,000 in 
a little more than ten years. 



Union Leaders Receive 
Honorary L1L.D Degrees 

The heads of two of Canada's major 
labour organizations and the President of 
the Congress of Industrial Organizations 
were among the 23 recipients of honorary 
degrees from St. Francis Xavier University, 
Antigonish, N.S., July 6. 

The 23 were honoured for their con- 
tributions to labour education and co- 
operative and credit union development. 

Percy R. Bengough, President of the 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada; 
A. R. Mosher, President of the Canadian 
Congress of Labour; and Walter Reuther, 
CIO President, were among those receiving 
honorary Doctor of Laws degrees. 



Musicians Re-elect 
Entire Executive 

James C. Petrillo was re-elected for his 
14th consecutive term as President of the 
American Federation of Musicians of 
United States and Canada (AFL) at the 
union's convention, held this year in 
Montreal. He was unopposed in the 
election. 

All other members of the international 
executive were returned without opposition. 
They were: C. L. Bagley, Vice-President; 
Leo Cluesmann, Secretary; Harry J. 
Steeper, Treasurer; Herman D. Kenin, 
George V. Clancy, Stanley Ballard, William 
Harris and Walter M. Murdoch, board 
members. 

Board Member Murdoch is from Toronto. 



Jo Morris New President 
Of Woodworkers in B.C. 

Stewart Alsbury, President of the 
B.C. District Council, International Wood- 
workers of America (CIO-CCL) since 1948, 
has been defeated in his attempt to gain 
re-election. Victor in this year's biennial 
election was Joseph Morris. 

The results of the election has been 
protested because of "irregularities" but 
the Council accepted the election tabulat- 
ing committee's report and confirmed its 
findings. 

Other officers elected were : Vice- 
Presidents, William Gray, Stuart Hodgson 
and Fred Fieber; Secretary-Treasurer, 
George H. Mitchell. 



Harry Bridges Regains 
U.S. Citizenship 

By a 4 to 3 ruling, the United States 
Supreme Court has thrown out the perjury 
charges against Harry Bridges, President of 
the International Longshoremen's Union, 
and ordered his citizenship restored. 

Bridges had been convicted of perjury 
in 1950 for denying in his citizenship papers 
that he had ever been a Communist and 
had had his citizenship revoked in addition 
to being sentenced to a five-year prison 
term. The Court based its decision upon 
the fact that the three-year statute of 
limitations had expired when the Govern- 
ment brought the perjury action in May 
1949. 

In its June 15 decision, the Court did 
not go into the question of whether the 
Australian-born labour leader had any ties 
with the Communists. 



Union Security Clauses 
In Many U.S. Contracts 

Some form of compulsory union mem- 
bership was provided for in three-quarters 
of 1,653 contracts in effect in the United 
States in 1952. 

In a survey of these contracts the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics found that 63 per cent 
had union shop clauses and 12 per cent 
had maintenance of membership clauses. 
Only 25 per cent had no union security 
clause. 

A similar analysis of 602 contracts made 
by the National Industrial Conference 
Board revealed that 34 per cent of these 
had union security clauses. Another 12 
per cent called for modified forms of the 
union shop and 20 per cent had mainten- 
ance of membership clauses. There was 
no union security clause in 34 per cent of 
the 602 contracts. 



75802—3J 



993 



I7.S. Average WorU WeeU 
Increases Hour in Year 

The average work week for production 
workers in manufacturing in the United 
States was 40-8 hours in mid-April, an 
hour longer than a year earlier, the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics has 
reported. Factory hours were virtually 
equal to the post-war peak for the month 
of April, reached in 1951. 

A relatively long work week has been 
maintained since last fall, accompanying 
the continued expansion of industrial 
activity. 

(For a report on average working hours 
in Canadian manufacturing, see "Standard 
Work Week in Canadian Manufacturing, 
1952", Labour Gazette, June, p. 838.) 



Que. Employers 9 Group 
Establishes 8th Local 

The eighth local of the Professional 
Association of Industrialists (API), an 
employers' organization in the province 
of Quebec, was recently established in 
St. Jerome. The API now has some 450 
members in its eight locals. 

The new Laurentides local is the second 
to be formed this year, which marks the 
tenth anniversary of the Association. A 
ninth local is soon to be added, in the 
Beauce counties. 

Marc Rolland, Vice-President of the 
Rolland Paper Company. Ltd, was elected 
President of the Laurentides local. 



Leftists Claim Program 
Will Unite All Labour 

Five independent labour unions, includ- 
ing three expelled from the Canadian 
Congress of Labour on charges of 
Communist domination, have approved a 
program which, they claim, will have the 
support of all Canadian labour and will 
thus serve as a means of uniting the 
Canadian labour movement. 

The program was approved by more than 
400 delegates attending a convention in 
Hamilton, Ont., June 13 of the Interna- 
tional Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers; the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America; the Inter- 
national Fur and Leather Workers Union 
of the United States and Canada ; the 
Canadian Textile Council and the Cana- 
dian Garment Workers Union. 

Earlier the convention had been told that 
"there are too many trade union centres 
in Canada" and that "Canada is the only 



sovereign country in the world with a trade 
union movement that is subordinate to a 
head office in a foreign country". 

The program called for expansion of 
Canada's home markets, immediate peace 
in Korea to create trade and jobs, an 
increase in social security measures along 
with a national housing plan for 150,000 
homes each year, a bill of rights and 
legislation against "anti-labour actions". 



1 953 Edition of "Canada" 
Ready for Distribution 

The 1953 edition of the official handbook 
Canada is available for distribution. 

The handbook, begun in 1930 to supple- 
ment the field of the Canada Year Book, 
is of convenient pocket size and contains 
up-to-date official information on all phases 
of Canada's economic organization. 

The 1953 edition contains more than 300 
pages of text, 201 black and white illus- 
trations and eight coloured plates. Chapter 
material includes population and vital 
statistics, education, scientific research, 
social and cultural relationships, national 
income, agriculture, forestry, mines and 
minerals, water power, fisheries, furs, manu- 
factures, construction, labour, transporta- 
tion and communications, domestic and 
foreign trade, public finance, banking and 
insurance. 

Orders for the handbook, which is priced 
at 25 cents, should be sent to the Queen's 
Printer, Ottawa. 



Provincial Govt. Decrees 
5-day WeeU in St. John's 

By order of the Newfoundland provincial 
government, the five-day week has been 
introduced for St. John's, the provincial 
capital. The new work week will apply 
to retail stores, general business houses 
and to the provincial service. It is reported 
that the present work week grew from a 
demand by some sections of the community 
to change the mid-week holiday from 
Wednesday to Saturday. 

92,000 U.S. Rail Worhers 
Aged Over 65 in 1951 

Railroad workers in the United States 
who were 65 years of age and over 
numbered 92,300 in 1951, according to 
figures published recently by the Railroad 
Retirement Board. They constituted 4-5 
per cent of the railroad labour force. 

In 1939 railroad workers in the 65-and- 
over age group numbered 46.800, or 2-8 
per cent of the total force. 



994 



I . of T. Establishes Fund 
For Social Work Research 

In order to facilitate increased research 
in the field of social welfare and social 
work, the University of Toronto has estab- 
lished the Cassidy Research Professorship 
in memory of the late Harry M. Cassidy, 
Director of the School of Social Work at 
the university from 1945 to 1951. The 
professorship may be held for one year by 
the successful candidate and the first 
appointment will be made for the academic 
year 1952-53 or 1954-55. 

The School of Social Work has indicated 
that there is a need for increased knowl- 
edge on such matters as unemployment, 
physical handicaps, sickness disability, 
delinquency, dependent old age, housing 
and other problems of an industrial society. 
In addition, the faculty of the School has 
pointed out that increased research is 
necessary in such fields as social policy, the 
economics of welfare measures, the admin- 
istration of welfare projects, the methods 
employed in carrying out such measures and 
the expansion of social work education. 



The Board said that after the Taft- 
Hartley Law of 1947 had outlawed the 
closed shop, the union had insisted on 
certain "conditions" without a conventional 
contract and later had demanded con- 
tracts which could be cancelled on 60 days' 
notice. Both these practices, said the 
Board, were illegal. 

In its present order, the board stated: 
"We have ample reason presently to 
believe that this disposition still exists. 
For, notwithstanding the union's asserted 
'discontinuance' of the bargaining strategy 
here found specifically unlawful, the very 
same 'closed shop' policy it was designed 
to implement still forms an essential part 
of the aims of the union, as expressed in 
its general laws. 

"We cannot but reasonably infer, there- 
fore, that it is possible, if not highly prob- 
able, that the respondents (the union and 
its officers) may resort to other devices to 
effectuate their 'closed shop' objectives in 
future negotiations with employers in the 
industry, unless effectively restrained." 



A research program to find out "the 
extent to which management in industry is 
handling the problems of human relation- 
ships" is to be set up at McGill University. 

The university's Department of Psychiatry 
and School of Social Work will co-operate 
in the program. 



Labour Board Tells ITU 
To Bargain in Good Faith 

The National Labour Relations Board in 
the United States has ordered the Inter- 
national Typographical Union (AFL) to 
bargain in good faith, thus putting an end 
to the case of complaint brought against 
the union five and a half years ago 
by the American Newspaper Publishers 
Association. 

The order directs the union to cease 
evading the obligation to bargain in good 
faith "not only by devices designed to 
establish unlawful closed shop conditions, 
but also by any means tending to interfere 
with the establishment of genuine collective 
bargaining on a basis of mutuality". It 
applies to the union's bargaining relation- 
ships throughout the entire newspaper 
industry in the United States. 

In issuing its order, the Board said: 
"The records of the ITU cases, including 
this one, indicate strongly the respondents' 
disposition to use the bargaining table as 
a means of obtaining 'closed shop' condi- 
tions by one device or another." 



U.K. Industrial Relations 
Handbook is Published 

Publication of a new edition of Indus- 
trial Relations Handbook is announced by 
the United Kingdom Ministry of Labour 
and National Service. 

The Handbook contains information on 
the organization of employers and workers 
in Great Britain, collective bargaining and 
joint negotiating machinery, conciliation 
and arbitration, statutory wage negotiation, 
joint consultation and personnel manage- 
ment, holidays with pay, hours of labour 
and overtime rates, systems of wage pay- 
ment and incentive schemes, and the 
International Labour Organization. 

Copies of the Handbook are available 
from the United Kingdom Information 
Office, 275 Albert Street, Ottawa, at a 
charge of $1.15 per copy. 



Israeli Labour Body 
Affiliates with ICFTU 

Histadrut, the General Federation of 
Labour in Israel, has recently decided to 
become affiliated with the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The 
Israeli Federation withdrew from the 
Communist-dominated World Federation 
of Trade Unions several years ago but did 
not immediately join the anti-Communist 
ICFTU. 



995 



The 82 nd Annual Meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Guaranteed annual wage discussed by two speakers at session of panel 
on employer-employee relations. Manpower problems and writing of 
labour contracts also speech topics. Officers for 1953-54 elected 



More than 1,200 industrialists from all 
parts of Canada attended the 82nd annual 
meeting of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association at Toronto, May 27-29. 

The three-day session took the form of 
separate conferences, conducted concur- 
rently, under the headings: employer- 
employee relations, economic conditions, 
transportation, scientific and industrial 
research, industrial development and natural 
resources, industrial design, fire protection, 
highway safety and education. 

Of outstanding interest at the employer- 
employee relations conference was the 
discussion on the complexities of the 
guaranteed annual wage. Also discussed at 
the conference were "Some do's and don'ts 
of writing the labour contract" and "Some 
manpower problems in an expanding 
economy — looking ahead ten years". 
Because of the importance of the subject 
at the present time, the discussion on the 
guaranteed annual wage is dealt with in 
most detail in this report. 

CMA president for 1953-54 is J. Douglas 
Ferguson, Vice-President and Managing 
Director, Spencer Supports (Canada), Ltd., 
Rock Island, Que. He succeeds G. K. 
Sheils, of Toronto, who was named 
General Manager of the Association upon 
the retirement of John T. Stirrett. Vice- 



presidents are J. A. Calder, Director and 
Secretary, Imperial Tobacco Co. of Canada, 
Limited, Montreal, and T. A. Rice, Vice- 
President in charge of production at tht 
International Harvester Company, Ham- 
ilton, Ont. 

Optimism was expressed by the President. 
A curtailment or cancellation of defence 
orders would not, he thought, be harmful 
to Canada's expanding economy. Although 
there would necessarily be some readjust- 
ments, with some local and temporary 
cutbacks in output and employment, the 
end result, he felt, would be beneficial. 

About 45 per cent of federal tax revenues 
is earmarked for defence purposes, he said. 
Given a reasonable cutback in taxes in 
relation to the reduction in defence orders, 
the relief thus granted would enable the 
consumer taxpayer to increase his purchases 
over a wider range of Canadian products 
and leave the manufacturer with more 
funds for the expansion and modernization 
of plant and equipment. These two factors, 
said Mr. Sheils, "will work together to 
more than offset any decline in total busi- 
ness and employment caused by the 
cancellation of the war contracts". 

Increased membership was reported by 
the General Manager; at April 30 the 
total was 6,891. 



Employer-Employee Relations Panel 



Guaranteed Wages 

One of the most important features of 
collective bargaining in the next few years 
will be the question of the guaranteed 
wage, the panel chariman, R. F. Hinton, 
said in leading off the discussion. Mr. 
Hinton is Industrial Relations and Per- 
sonnel Manager, Shell Oil Co. of Canada, 
Limited. The automobile and steel unions 
have already served notice of their inten- 
tions, he said. 

He then introduced, as "two students of 
the subject who, from their knowledge, 
would be able to provide useful informa- 
tion and so help in clarifying thinking" 
on the guaranteed wage, Dr. Carroll E. 



French, Director, Industrial Relations 
Counsellors, Inc., and Leo Teplow, Indus- 
trial Relations Consultant, both of New 
York. Dr. French dealt with the general 
aspect, outlining some of the problems 
involved, and Mr. Teplow with the problem 
from the viewpoint of the individual 
company. 

Dr. Carroll E. French 

Labour's demand today for a guaranteed 
annual wage must be regarded as a serious 
concerted drive and not just a bargaining 
tactic, stated Dr. French. 

"The United Steelworkers of America at 
their annual convention in April approved 



996 



the guaranteed annual wage as one of their 
primary objectives," he said. 

"The contracts of the United Automobile 
Workers (CIO) with the major automobile 
manufacturers are not scheduled to expire 
until 1955 but the UAW already has 
announced that it will seek the guaranteed 
annual wage for its 1,350,000 members. . . 

"The International Union of Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers (CIO) in- 
cludes the guaranteed annual wage in the 
outline of its 1953 collective bargaining 
objectives. . . 

"It is quite clear that employers in the 
United States are not being singled out for 
exclusive attention," Dr. French added. 

Collective bargaining contracts incor- 
porating guaranteed annual wage provisions 
are already being signed, said the speaker. 
"The International Longshoremen's Asso- 
ciation (AFL) has secured agreement from 
the Franklin Sugar Refinery in Philadelphia 
for a guaranteed annual wage amounting 
to 1,976 hours' pay per year, or slightly 
more than 49 weeks' pay. The same 
guarantee is included in another recent 
agreement by the National Sugar Refining 
Company and the AFL longshoremen. 
This year the United Packinghouse 
Workers (CIO) negotiated an annual wage 
plan with the Revere Sugar Company and 
with the National Sugar Refining Company 
providing guarantees of 1,900 hours and 
1,936 hours, respectively. The Independent 
Union of Electrical Workers, the National 
Maritime Union (CIO), the Textile 
Workers Union of America (CIO) and the 
AFL Teamsters Union have all recently 
negotiated some contracts providing for 
some form of the guaranteed annual wage." 

Wage Guarantee Takes Various Forms 

The guaranteed annual wage, said Dr. 
French, comes in various forms and over 
the years has taken a number of different 
aspects. Basically, it is a question of a 
guarantee to workers of a specific number 
of weeks' pay or work per year. 

The movement for greater security of 
employee income on an annual basis, he 
said, has developed along three general 
lines: (1) the traditional plans of com- 
panies pioneering in this field, adopted 
after years of management planning 
devoted to stabilizing sales and production 
schedules: (2) the guaranteed annual wage 
in terms of a specified number of weeks' 
work per year — the form originally advo- 
cated by the trade unions; and (3) the 
more recent form of supplementing unem- 
ployment compensation benefits from a 
fund contributed entirely by the employer. 



Speaking of "the deep-seated and funda- 
mental urge for continuity and security of 
earnings," Dr. French said: — 

Whatever form the pressure for this 
particular type of economic security may 
take, it would be a serious error for 
employers to assume that this issue can be 
easily met or turned aside simply by out- 
right opposition. The need for assurance of 
continued employment and of uninterrupted 
income is the central strand in the basic 
human desire for security and is one that 
is shared by , all of us, regardless of our 
earnings level. The very term "guaranteed 
annual wage" has a deep-rooted appeal. It 
implies the same kind of security of status 
as that theoretically enjoyed by salaried 
employees. . . It also suggests security 
against the impact of business recessions or 
the economic cycle. 

Actually, the objective of steady work and 
steady pay the year around is one that 
should be and is widely shared by employers, 
unions and employees. There is no disagree- 
ment between management and unions as to 
the desirability for companies to provide the 
maximum in continuity of work and pay and 
that optimum achievement of this result is 
advantageous for everyone concerned. The 
problem is how to accomplish it. Practically, 
the successful solution can only be accom- 
plished through an expanding economy and 
an efficient management. On this point, 
George A. Hormel and Company, in com- 
menting on its widely-publicized plan of 
guaranteed employment, made this statement 
in March 1950: "Our people have as much 
security as we can possibly give them but 
none of this security is contractual security. 
All of the security depends on earnings. . . . 
The only guarantee we know of is the ability 
of management to manage, coupled with the 
willingness of workers to work. If either 
fails, then the guarantee fails. 

It is, however, generally realized, the 
speaker continued, that an individual com- 
pany management, no matter how efficient, 
is definitely limited as to what it can do. 

All the relevant factors are not within 
the control of an individual management. 
The difficulty is that the guaranteed annual 
wage is not a demand that can be easily 
disposed of by exposing its impracticability 
and hazards. That it is not economically 
feasible, that it cannot possibly prevent 
cyclical depressions, that few companies can 
prudently afford to make a guarantee — such 
arguments will not carry very much weight 
so long as the drive for security generates 
a conviction that the guaranteed annual wage 
can and will accomplish these desirable goals. 

The real danger lies in being forced to 
make contract commitments involving 
promises beyond the control of either labour 
or management to fulfil. Such a state of 
affairs could only lead to disillusionment, 
serious injury to employee relations and, in 
the end, to possible financial difficulty or 
even bankruptcy. 

Any formal wage guarantee, Dr. French 
said, should not be approached without 
adequate preparation and due caution. 
Industry should not be led to believe that 



997 



the guaranteed annual wage is inevitable 
because some managements are compelled 
by the vehemence of labour's demands 
coupled with overwhelming economic power 
to grant the demand, he said. 

Important Considerations 

A study of the nature of organized 
labour's demands and recent trends in 
collective bargaining, and a facing-up to the 
realities with respect to guaranteeing 
annual pay regardless of ability to assure 
work, said the speaker, points up certain 
considerations which should be borne in 
mind in approaching this particular issue 
of labour-management relations: — 

1. The demand for the guaranteed annual 
wage now comes at a time when the 
prospects for substantial wage increases 
appear to be diminishing. 

2. This particular issue confronts industry 
with a new and more formidable fringe 
demand, which is far more costly and from 
which, once granted, any return will be 
extremely difficult if not impossible. 

3. It involves a request for contract 
commitments in areas over which the control 
of the employer is extremely limited. 

4. There is real danger that having once 
made concessions on a minimum basis a 
precedent is set for further bargaining to 
augment and liberalize the original con- 
cessions. 

5. Formal contract negotiations in this 
critical area could well open the way to 
demands for joint union-management action 
in vital areas of management functions, such 
as, sales, plant expansion, subcontracting, 
production schedules, etc. 

The most important consideration for 
management to keep in mind, added Dr. 
French, is that the achievement of steady 
work and steady pay is a desirable objec- 
tive and that responsibility for maximum 
achievement of income security for their 
employees is one that it should be entirely 
willing to accept. 

Achievements Already Gained 

Fringe benefit programs, said the speaker, 
have already reached sizable proportions. 
A survey of such benefits made by Indus- 
trial Relations Counsellors, Inc., in 1949, 
covering 59 companies, disclosed that the 
cost of the normal package of fringe 
benefits amounted to 26-8 cents per hour 
and 17 per cent of the payroll. The annual 
cost per employee amounted to $602. The 
Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States in a similar survey covering 736 
companies in 1951 found that fringe bene- 
fits amounted on the average to 31-5 cents 
per payroll hour or 18-7 per cent of the 
payroll. 



The guaranteed annual wage, in terms of 
potential addition to payroll cost, could 
well be the largest and most costly fringe 
benefit yet and, as with all fringe benefits, 
would constitute a permanent and inescap- 
able fixed charge, Dr. French said. 

A Constructive Management Approach 

Exigencies of the times, said Dr. French, 
must not obscure the fact that manage- 
ment has very real and definite responsi- 
bility in the whole field of job security, 
steady work and steady pay. "Acceptance 
of this responsibility is not only good 
employee relations, it is good business," he 
emphasized. 

Increased assurance of employee earn- 
ings on an annual basis, he felt, would 
logically follow rather than precede efforts 
of management in this direction. "The 
mere guarantee of wages can assure 
nothing and may, on the contrary, create 
dangerous illusions and serious economic 
consequences." 

Management, he said, should ask them- 
selves the following questions as they face 
the "critical" problems raised by organized 
labour's drive for the guaranteed annual 
wage: — 

1. Is the provision of steady employment 
on a year-round basis accepted as a 
deliberate and announced objective of com- 
pany policy? If not, and if employees are 
without information as to the company's 
position in this important respect, manage- 
ments are inadequately prepared to meet 
the issues raised by demands for the 
guaranteed annual wage. 

2. Do managements have the facts and 
statistical information to enable them to 
answer the question, "How much steady 
work are we giving each year to what 
percentage of our employees?" Do the 
employees know how much of lost time and 
lost earnings is the fault of themselves, 
rather than of the company? 

3. Do employees of the individual company 
know what the management has actually 
done so far in its efforts to provide steady 
work throughout the year? 

4. Are employees and their union repre- 
sentatives adequately informed as to the 
obstacles and difficulties in providing 
maximum work opportunity, the limitations 
imposed by the market place, as well as 
collective bargaining contract provisions and 
union imposed restrictions, and the extent 
and weight of the factors affecting steady 
work and steady pay over which individual 
company managements have little or no 
control ? 

"Certainly," Dr. French concluded, "there 
is no time to lose in realistic examination 
of company policies in this important area. 
The impending drive for the guaranteed 
annual wage underlines the importance of 
giving high priority to this critical area of 
labour-management relations." 



998 



'Modified Guaranteed Wage" Suggested by Father Bouvier 



In a pamphlet analysing the guar- 
anteed wage,* Rev. Emile Bouvier, SJ, 
puts forward a modified plan which 
would assure the worker of three- 
quarters of his annual income. This 
income would come from the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Fund and from a 
guaranteed wage fund to which 
employers, workers and the state would 
contribute. 

The author, who specifies that he 
meant to suggest a trend of thought 
rather than a concrete policy based on 
actuarial data, was for many years 
Director of the Industrial Relations 
Division of the University of Montreal. 

Father Bouvier's "Modified Guar- 
teed Wage" formula presupposes the 
integration of fiscal, full employment 
and health insurance policies in a 
combined plan. It implies the direc- 
tion of the Government's fiscal policy 
towards full employment. The author 
adds that this step should be adapted 
to an unemployment insurance plan and 
to a scale of tax exemptions for the 
employer who assumes this guarantee. 

Father Bouvier gives the following 
interpretation of a modified guaranteed 
wage: — 

Without going into the details of a 
number of possible plans of integration, 
we would suggest that the employer 
guarantee a weekly basic wage for one 
year. In the event of unemployment, 
the employer would pay the difference 
between the unemployment benefit, which 
would have to be increased, and the 



guaranteed wage. The employer will then 
be greatly interested in stabilizing pro- 
duction and unemployment insurance will 
be more efficient and productive. The 
guaranteed wage complemented by unem- 
ployment insurance should not exceed 
two-thirds or three-quarters of the full 
wage. The difference between the wage 
and the unemployment benefits would be 
paid out of a tripartite contributions 
fund which, in the employer's and 
worker's cases, would be tax-exempt. The 
annual guaranteed wage thus modified 
should be small at first and expand in 
relation with the size of the reserve fund. 

A worker who regularly earns $50 per 
week would thus receive while unem- 
ployed about $37.50, part of which would 
come from unemployment insurance and 
part from the guarantee fund. 

Father Bouvier explains that "this 
step is not drawn solely from an 
economic computation of a better social 
efficiency, but it proceeds primarily from 
a social justice duty which should cause 
the employers, the workers and the 
Government to examine carefully the 
application of a guaranteed wage plan 
with a view to allaying the fears the 
worker may have about the future". 

Besides suggesting this modified guar- 
anteed wage plan, Father Bouvier 
analyses in his pamphlet the nature, 
features and application of the guar- 
anteed wage, examines the arguments 
submitted in favour and against the 
guaranteed wage from the point of view 
of business, industry and economics, and 
studies the moral aspect of the problem. 



*Bouvier, Emile. — Le salaire annuel garanti, Collection "Relations", No. 4, 1953, 
Editions Bellarmin, Montreal. 



Leo Teplow 

In view of the concerted drive now being 
made by a number of major labour unions 
with locals in both the United States and 
Canada, many an employer on both sides 
of the border will find himself faced with 
a demand for the guaranteed annual wage 
within the next year or two, Leo Teplow 
said, discussing the problem from the view- 
point of the individual company. 

Whether it be, he said, the traditional 
demand for a guarantee of 2,000 or more 
hours' pay for every employee — a type of 
guarantee which is still being negotiated 
in some cases — or the more recent version, 
which is actually private supplementation 
of unemployment compensation benefits, 
the employer faces grave risks: financial 
risks, risks affecting his retention of 



management functions, and risks to the 
preservation of the present system of 
unemployment compensation in both the 
United States and Canada. 

He continued: — 

The financial risk of an outright guarantee 
of annual wages is likely to be too extensive 
for most companies to undertake so far as 
a majority of their employees are concerned. 
Private supplementation of unemployment 
compensation benefits is also likely to be a 
very serious commitment in the long run, 
even though it may start as a limited con- 
tribution of just a few cents per hour per 
employee to a guarantee fund. 

Even more dangerous is the type of 
guarantee reported to have been negotiated 
recently, which provides for payment of 2,000 
hours during the year to a majority of the 
employees, as a part of a five-year contract. 
Since few companies can support a 12-month 
guarantee if there is no work for their 



999 



employees, the companies that can make a 
valid guarantee over a five-year period must 
be very rare indeed. 

The most specific demand for the 
guaranteed annual wage in the form of 
unemployment insurance supplementation, 
said Mr. Teplow, was that made by the 
United Steelworkers of America (CIO) 
before a panel of the Wage Stabilization 
Board in 1952. He discussed the plan in 
detail and also the annual wage program 
of the United Automobile Workers of 
America (CIO). Although the two were 
similar, he said, there were some 
important differences. 

In the latter program, recognizing that 
it might be beyond the financial capacity 
of most companies, the UAW called for 
the creation of guarantee funds that would 
be "reinsured" in order to spread the risk. 
"This," he said, "may involve a govern- 
ment subsidy." 

Company Position in Collective 
Bargaining 

A company faced with a demand for the 
guaranteed annual wage, said Mr. Teplow, 
will be in a much better position to deal 
with the problem if it has first undertaken 
a program of employment stabilization and 
has kept its employees fully informed of its 
progress and problems in this connection. 
If it can point to a rounded program of 
employee benefits, especially if they in- 
clude an employee thrift and savings plan 
to meet emergency needs, which would 
cover also the emergency of unemploy- 
ment, its position is further enhanced. 

The cost of a guaranteed wage, he 
argued, must be considered in conjunction 
with the costs of the "fringe" benefits 
already being sustained by the company. 
According to the U.S. Chamber of 
Commerce, the cost of these benefits in 
1951 came to 18-7 per cent of the payroll. 
If to these costs are added overtime 
premium pay and shift bonus, the propor- 
tion in relation to straight time pay 
becomes 25-2 pel' cent. 

"That was two years ago," he added. 
"Undoubtedly the figure is appreciably 
higher today." 

Any employer considering the possi- 
bility of granting a guaranteed annual 
wage, or bargaining collectively about it, 
Mr. Teplow said, should give serious 
thought to the following factors: — 

1. Employment stabilization must precede 
any attempt to guarantee an annual wage. 
To the extent that a company succeeds in 
stabilizing its employment, to that extent a 
guaranteed annual wage becomes super- 
fluous. 



2. An annual wage guarantee involves a 
commitment of such serious proportions that 
few companies can in good faith guarantee 
a year's wage to a large majority of their 
employees. This fact was recognized by the 
Steelworkers' Union when they receded 
from their original demand to one which, at 
least initially, committed the company only 
to a contribution of a few cents per hour, 
and when they demanded some form of 
"reinsurance". 

3. When the impracticability of a com- 
plete guarantee is recognized, there is 
temptation to "settle" for a limited guar- 
antee — limited to a small proportion of the 
employees or to less than a year's pay. A 
guarantee limited to some employees may 
be worse than no guarantee for the other 
employees, since it only serves to emphasize 
their vulnerability to layoff. 

4. Even an extremely limited guarantee 
may be financially dangerous in the long 
run. Any kind of guarantee is a recog- 
nition of the principle and once the 
principle is recognized, it may be impossible 
to resist pressure for increasing the amount 
of the guarantee. 

5. Since continuity of employment is 
subject to factors beyond the company's 
control, such as the general level of economic 
activity, condition of partial or general war 
(with accompanying government controls or 
materials allocations), shortage of raw 
materials, changes in tariffs, strikes within 
the company or among the company's 
suppliers, the company should not be 
expected to be responsible for an uncondi- 
tional guarantee. 

6. If the company has a definite amount 
that it is prepared to add to its labour 
cost, both company and employees might 
be better served if this amount were to 
be added to wages or used to furnish other 
benefits which may mean more to employees, 
such as hospitalization insurance, pay during 
illness, etc. 

"With fringe benefits costing approxi- 
mately 25 per cent of straight time pay, 
more thought is being given to con- 
tributory financing of employee benefits", 
Mr. Teplow said. "It may be desirable to 
explore whether employees are sufficiently 
interested in some form of guarantee to 
be willing to contribute to its cost." 

7. A wage guarantee may require a com- 
plete revamping of the seniority provisions 
of collective agreements, in order to enable 
the employer to transfer employees when 
there is no work for them in their regular 
jobs or departments or shifts. It may also 
be necessary or desirable to change agree- 
ments pertaining to overtime premium pay. 
Neither the union nor the employees may be 
prepared to make such concessions. 

8. A guarantee, if effective, will require 
the company to pay out funds when there 
is no work for employees to do. Such 
payments may so weaken a company's 
financial position that, at the conclusion of 
the guarantee period, the company may be 
forced to- lay off more people than those 
whose income was protected by the guar- 
antee. In that case, fluctuations in employ- 
ment would be magnified rather than 
reduced. 



1000 



9. Under a guarantee, every employee 
represents a commitment to continue pay 
whether there is work for him or not. In 
that case, the employer would be under- 
standably reluctant to increase his employ- 
ment. Multiplied by many companies, this 
may mean a lower level of employment 
opportunities. 

10. If companies undertake commitments 
beyond their financial capacity to fulfil, 
they may discover that the government may 
have to come to the rescue and so become 
a silent partner in their operations. 

11. Private supplementation of unemploy- 
ment insurance benefits runs counter to 
one of the basic purposes of the unem- 
ployment insurance system: the provision of 
benefits at such a level as will not 
discourage the employee from actively seek- 
ing work. Not only must he be without 
work, but he must also have suffered a 
wage loss. If unemployment becomes 
actually or substantially as remunerative as 
regular work, there is little incentive for 
getting a job or remaining at 'work. In 
fact, we may see the entire concept of layoff 
on the basis of seniority completely reversed, 
as the senior employees will demand that 
they be the first to be laid off. Under these 
circumstances, a layoff becomes a vacation 
with pay rather than a misfortune. 

12. The level of unemployment benefits 
under state and Canadian law has been 
carefully set by the respective legisla- 
tures at that level which will enable the 
temporarily unemployed to meet their non- 
deferrable expenditures and yet provide an 
incentive to seek other work. If these 
benefits are inadequate it is far better to 
correct this possible inadequacy by amend- 
ing the unemployment insurance laws, rather 
than a patchwork of collective bargaining 
agreements. 

13. Under the laws of most states, if an 
employee receives compensation from his 
employer he becomes ineligible to receive 
state unemployment compensation benefits. 
This would leave the employer to foot the 
full bill for whatever benefits the employee 
receives, while at the same time contributing 
to the state fund from which his employees 
would derive no benefit. Without substantial 
changes in the law, therefore, the employer 
would be supporting two exclusive systems 
of unemployment compensation, while his 
employees would benefit from only one. 

14. If the proposed supplementation of 
unemployment compensation is co-ordinated 
with the state unemployment insurance pro- 
gram, presumably the state unemployment 
administrator would determine questions of 
eligibility under the state system, while a 
joint union-management committee would 
pass on eligibility under the collectively- 
bargained program. The resulting conflict 
would make both programs well nigh 
unworkable. 

15. Even more far-reaching in its implica- 
tions than the financial risk of annual wage 
guarantees is the probable impact on those 
functions which management feels it must 
reserve to itself if it is to discharge 
its responsibilities, such as technological 
improvements, adoption or discontinuance of 
products, addition to or closing of plants, 
amounts allocated to research, advertising 
and development, and procurement, pricing 
and financial policies. This is especially 
true if the guarantee is administered by a 
joint committee. 



Joint Union-Management Study Groups 

Mr. Teplow cautioned against the setting 
up of union-management study groups to 
consider the problems involved. Many 
employers, he said, may be inclined to 
accept this as an apparently reasonable 
proposal but in so doing they may be 
walking into a trap. Employees might 
assume it to be the first step on the 
road to a guarantee of annual wages and, 
if the guarantee were not forthcoming, the 
disappointment might seriously impair 
morale. 

"The union may very well attempt to 
convert such a joint study group into a 
vehicle for making joint determination in 
extensive areas now reserved to manage- 
ment," the speaker further warned. "Such 
a study group is likely to insist that it 
have access to highly confidential infor- 
mation concerning the company's plans and 
prospects. This may very well become the 
mechanism for achieving what Mr. Reuther 
once labelled 'a look at the books'. Unless 
management is prepared to make such 
confidential information available to the 
joint committee and the union, it might 
be safest to reject the joint committee 
proposal." 

These factors, the speaker concluded, 
"indicate that every phase of the demand 
for the guaranteed annual wage should be 
approached with caution or even stout 
opposition. 

"But caution is not enough. Opposition 
to a union demand, even if successfully 
maintained, is not enough. 

"The search for security of employment 
and income is part of the overall quest 
for security. It is no temporary fad. It 
is deep-rooted. It must be recognized. 

"Here, then, is an opportunity for 
management to seize the initiative. Rather 
than wait for the inevitable demand, and 
thereafter place itself in the position of 
opposing employee needs, management can 
take the initiative and demonstrate by its 
policies, actions and communications that 
it recognized the problem and is determined 
to do all in its power to meet the need. 

"Programs of employment stabilization, 
extensive two-way systems of communica- 
tions, and rounded programs of employee 
benefits can serve to provide a large 
measure of employee security, without 
undertaking dangerous commitments beyond 
the capacity of most companies to fulfil, 
and without risking the loss of manage- 
ment's ability to manage." 



1001 



Writing the Labour Contract 

The importance of simple and precise 
language and proper terminology was 
stressed by R. V. Hicks, of Messrs. Tory, 
Miller, Thomson, Hicks, Arnold and 
Sedgewick, of Toronto, in the panel 
discussion on "Some Do's and Don'ts of 
Writing the Labour Contract". 

Employees and those responsible for 
administration of the contract should not 
have to resort to counsel to ascertain 
what is intended, said the speaker. 
Colloquialisms and other informalities of 
language constitute dangerous pitfalls 
should arbitration ever ensue, he warned. 

"Language clarification not only avoids 
misunderstanding and dissension but also 
simplifies administration of the agreement, 
with a concomitant reduction of time 



otherwise lost through grievance claims," 
Mr. Hicks said. 

While emphasizing that he did not 
defend a strictly technical or legalistic 
approach to labour relations, Mr. Hicks 
pointed out that there are certain techni- 
calities from which neither management 
nor union can escape because they are 
prescribed by law and substantially influ- 
ence the entire field of industrial relations. 

Other members of the panel taking part 
in the discussion were Judge W. S. Lane, 
County Judge of Prince Edward County, 
and N. J. Clawson, Director of Industrial 
Relations, Crane Limited, Montreal. 
Chairman of the panel was W. H. C. 
Seeley, Assistant Manager of Administra- 
tion, Toronto Transportation Commission, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Manpower Problems in an Expanding Economy 



There is urgent need for expansion of 
apprenticeship training programs if the 
supply of skilled workers is to improve, 
R. F. Hinton, chairman of the Manpower 
Problems panel, stated at the opening of 
the conference. 

Members of the panel were Joseph Pigott, 
President, Pigott Construction Company, 
Limited, Hamilton, Ont., and J. L. Sparrow, 
Supervisor of Apprenticeship Training, 
Canadian General Electric Co., Limited, 
Peterborough, Ont., both of whom spoke 
on apprenticeship training. The third 
member was C. E. Carson, Director, 
Imperial Oil Limited, Toronto, Ont., who 
spoke on the development of management 
personnel. 

Apprenticeship Training in Construction 

One of the causes of the high cost of 
building is the lack of sufficient skilled 
artisans, stated Joseph Pigott, who spoke 
with particular reference to the construc- 
tion industry. In spite of the shortages 
building has continued, he said, but failure 
to meet the demand for skilled workers 
has forced into use new designs, new pro- 
cesses and new materials; wood is replaced 
by steel, masonry by glass and metal, and 
plaster by substitutes. 

The contractors are themselves partly 
responsible, asserted the speaker, because 
of their lack of interest in apprenticeship 
training. 

In the whole of Canada, only about 
15,000 young men are being trained under 
apprenticeship schemes in the building 
trades, and of this number only about 2,600 
are being trained in Ontario. In that prov- 
ince alone, he said, if apprentices were 
being trained in the traditional ratio of 



apprentices to mechanics, there should be 
ten or twelve thousand. "In Canada as a 
whole, apart from Quebec, we would have 
to enlist between four and five boys for 
every one in training now. That is our 
problem." In the field of foremanship, 
superintendents and general leadership, the 
shortage is even more acute, Mr. Pigott 
said. 

Apprenticeship Training in Manutacturing 

In the manufacturing industries the situa- 
tion is similar, J. L. Sparrow told the 
conference. In three industry groups 
employing 300,000 production workers, only 
3,000 are receiving organized training, which 
means that only one per cent of the workers 
in those industries are apprentices or are 
receiving organized training in some form. 

"With so little training being given in 
industry, is it any wonder," he asked, "that 
a shortage of skilled manpower is dogging 
manufacturing?" 

With a shortage of skilled workers, he 
continued, it naturally follows that there 
is a shortage of foremen, supervisors and 
executive personnel, because these key men 
are usually obtained by selecting outstand- 
ing skilled craftsmen and giving them 
special supervisory training courses. 

Deeply concerned about the situation, the 
Federal Department of Labour, said the 
speaker, called a conference in May of 
last year to discuss the problem* Out 
of the conference the following statistics 
emerged: — 

Out of a total of 709 plants surveyed 
only 88 plants had organized training 
programs. 



L.G., July 1952, pp. 877-85. 



1002 



In the iron and steel group, 57 out of 
473 plants had training programs. 

In the electrical apparatus group, 9 plants 
out of 107 had training programs. 

In transportation products, 22 plants out 
of 129 plants had training programs. 

In all, approximately only eight per cent 
of the plants surveyed had organized train- 
ing programs. 

The shortage of apprentices was chiefly 
attributed to: (1) A lack of sufficient 
interest on the part of many employers. 
(2) A fear on the part of local unions of 
overcrowding certain trades. (3) A lack of 
information regarding the opportunities and 
benefits of apprenticeship. 

Mr. Sparrow reviewed action already 
taken to improve the supply of skilled 
workers, mentioning first the appointment 
of the national advisory committee on 
apprenticeship training. 

A number of large companies with well- 
established apprenticeship training pro- 
grams have expanded them with the years; 
a number have only recently put training 
plans into operation. The most fertile 
field for apprenticeship training, the 
speaker believed, lies with the smaller 
companies, who can, individually or collec- 
tively, provide adequate training facilities. 

Mr. Sparrow recommended to the atten- 
tion of the members the "Packaged 
Apprenticeship Program" initiated by the 
CMA and the Ontario Industrial Educa- 
tion Council in 1947. 

Up to the present, he said, three trades 
have been covered, tool and die makers, 
machinists, and maintenance electricians. 
Each trade is contained in a complete 
package containing the necessary forms 
such as application forms, apprentice agree- 
ment, record forms, rating forms, report 
forms and an apprenticeship diploma, 
together with a booklet containing infor- 
mation on the administration and operation 
of an apprenticeship program and outlines 
of courses. 

"These courses of practical training 
assignments and related classroom instruc- 
tions or correspondence courses represent 
a high standard of trade training which, 
with your co-operation, will help to estab- 
lish a uniform system of apprenticeship 
training in the manufacturing industries 
throughout Ontario," he said. 

Development of Management 

Successful development of management 
personnel, said C. E. Carson, must be an 
integral part of a comprehensive, con- 
tinuous program for the development of 
people in industry. 



"Any program which seems to indicate 
that management alone is getting the 
advantage of extra training or attention," 
he warned, "is almost sure to weaken 
morale by introducing an element of caste 
into the organization. The technician or 
specialist must not feel that his develop- 
ment is being ignored or is not important." 
Management development must also be 
continuous for very much the same reasons, 
he continued. "If it is wrong to discrim- 
inate between ranks of people, it is equally 
wrong to leave certain groups out simply 
because they joined the company too soon 
or too late to participate in a development 
program." 

Tests for the selection and promotion 
of people, said Mr. Carson, should be 
approached with caution. Qualities essen- 
tial for management cannot be defined 
precisely, nor is it certain what to do to 
develop in people the qualities desired. 
Industry is constantly changing in a 
country like Canada; so are the aptitudes 
and attitudes of the workers. It is inevit- 
able that the requirements of the ideal 
manager will change with all the other 
changes. 

Even assuming, he continued, that it is 
known precisely what qualities will be 
needed, there is as yet no objective means 
of measuring and comparing them. There 
are still no international standards of 
measurement for tact, leadership, patience, 
imagination and initiative. 

"A company can really only perform two 
broad functions in respect of developing 
personnel: (a) It can widen the opportuni- 
ties for all individual employees to develop ; 
(b) it can keep constant watch on all 
individual employees to ensure that their 
development is recognized and utilized." 

There is no doubt that personnel develop- 
ment is going to take place, said the 
speaker. The question at issue is whether 
the development is positive or negative, 
good or bad, planned or unplanned. 

Finally, the speaker named what he 
considered to be the main elements in a 
good development program : providing in- 
teresting and stimulating jobs; avoiding 
as far as possible "dead-end" positions; 
familiarization of those involved with com- 
pany operations and objectives; study at 
some outside educational institution or 
experience at some outside corporation; 
knowing the employees, keeping up to date 
an inventory of ability. 



1003 



Effects of Plant Expansion on 

Employment in Ontario, 1948-53 

Estimated 44,500 new jobs made available to Ontario workers by plant 
completions from 1948 to 1952; at least 9.000 will be created in 1953 



In the past five years, plant expansion 
in the manufacturing industries in Ontario 
has proceeded at a pace unequalled since 
the 1920's. The new employment resulting 
from this extension of manufacturing facili- 
ties has been greater than that in any 
other region; in fact, the number of new- 
jobs created in Ontario equalled the total 
in all the rest of Canada in this period. 

An estimated 44,500 new jobs became 
available for Ontario workers as a result 
of plant completions from 1948 to 1952. 
This was slightly more than 50 per cent 
of the total estimated increase in manu- 
facturing employment caused by industrial 
expansion in the whole of Canada during 
this period. 

Ontario's industrial expansion was a 
major factor in the growth of its manu- 
facturing employment from 552,000 to an 
estimated 606,000 in the five-year period. 
Industrial construction in the province is 
continuing at a high level; the carryover 
of work from last year alone will create 
at least 9,000 additional jobs during 1953. 

The pattern of industrial expansion in 
the province since 1948 may be divided 
into two main periods. Until 1950, factory 
construction was based largely on the 
demand for consumers' goods, although 
there was also a marked growth in other 



industries such as those producing farm 
implements, business machines and 
secondary paper products. Beginning in 
1950, the rate of plant construction acceler- 
ated as a result of defence expenditures 
and there was continued growth in such 
industries as chemicals, basic iron and 
steel, and petroleum products. 

Geographically, the expansion in manu- 
facturing capacity in Ontario in recent years 
was concentrated heavily in the industrial- 
ized southwestern section of the province. 
A large share of the industrial construction 
has been in the greater Toronto area. In 
terms of employment, the percentage of 
total new employment in the 1948-52 
period in the urban Toronto area was 25 
per cent in 1948, 34 per cent in 1949, 28 
per cent in 1950, 41 per cent in 1951, and 
63 per cent in 1952. While the 1952 per- 
centage was high, largely as a result of 
the completion of new defence plants and 
plant extensions, the figures in other years 
were proportionate with the city's relative 
importance in terms of the total number 
of wage and salary workers in the prov- 
ince. Latest data show that 35 per cent 
of the wage and salary workers in manu- 
facturing in Ontario are in the Toronto 
district. Sarnia, Hamilton and the Niagara 
peninsula areas have all experienced rapid 



TABLE 1.— NEW JOBS RESULTING FROM PLANT EXPANSION IN 
MANUFACTURING IN ONTARIO 1918-1952 



Industry 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


Total 




400 
300 
150 
100 
2.100 
1 , 250 
100 
950 
300 
800 
250 
300 


400 

50 

650 

300 

1,050 

50 

250 

400 

300 

300 

400 

550 


425 

125 

450 

150 

1,300 

2.600 

300 

450 

225 

150 

600 

. 25 


300 

50 

950 

150 

2,600 

1,400 

450 

1.050 

500 

300 

600 

150 


400 

100 

150 

300 

2,600 

8.600 

400 

3,350 

300 

500 

650 

150 


1,925 




625 




2.350 




1,000 


Iron and Steel Products 


9,650 


Transportation Equipment 

Non-ferrous Metal Products 


13.900 
1.500 
6.200 




1.625 




2.050 




2.500 


Other(i) 


1.175 


Total 


7,000 


4,700 


6,800 


8,500 


17,500 


44.500 







0) Includes tobacco products, leather products, and miscellaneous manufacturing. 

1004 



TABLE 2.— NEW EMPLOYMENT CREATED 
BY PLANT EXPANSION IN MANUFAC- 
TURING IN ONTARIO AND CANADA 

1948-1952 



- 


Canada 


Ontario 


Percentage 


1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 
1952 


16,000 
8,100 
12,000 
15,300 
34,000 


7,000 
4,700 
6,800 
8,500 
17,500 


43-8 
58-0 
56-7 
55-6 
51-5 


Total 


85,400 


44,500 


52-1 







industrial expansion since 1948 and several 
large plants are now under construction in 
Eastern Ontario centres. Of the plants and 
extensions to be completed in 1953, three 
in five are located outside the Toronto 
area and are distributed among 41 other 
localities. 

Two-thirds of the total employment 
increase of 44,500 was accounted for by 
three industries — transportation equipment, 
iron and steel and electrical apparatus. 
Employment in the chemical and non- 
metallic mineral products industries also 
expanded at a rapid rate but the actual 
numbers hired were not as large as those 
in the above three industry groups. The 
rate of growth in the paper products, 
textile, food and beverage and wood 
products industries was relatively smaller. 
Table III shows the new jobs resulting 
from plant expansion as a percentage of 
total employment in selected manufacturing 
industries. 

Transportation equipment industry, — 

The principal source of additional employ- 
ment through new plant construction in 
Ontario since 1948 has been the transporta- 
tion equipment industry. This industry 
group, which includes the manufacture of 
aircraft and automobiles, has provided 
some 14,000 new jobs from 1948 to 1952. 

The Canadian automobile and parts 
industry is located almost entirely in 
Ontario and has been steadily increasing 
employment and production in the postwar 
period, except for a brief sales slump in 
1950 and 1951. The index of employment 
rose from 199-0 (1939=100) at December 
1, 1947, to 322-2 at December 1, 1952. 
Hamilton, Oshawa, Windsor and Oakville 
benefited particularly from industrial con- 
struction in this industry. The total of 
3.700 new jobs created in the five-year 
period 1948 to 1952 will be nearly doubled 
by hirings in 1953 as a result of plant com- 
pletions. The Ford Motor Company plant 
at Oakville, which came into production in 



the second quarter of 1953, will employ 
from 4,000 to 5,000 workers at capacity. 
At least 2,500 of these will be hired this 
year. New parts plants scheduled for com- 
pletion in 1953 estimate employment 
requirements at 700 persons. 

In the aircraft industry, about 7,300 jobs 
opened up in Ontario in plants completed 
as a result of the defence program. Addi- 
tions were made to the large A. V. Roe 
Ltd. assembly plant at Malton and 13 parts 
plants were built in the province to supply 
components for jet aircraft production. 
The hirings all occurred in 1952 and the 
plant construction program of the industry 
has now been largely completed. 

Iron and steel industry. — Large-scale 
expansion in the Canadian primary iron and 
steel industry did not occur until after 1950. 
In Ontario, extensive modernization and 
replacement of facilities greatly increased 
the capacity of the two large basic pro- 
ducers in the province but the resultant 
manpower additions were not large. How- 
ever, the secondary iron and steel group, 
consisting of 14 industries, has hired some 
10,000 new employees since 1948 to staff 
newly completed facilities. This was an 
increase of 9 per cent in the total work 
force in the iron and steel industry, which 
employed a reported total of 115,000 at 
the end of 1952. 



TABLE 3.— NEW JOBS RESULTING FROM 
INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION 1948-1952 AS A 
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 
IN 1952 IN SELECTED ONTARIO MANU- 
FACTURING INDUSTRIES 0) 





New- 


Total 




— 


Jobs 


Employ- 


Per- 




1948-1952 


ment 
Dec. 1, 1952 


centage 


Transportation 








equipment 


13,900 


87,850 


15-8 


Electrical 








apparatus 


6,200 


52,050 


11-9 


Non-metallic min- 








eral products . . . 


1,625 


14,180 


11-5 


Chemicals and 








chemical prod- 








ucts 


2,500 


26,150 


9-6 


Iron and steel 








products 


9,650 


115,500 


8-4 


Paper products . . . 


2,050 


30,240 


6-8 


Non-ferrous metal 








products 


1,500 


28,620 


5-2 


Rubber products. 


625 


15,530 


4-0 


Textiles and 








clothing 


2,350 


60,900 


3-9 


Wood products . . . 


1,000 


26,260 


3-8 


Food and 








beverage 


1,925 


55,700 


3-5 


Total( 2 ) 


44,500 


573,340 


7-8 



(0 Employment and Payrolls, December 1952, Do- 
minion Bureau of Statistics. 

( 2 ) Includes leather, tobacco, petroleum, printing and 
publishing and miscellaneous manufacturing indus- 
tries which are not listed in the above table. 



1005 



Electrical apparatus. — The peak in 
expansion in the electrical apparatus indus- 
try was reached in 1952, when 3,350 workers 
were hired to staff plants completed that 
year. The previous four years produced a 
total of 2,850 new jobs, about 1,000 each 
in 1948 and 1951 and a smaller number in 
the intervening two years. The 1952 peak 
vvas the result of defence demands for elec- 
trical and electronic equipment and the 
increasing production of television sets. 
Expansion in capacity in the earlier post- 
war years was based on strong demand for 
household appliances and for hydro-electric 
and industrial equipment. The average 
electrical apparatus plant employs a large 
number of workers, the 1948-52 total repre- 
senting additional requirements of 90 
persons per plant. 

Chemicals and chemical products. — A 

strong demand for industrial and house- 
hold chemical products, coupled with the 
development of new products and pro- 
cesses, resulted in an intensification of 
plant construction in the chemical industry 
in the postwar period. The province of 
Ontario has developed an increasingly 
diversified and widespread chemical indus- 
try with a labour force of more than 
26,000 employees. A total of 86 new plants 
and plant additions was completed from 
1948 to 1952, with average employment of 
30 workers per plant. The. development of 
the plastic and petro-chemical sectors of 
the industry has been a major factor in this 
growth, the "chemical valley" in the Sarnia 



area providing an unique example of indus- 
trial expansion. The largest chemical plant 
to be built in the province in the postwar 
period is now under construction at 
Maitland and is expected to provide 
employment for about 500 workers. 

Non-metallic mineral products. — -One of 
the most rapidly expanding manufacturing 
sectors in Ontario has been the non- 
metallic mineral products group, which 
includes the manufacture of building, 
asbestos and abrasive products. In 1952, 
the industry had an estimated labour force 
of 14,200. In the past five years, indus- 
trial expansion has created a total of 
1,600 jobs. 

The type of industrial construction 
under way in the province in 1953 has 
changed. The construction of defence 
plants, which provided the main impetus to 
plant expansion in the past two years, is 
now almost entirely completed. There are 
indications, however, of a revival in the 
construction of new facilities for the manu- 
facture of consumer goods. Large new 
plants and plant additions are scheduled to 
come into production in 1953 in the auto- 
mobile, electrical apparatus, textile and 
office machinery industries. These plants 
are widely distributed throughout the prov- 
ince, notably at Prescott, Perth, Arnprior, 
Guelph and Oakville. The resulting employ- 
ment additions will be large, although it 
is not likely that they will equal the record 
year 1952, in which large-scale hirings took 
place to man new defence plants. 



Recent Annual Conventions of 

Provincial Labour Organizations 



Alberta Federation of Labour (TLC) 

Opposition to exemptions in the pro- 
vincial regulations governing hours of work 
was voiced at the 33rd annual convention 
of the Alberta Federation of Labour 
(TLC) in Edmonton, June 1 to 3. 

The convention, attended by 174 dele- 
gates from 124 affiliated unions and other 
organizations representing an estimated 
50,000 workers in the province, passed a 
resolution condemning the Government's 
interpretation of the hours of work legis- 
lation. The resolution charged that so 
many exemptions had been granted in the 
44-hour work week in force in the cities, 



and the 48-hour week in other municipali- 
ties, that the legislation which introduced 
those hours had become virtually useless. 

The original resolution calling for no 
permanent exemptions "without the 
consent of all interested parties" was 
reworded to read "no permanent exemp- 
tions whatever". 

The Hon. J. L. Robinson, provincial 
Minister of Industries and Labour, 
addressing the delegates, said the Alberta 
Labour Act would be open for major 
amendment at the next session of the 
Legislature. In anticipation of this, the 
convention passed a resolution combining 



1006 



the demands of several local unions for 
the 40-hour, five-day week throughout the 
province. 

A resolution calling for the setting up 
of a special section in the Alberta Labour 
Act to deal with the construction industry 
was approved. Charging that both 
employers and employees find difficulty in 
getting direct rulings on the Act as it 
applies to this industry, several delegates 
demanded that the Act be amended to 
safeguard the votes of union members 
unavoidably absent when arbitration awards 
are being decided on, and to speed up 
the process of certification. 

The convention adopted a resolution 
claiming that the provincial Departments 
of Highways and Public Works were able 
to underbid recognized contractors because 
they employed non-union labour. The 
resolution demanded that the provincial 
Government pay rates on all its construc- 
tion work in line with those generally 
established by union agreements. 

The Federation gave its support to the 
Alberta Civil Service Association in a 
resolution calling for full recognition of 
the Association as bargaining agent for all 
provincial government employees. The 
same resolution requested that working 
agreements and legislation dealing with 
government personnel be altered only 
through negotiations with the Civil Service 
Association. It also asked that salaries of 
government workers be made comparable 
to those of employees doing similar work 
in industry, and that they be granted a 
five-day week with no reduction in working 
hours for those working 40 hours or less. 

Other resolutions among the 107 
passed by the delegates called for: a 
national health insurance plan ; Government- 
sponsored automobile insurance; legislation 
to guard against racial and religious 
discrimination in employment; the estab- 
lishment of special training centres for 
retarded children in the province; and a 
contributory pension scheme in the prov- 
ince which could be continued by workers 
who changed employers. 

Also included were resolutions asking 
increases in old-age pensions to $75 per 
month; increases in compensation to 
widows and dependent children; and 
unemployment insurance for apprentices 
while they are attending school. 

Robert Rintoul and Harry Brogden of 
Calgary were re-elected President and 
Secretary-Treasurer respectively. Other 
officers elected were J. E. Smith, Edmonton, 
First Vice-President; Harold French, 
Edmonton, Vice-President for the Northern 
District; R. Scott, Calgary, Vice-President 



for the Central District; and Anne 
MacLaren, Lethbridge, Vice-President for 
the Southern District. 

British Columbia Federation of Labour (CCL) 

A warning that "the honeymoon is over 
for labour" was given at the ninth annual 
convention of the British Columbia 
Federation of Labour (CCL), held in 
Vancouver. President Dan Radford told 
the more than 120 delegates, representing 
40,000 members of the Canadian Congress 
of Labour in the province, that they must 
realize the fight with management has just 
begun. 

Predicting that employers will renew 
their hold-the-line wage policy this year, 
George Mitchell, President of the Van- 
couver Labour Council (CCL), said that 
the delegates must be aware of their 
responsibility. He said: "Employers are 
trying to tell the workers we are heading 
back to the dark ages of the depression. 
This barrage of propaganda must be 
fought." 

An officers' report presented to the 
convention noted that the political picture 
in British Columbia had changed com- 
pletely since the federation's last annual 
meeting. 

On the question of international affairs, 
the report said: "There is much that our 
Federal Government can do to improve 
the general welfare of Canadian citizens 
without reneging on our commitments to 
the United Nations." 

The province's new Labour Relations 
Board was explained by Labour Minister 
Lyle Wicks. The part-time board, said 
Mr. Wicks, was actually a streamlining of 
operations which would save taxpayers 
money without impairing the Board's 
efficiency. With a full-time chairman and 
a staff functioning 5J days a week, the 
Board will be able to deal with British 
Columbia's labour problems, said the 
Minister. 

Mr. Wicks contended that the labour 
board staff did 90 per cent of the work 
and that a full-time board was not the 
answer to industrial problems. 

The Minister also said that the number 
of conciliation officers would be raised from 
six to nine, that their duties had been 
streamlined and that some of the detail 
of their jobs had been given to labour 
board inspectors. 

The convention was addressed by 
Charles Millard, National Director in 
Canada for the International Steelworkers 
of America (CIO-CCL), who told the 
delegates the Canadian Congress of Labour 
is going into the field of political action. 



1007 



Mr. Millard said that the policy of the 
CCL has been to co-operate with other 
sections of the legitimate trade union 
movement for the legislative advancement 
of the workers' welfare. 

A resolution was passed to devise ways 
of raising a share of the $50,000 pledged 
by the CCL to assist the fight against 
poverty, hunger and disease in East Asia. 

Martin Levinson, Director of the CCL's 
International Department, told the dele- 
gates that up to now the Federation had 
not had enough voice or enough interest 
in international affairs. He said efforts 
must be made to increase the wages and 
better the working conditions of workers in 
countries such as India and Pakistan so 
that low-wage competition would not prove 
a threat to the standard of living in 
Canada. 

"Trade union activity must be expanded. 
One job is to bring trade unionism to 
these peoples," he said, adding that 
improving their condition would assure a 
market for Canadian commodities, notably 
lumber, for many generations to come. 

A resolution placing the convention on 
record as opposed to all forms of union 
raiding within the trade union movement 
was defeated by the delegates. Another 
resolution asking that workmen's compen- 
sation in the province be increased from 
70 to 100 per cent of wages was passed. 

The Federation condemned the increasing 
use of the injunction as a weapon by 
employers during strikes. 

The abolition of the absentee ballot in 
British Columbia was opposed by a resolu- 
tion which warned that thousands of 
workers would be disenfranchised if this 
measure were adopted. 

Dan Radford was re-elected President by 
acclamation. George Home was re-elected 
secretary-treasurer; Stewart Alsbury, Alex 
Cox and Hugh Allison were elected vice- 
presidents. Other executive members are 
Ewart Orr, Bob Smeal, Gerry Emary, 
William Symington, Herbert Coombs, Frank 
Howard and Lawrence Vandale. 

Ontario Provincial Federation of Labour (TLC) 

Charges and counter-charges of union 
raiding were made at the seventh annual 
convention of the Ontario Provincial 
Federation of Labour (TLC), held in 
Windsor. At the welcoming ceremony, the 
400 delegates representing 200,000 members 
of the labour organization in the province 
heard Mayor Arthur J. Reaume charge 
unnamed officers of the UAW-CIO with 
raiding Windsor's Civic Workers' Union 
(TLC). 



Percy Bengough, President of the Trades 
and Labour Congress of Canada, addressed 
the delegates and backed up the mayor's 
remarks, adding that if raiding is not 
discontinued in Windsor, he may be forced 
to oppose it actively. While his aim was 
to see more work done among those 
workers as yet unorganized by any group, 
the TLC official said that in an open 
raiding contest, "we will not be on the 
losing end so far as numbers are concerned". 

(The following day a statement was issued 
by top UAW-CIO officers, including George 
Burt, Regional Director, discounting the 
alleged raiding and charging that "practi- 
cally every plant in Windsor under contract 
to the UAW has been raided by AFL 
unions".) 

Discrimination against workers for union 
activity, despite legislation to the contrary, 
was condemned by TLC organizer J. K. 
Thorne. He said that some employers "are 
cutting labour's throat and ultimately their 
own by practising intimidation to dissuade 
workers from joining unions". 

The Federation's representative on the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board, Russell 
Harvey, suggested that 99 per cent of 
the petitions filed before the Board by 
employees opposing certification were 
company-inspired. 

The delegates demanded a change in 
the Ontario Labour Relations Act to make 
it mandatory for the provincial Minister 
of Labour to appoint a commission to 
investigate charges of discrimination. 

A suggestion that a union be free to 
strike 60 days after it has applied for 
conciliation, even if no agreement has been 
reached, was made during a debate on the 
slowness of conciliation proceedings. Com- 
plaining that often the Labour Relations 
Board handed down its findings months 
after an application for conciliation had 
been made, the convention demanded 
changes in the provincial labour code. It 
asked that conciliation services be speeded 
up, that the terms of all re-negotiated 
contracts be retroactive by law to the date 
of expiration of the old agreement, and 
that the building trades be excluded from 
the provisions of the Act. 

Demands of past years for changes in 
the Labour Relations Act were renewed 
at the convention. The delegates asked 
that certification be given to a union 
receiving the majority of votes cast, that 
employers be banned from applying for 
decertification of unions, that employers be 
prevented from interfering with wage rates 
and working conditions after a union applies 
for certification, and that the Labour 
Relations Board be permitted to issue 



1008 



orders to employers to cease unfair 
practices where such complaints are made. 
It also suggested that all interventions to 
a union application for certification be 
individually signed by the employees and 
that they be thoroughly investigated by 
the Board before being given recognition. 

Payment of unemployment insurance 
funds to workers who are idled because 
of illness was proposed by TLC President 
Percy Bengough. This extension of the 
present Unemployment Insurance Act, he 
said, would constitute a modified national 
health program. 

Mr. Bengough said that this was some- 
thing less than what labour wanted but 
was something that could be brought into 
operation with little delay and at much less 
cost than a full national health scheme. 
A small contribution on the part of the 
worker, in addition to what is already being 
paid for unemployment insurance, he said, 
would more than meet the cost. He 
pointed out that the machinery is already 
in existence through the present nation- 
wide unemployment insurance organization. 

The establishment of physical treatment 
hospitals in conjunction with regular 
hospitals was proposed by John Cauley, 
Vice-Chairman of the Ontario Workmen's 
Compensation Board, as a means of pro- 
viding better care for injured workmen and 
reducing overall cost of hospitalization. 

Mr. Cauley spoke of the success of the 
Workmen's Compensation Board physical 
treatment centre at Malton, Ont., in oper- 
ation since July 1, 1947. He said this 
centre was started to show that physical 
medical help could get workers back on 
the job quicker and reduce the degree of 
permanent disability. 

Under the plan proposed by the com- 
pensation board official, patients would go 
into an active hospital for necessary 
surgery or medical treatment and then, in 
as short a time as possible, would be 
transferred to the physical treatment centre 
where a staff of therapists and doctors 
would supervise recuperation. Mr. Cauley 
said the cost per patient at the Malton 
centre is $5.50 compared with the $11 and 
$15.50 cost in an active hospital. 

Condemning the Ontario Government 
for its present housing policy, the conven- 
tion renewed its demands for a joint 
low-rental program by federal, provincial 
and municipal Governments. 

A resolution was passed demanding 
government legislation to limit passenger 
overcrowding in public transit vehicles. 
Another resolution requested a royal 
commission to investigate conditions in 



grain elevators throughout the province in 
order to avert explosions such as happened 
at Port Arthur last September. 

Other resolutions passed at the conven- 
tion included: a request that labour history 
be made a subject for required study in all 
primary and secondary schools and in 
colleges; a request for a 40-hour week in 
all industries, a $30 minimum wage for 
women workers and a work week of not 
more than 48 hours for firemen; a request 
for improvements in the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act and the setting up of safety 
committees in all departments of industry; 
and a demand for greater assistance to 
municipalities in the province under the 
new tax agreement with the federal 
Government. 

The convention also called upon the 
Ontario Government to control the amount 
of transient labour coming into the prov- 
ince, asked the federal Government to 
require employers to sign for acceptance 
of unemployment insurance books, and 
suggested that the number of stamps 
required in these books be lowered from 
180 to 100. 

The delegates instructed their executive 
to extend the use and display of union 
labels, and called upon the provincial 
Government to require employers to give 
at least seven days' notice of layoffs, to 
require newspapers and radio stations to 
give equal space or time for statements 
by unions or companies in labour disputes, 
and to eliminate discrimination between 
male and female employees. 

President A. F. Mac Arthur of Toronto 
and Vice-President A. W. Godfrey of Fort 
William, I. M. Dodds of Windsor and 
William Boothroyd of Toronto were all 
re-elected. John Hancock of Hamilton was 
chosen secretary-treasurer. 

Quebec Provincial Federation of Labour (TLC) 

The principal objective of the unions 
affiliated with the Quebec Provincial 
Federation of Labour (TLC) during the 
coming 12 months will be to obtain the 
greatest possible security in employment. 
This was the policy stated by Roger 
Provost, re-elected President of the organ- 
ization, at its 16th annual convention at 
St. Jerome early in June. 

"At the present time," said Mr. Provost, 
"what the workers need most is security — 
economic security — through a decent wage 
and continuity of employment." 

It was therefore agreed by the 400 dele- 
gates attending the convention that all 
unions affiliated with the Quebec Provincial 
Federation of Labour will try, during the 



1009 



coming year, to secure a guaranteed work 
week for all workers represented by them. 
It was also decided to give serious con- 
sideration to a plan for a guaranteed annual 
wage for all workers now paid by the hour. 

The delegates appealed to the provincial 
authorities for free, compulsory schooling 
and asked them to have home-work 
abolished and that all studying be done 
at school, since in the home today there 
is no study room, and too many distrac- 
tions. 

The Federation protested against the 
period of 90 days now allowed an arbitra- 
tion court to make recommendations for 
settling labour disputes, requesting that the 
maximum time allowed be only 30 days. 
The delegates would also like to see 
reduced from 14 to 7 the number of days 
which must elapse between the date of 
publication of an arbitration report and the 
time when a strike can be legally declared. 

The Federation also decided to do all 
it can to obtain equality of wages for 
workers in the province of Quebec with 
those in Ontario. 

Other resolutions adopted by the conven- 
tion included requests for an increase in 
family allowances and workmen's compen- 
sation; compulsory deduction at the 
source of union dues in all companies 
where the majority of the employees 
belong to a certified union; the setting 
up of permanent labour courts in all 
judicial districts in the province; an amend- 
ment to the penal code to permit the 
holding of a provincial lottery; and the 
passing of an Act by the provincial 
Government obliging all employers to pay 
their employees every week, and in cash 
instead of by cheque. 

In addition to re-electing Mr. Provost to 
the presidency, the Federation chose a new 
Secretary-Treasurer, Robert Levesque, to 
replace Adrien Villeneuve. 

The following vice-presidents complete 
the slate of officers: Harry Bell, Quebec; 
Roger Labrie, Three Rivers; Rene 
Fournier, GranD}'; Sylvio Charron, Gati- 
neau; Edouard Larose and R. M. Bennett, 
Montreal ; Marcel Charbonneau, St. Jerome ; 
and Oscar Longtin, Valleyfield. 

Quebec Federation of Industrial Unions (CCL) 

The new Quebec Federation of Industrial 
Unions (CCL), holding its first annual con- 
vention at St. Jean early in June, took one 
of its first major decisions: to take an 
active interest in political action. 



The 145 delegates also decided to censure 
publicly the part the provincial and muni- 
cipal police are being made to play in 
strikes; to ask for the appointment of one 
of their members as a representative on the 
Labour Relations Board; and to present 
numerous resolutions to the provincial 
Government concerning labour legislation 
and political problems of general interest. 

R. J. (Doc) Lamoureux, United Steel- 
workers of America, was unanimously 
elected President — a position he has held 
since the foundation of the Federation last 
December (L.G., Jan., p. 17). 

In coming out in favour of political 
action, the Federation also decided to ask 
its members to make a voluntary contribu- 
tion for the setting up of a fund to 
finance the political action program which 
it intends to carry into effect. 

In their study of the problems which 
must be faced by labour organizations in 
Quebec, the delegates paid special atten- 
tion to the role of the various police forces 
in strikes. The Federation passed three 
resolutions requesting that policemen who 
are charged with the supervision of strikes 
should not carry firearms; that detectives 
from private agencies should not have the 
right to interfere in industrial disputes; and 
protesting against the arbitrary interven- 
tion of the provincial police in strikes, 
calling on "those who are authorized to 
enforce the law to abide by it themselves". 

The new Federation also renewed its 
request that the provincial Government 
choose a third labour representative for 
the Labour Relations Board from among 
the members of the industrial unions. 

Other resolutions asked the Labour Rela- 
tions Board to make serious efforts to 
check the expansion of company unions, to 
punish dismissals for union activity and to 
shorten delays in the proceedings. The 
Federation also requested the re-writing of 
the Workmen's Compensation Act, the 
setting up of a provincial health insurance 
scheme and a federal conference at which 
all who are interested in the slump in the 
textile industry could discuss the best 
solutions. 

In addition to Mr. Lamoureux, the 
officers chosen by the Federation for the 
coming year are as follows: J. P. Tessier 
(CBRE), Hyman Reiff (ACWA) and 
Romeo Leroux (CCL), Vice-presidents; 
Romeo Mathieu (UPWA), Secretary- 
Treasurer; Henri Jean (IUE), L. Mc- 
Cormack (UMW), D. Archambault (UAW), 
G. Freve (ACWA), R. Goedike (Brewers), 
R. Martin (IWA) and L. Packwood 
(OWIU), Directors. 



1010 



Report of the New Brunswick 

Department of Labour for 1952 

Good labour relations, increasing enrolment of apprentices, en- 
couraging results from safety research, highlights of year's activities 



Good labour relations, an increasing 
enrolment of apprentices, and encouraging 
results from the first three months' opera- 
tion of a research project in industrial 
safety were among the developments 
reported by the New Brunswick Depart- 
ment of Labour in its review of activities 
during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1952. 

The Department is responsible for the 
administration of the Factories Act, the 
Stationary Engineers' Act, the Apprentice- 
ship Act, the Labour Relations Act, the 
Minimum Wage Act, the Industrial 
Standards Act and the Trades Examination 
Act. 

New Legislation 

A general revision of the New Brunswick 
Statutes was completed at the 1952 session 
of the Legislature. The principal changes 
in labour legislation consisted of amend- 
ments to the Labour Relations Act (L.G., 
1952, p. 1603), 

Labour Relations 

Nineteen requests were granted during 
the year for a conciliation officer or a 
conciliation board to assist in settling 
disputes. Conciliation boards were estab- 
lished in six disputes; in four disputes 
an Industrial Inquiry Commission was 
appointed. 

"In many cases," the report states, "there 
was found to be an almost complete lack 
of real collective bargaining, prior to or 
during the early stages of conciliation, the 
parties to the disputes showing a definite 
tendency to rely on the conciliation officer 
or conciliation board for settlement of their 
difficulties." 

In spite of this increased demand for 
conciliation services, labour relations were 
good generally. Only four strikes occurred, 
resulting in a time-loss of 6,100 man- 
working days. 

Increased activity in union organizing is 
indicated by the 55 applications received 
by the Labour Relations Board for certifi- 
cation of bargaining agents. Of these, 32 
were granted, five dismissed, four with- 
drawn and 14 were pending at the end of 



the year. There were three applications 
for revocation of certification of bargain- 
ing agents, one of which was granted and 
two dismissed. 

The Board's order certifying Local No. 4 
of the Canadian Fish Handlers' Union as 
bargaining agent for the employees of 
Gorton-Pew (New Brunswick) Limited was 
later quashed by the New Brunswick 
Appeal Court on the grounds that the 
Board had failed to make a proper inquiry 
into the qualifications of the applicant 
union, which, in the view of the court, 
was not a properly constituted trade union 
(L.G, 1952, p. 613). The text of the 
written reasons for its decision to grant 
certification which the Board issued in this 
case is set forth in the report. 

The Board granted one union applica- 
tion for leave to prosecute an employer 
for an alleged unfair labour practice. No 
court action, however, was taken by the 
union. 

Minimum Wages 

During the year departmental inspectors 
made many investigations of alleged viola- 
tions in addition to the usual routine 
inspections. 

A new minimum wage order providing 
for a minimum wage of 55 cents an hour 
for all male employees engaged in the 
canning or processing of fish, vegetables or 
fruits went into effect on July 9, 1951 (L.G., 
1951, p. 1394). 

Industrial Standards 

Renewals of industrial standards schedules 
for the carpentry and plumbing and pipe- 
fitting trades in the Saint John zone put 
into effect higher minimum wage rates. A 
schedule covering the electrical trade in 
Moncton was renewed without change. 
Schedules were issued for the first time in 
the electrical, painting, decorating and 
paper-hanging trades in the Saint John 
area and in the plumbing and steamfitting 
trade in the Moncton zone. 

Numerous inspections and investigations 
were made by inspectors on the recom- 
mendations of the Advisory Committees 



1011 



and in only one case was it necessary to 
take court action for violation of a 
schedule. 

Factory Inspection 

Inspection of 676 plants employing 18,725 
men and 6,656 women during the year 
resulted in 654 recommendations for an 
improvement in existing conditions. In 
some cases the provision of better 
machinery safeguards was recommended; in 
others, recommendations had to do with 
properly equipped welfare facilities and 
proper safety clothing and equipment, 
improvement in ventilation and heating, 
reduction of the working hours of women 
and young persons, the inspection of boilers 
and pressure vessels, and the licensing of 
stationary engineers and boilermen. 

Industrial Safety Research— An impor- 
tant development in the safety work of the 
Department was the experimental program 
undertaken in co-operation with the New 
Brunswick Power Commission to control 
accidents within the Commission's opera- 
tions. The project is the first step in an 
attempt to reduce the number of accidents 
in industry generally. 

In August 1951, the Minister of Labour 
invited representatives of the New Bruns- 
wick Accident Prevention Association and 
the Workmen's Compensation Board to 
meet with him and officials of his Depart- 
ment to discuss improved methods of 
controlling accidents in industry. A six- 
man working committee, representative of 
all groups concerned, was established to 
make definite plans to assist industry in 
reducing accidents to a minimum. 

At the first meeting of the committee 
the proposed safety program for the New 
Brunswick Power Commission outlined by 
the Department of Labour representatives 
was adopted with some suggested changes. 
The committee was of the opinion that the 
practical experience with safety matters 
gained in this experiment might enable the 
Department to work out a model safety 
program which could be made available to 
other industries. 

The initial work undertaken was the 
analysis by an official of the Department 
of Labour of each accident that occurred 
to employees of the Commission during 
1950 and 1951. The results of this 
preliminary survey indicated that 88 per 
cent of the Commission's occupational 
accidents were caused chiefly by the unsafe 
acts of persons, only about 12 per cent by 
unsafe conditions or by a lack of proper 
safety equipment. It was therefore 
decided that efforts should be directed 



towards the elimination of these unsafe acts 
by basing the program on education and 
discipline. A series of charts were pre- 
pared for the use of supervisors and 
employees showing the cause of accidents 
and where and how they happened. The 
supervisors were asked to state how, in 
their opinion, the accidents could have 
been prevented. 

The results of this program for the 
first three months of its operation, from 
January 1 to March 31, 1952, the report 
states, were most encouraging. There was 
a 12 per cent reduction in the frequency 
of accidents and a 95 per cent reduction 
in the amount paid out by the Workmen's 
Compensation Board for accidents to 
employees of the Commission. 

Employment of Children — Local advisory 
committees continued to assist the Depart- 
ment in administering Section 6 of the 
Factories Act, which prohibits the employ- 
ment in factories of children under 16 years 
of age without the written authorization of 
the Minister of Labour. These advisory 
committees, which are representative of the 
local school authorities, the local police, the 
Juvenile Courts and societies interested in 
child welfare, deal with applications in their 
respective localities and make recommenda- 
tions to the Minister. 

At the end of the year under review, 
local child employment committees were 
operating in Saint John, Shippigan, 
Moncton, Baie St. Anne, St. Stephen and 
Grand Manan. Where there is no local 
advisory committee, each application for 
permission to work must be accompanied 
by written consent of the parents or 
guardian of the child and of the local 
school authorities. 

Boiler Inspection 

During the year, 346 uninsured boilers 
and 1,132 uninsured pressure vessels were 
inspected and inspection certificates issued. 
During the same period, a total of 2,136 
licences and 17 certificates of competency, 
either new or renewals, were issued to 
stationary engineers and boilermen. 

Apprenticeship Training 

The increase in the number of certificates 
of completion of apprenticeship issued 
during the year, and in the enrolment of 
apprentices in almost all trades, indicated 
"that the apprenticeship training program 
is proving in practice to be a sound way 
of training tradesmen". At March 31, 
1952, there were 662 active apprentices, an 
increase of 165 over the number in 1951. 
In the comparatively short time the 



1012 



Department has been carrying on appren- 
ticeship work there has been a steady 
increase in the number of employers and 
employees who are ready to co-operate in 
producing better tradesmen. 

The Department continued to conduct 
full-time pre-employment training classes 
for persons wishing to become apprentices. 
The usual length of this type of training 
was six months, during which period the 
trainees were paid subsistence allowances. 
By the end of the year under review 33 
young men were taking pre-employment 
training in the following trades: carpentry, 
motor vehicle repair, auto body and 
fender repair welding, electrical, cabinet 
making and machine shop. 

The policy of requiring trainees, in order 
to become eligible for allowances, to be 
sponsored by an employer who would give 
reasonable assurance that he would accept 
the trainee as an apprentice on the com- 
pletion of his course, was found to be too 
restrictive in practice. Discussions were 
under way at the end of the year to 
modify this policy. 

Full-time refresher courses in the trades 
of motor vehicle repair, electrical, machinist, 
auto body and fender repair, millwright 
and carpentry were given to 21 indentured 
apprentices. These courses lasted from 
three to 13 weeks, depending on the 
requirements of the apprentice at the 
particular time and on the arrangement 
that could be made for his release by his 
employer. 

A total of 255 apprentices attended the 
part-time classes of four hours per week 
in trade theory and practical work con- 
ducted in various centres throughout the 
province during the winter of 1951-1952. 

The correspondence school courses, which 
were used in centres where no facilities for 
part-time classes were available, are largely 
being replaced by the self-study courses 
prepared by the Apprenticeship Branch. 
These courses, together with part-time 
classes and full-time refresher courses, are 
proving to be a more effective method of 
training. Correspondence courses are still 
being provided, however, for switchboard 
operators and stationary engineers. 

The same methods of training have also 
been found more satisfactory for appren- 



tices indentured' with the New Brunswick 
Electric Power Commission. Correspond- 
ence courses are still available to the 
Commission's apprentice switchboard oper- 
ators and stationary engineers in remote 
centres. A self-study course for apprentice 
linemen to replace the correspondence 
course formerly used is being drawn up by 
the Apprenticeship Branch in co-operation 
with the New Brunswick Commission and 
the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario. 

The Director of Apprenticeship and the 
field staff continued to give careful atten- 
tion to training on the job, which they 
consider to be the most important phase 
of the apprentice's training. The progress 
record booklets of each apprentice are 
checked regularly by the field supervisor 
and transfers from one employer to another 
are arranged for the apprentice when an 
employer is not able to provide him with 
satisfactory training. The supervisors also 
continue to assist in smoothing out differ- 
ences which may arise between an appren- 
tice and his employer and make every 
effort to ensure that both parties accept 
their responsibilities as laid down in the 
contract of apprenticeship. 

Progress is noted in the preparation of 
training syllabi. A draft "Outline of the 
Auto Body and Fender Repair Trade and 
Progress Record of an Apprentice" was 
issued to all indentured apprentices and a 
revision of the "Outline of the Carpentry 
Trade" was under consideration at the end 
of the year. 

The Director of Apprenticeship convened 
a number of meetings with representatives 
of employers and employees in various 
centres to discuss mutual problems. Many 
improvements were made as a result of 
these discussions. Following consultation 
with employer and employee representa- 
tives in the motor vehicle repair trade, a 
great deal of work was accomplished 
preparatory to the setting up of local trade 
advisory committees in the trade. 

Certification of Electricians 

Of the 64 candidates examined under 
the Trades Examination Act for certificates 
of qualification in the electrical trade, 40 
were successful. 



Personal disposable income of Canadians in 1952 — that is, personal income less 
personal direct taxes — rose by $1,070,000,000 or seven per cent over 1951. At the same 
time, personal expenditure rose by $1,037,000,000, leaving personal saving relatively 
unchanged at $1,419,000,000, compared with $1,386,000,000 in 1951. 

— Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 

1013 



International 
Labour Organization 



Minister of Labour Addresses 

International Labour Conference 

Tells 36th Session that important thing in efforts to increase pro- 
ductivity is to make sure all share in the benefits. Claude Jodoin, 
Canadian workers' delegate, joins him in endorsing assistance plans 



Speaking at the 36th session of the 
International Labour Conference at Geneva, 
the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of 
Labour, told the assembled delegates that 
the "important thing" in efforts to increase 
productivity was "to strive to establish the 
general conditions whereby each group in 
the country may have confidence that it 
shares equitably, directly and indirectly, in 
the general economic improvement". A 
total of 570 titular delegates and advisers 
from 58 member countries attended the 
General Conference which began its sessions 
June 4. 

Mr. Gregg pointed out that the conven- 
tions, recommendations and declarations 
adopted by the ILO were visible symbols 
of the "only kind of war we all like to 
fight — the war against poverty and social 
injustice". The Minister stated that the 
spirit of understanding in which the various 
delegates assembled was even more 
important, for it was through understanding 
and a sharing of ideas in the common 
efforts to succeed that the barriers of 
language, training and custom would be 
overcome. 

Referring to the annual report of the 
director-general, David A. Morse, the 
Minister noted that the special theme this 
year was productivity and he expressed the 
hope that the report would do much to 
dispel uncertainties on the part of labour, 
management and government which might 
otherwise cause them to support measures 
which thwarted rather than encouraged 
increased productivity. Mr. Gregg added 
that productivity had different aspects in 
different countries and was dependent upon 
such matters as the degree of industrial- 
ization. He noted that Canada was a 
country in the midst of a rapid industrial 
expansion. 

Because Canada's growth was partly due 
to manpower and capital from beyond her 
borders and because much of her national 



income was derived from international 
trade, Canada was "firmly pledged to inter- 
national co-operation in this field — through 
the study not only of tariff and monetary 
questions, but also of the means whereby 
each country can maintain high employ- 
ment and income levels," Mr. Gregg added. 

The Minister pointed out that Canada as 
a nation had everything to gain from the 
success of the ILO's objectives, not only 
within her own boundaries but in other 
countries as well, and gave her support to 
such schemes as technical assistance and to 
other "form of aid" which were designed 
to increase productivity in those areas and 
countries where there was a special need 
for industrial development. 

The ILO, Mr. Gregg continued, says to 
all who are concerned with productivity 
not only "How can productivity be 
increased?" but also "For whose benefit 
do we seek to raise productivity?" This 
is "a challenge to the conscience that can- 
not be ignored," he added. 

"Though we would all agree," the Min- 
ister went on, "that benefits should go as 
widely as possible to all who have a stake 
in an enterprise, as well as to members of 
the community as a whole, there is much 
room for discussion as to the means by 
which this may best be doiK " Such 
discussion should not take place Horn any 
narrow viewpoint, he cautioned. 

"Any attempt to determine the precise 
ratio in which rewards should accrue is 
doomed to failure," he declared. "The 
important thing is to strive to establish the 
general conditions whereby each group in 
the country may have confidence that it 
shares equitably, directly or indirectly, in 
the general economic improvement." 

Pointing out that productivity gains can 
reach their maximum only with the "full 
consent" of those engaged in the produc- 
tion processes, Mr. Gregg declared that "we 
must ever keep in mind the human factors 
involved". 



1014 



Approve Recommendation Fixing Minimum Age in Coal Mines 



The general conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, at the 
end of its first week of deliberations, 
gave its approval to a formal Recom- 
mendation fixing 16 years as the 
minimum age for underground work in 
coal mines. The Recommendation was 
referred to the Conference drafting 
committee for final editing and will 
come before the Conference again for 
a recorded vote, in which a two-thirds' 
majority of the votes cast will be 
required for its final adoption. 

Under the ILO's constitution, mem- 
ber countries are obliged to consider 
Recommendations with a view to giving 
effect to them by legislation or other 
action. They are not, however, subject 



to ratification as are'ILO Conventions. 

The Recommendation was approved 
by the Conference on the unanimous 
recommendation of the government- 
employer-worker committee which exam- 
ined the proposal for its adoption. 

Speaking in the discussion of the 
committee's report, Geoffrey C. Veysey, 
British Under-Secretary of Labour and 
National Service, said that adoption of 
the Recommendation "should constitute 
a real step forward in safeguarding the 
well-being of young workers in coal 
mines". He pointed out that a con- 
siderable amount of coal was mined in 
countries where the minimum age was 
below the standard of 16 proposed in 
the text. 



"Opportunities for economic improve- 
ment must be available, not only for 
industrial enterprise, but also for every 
member of the community," Mr. Gregg 
continued. Governments can assist greatly 
in creating a favourable climate for enter- 
prise, he explained, through their economic 
and social policies, through their provision 
of research facilities, of educational and 
training opportunities, together with skilled 
job-counselling and placement services, and 
in many other ways. 

As a foundation upon which individuals 
and business could base increased produc- 
tivity, Mr. Gregg pointed to the overall 
objective of a "sound minimum level of 
economic security for all people". The 
maintenance of a high level of employment 
and income should be our goal. As a 
corollary to effective collective bargaining, 
the Minister called for a "solid body of 
protective legislation — for both workers and 
employers" This should include minimum 
wage le j,cion, workmen's compensation, 
unemployment insurance, factory inspec- 
tion, and the protection of the health and 
safety of workers, Mr. Gregg said. 

Apart from legislation, the Minister cited 
the importance of fostering the kind of 
labour-management relations that would 
tend towards higher productivity and a fair 
distribution of the benefits. This depended 
to a considerable extent upon the existence 
of a "free, strong and independent trade 
union movement," the Minister stated. 
Canada, he noted, has endeavoured to 
realize such objectives. 

Mr. Gregg then listed some of the 
measures Canada has undertaken to estab- 



lish a basic level of economic and social 
security and to foster good labour- 
management relations. These included the 
expansion of employment opportunities for 
certain groups who have particular 
problems, such as disabled workers, female 
workers and older workers; the co-ordina- 
tion on a national scale of efforts to 
rehabilitate disabled employees; the study 
of the role of the older worker whose- 
retirement at a specified age is not 
always the "desirable objective", the 
approval of Parliament to establish within 
the federal Department of Labour a 
women's bureau; the enactment of federal 
legislation forbidding discrimination by 
employers or unions against any person 
on account of race, creed, colour or 
national origin; and the tension of social 
security measures. 

In Mr. Gregg's opinion, one of the 
greatest hopes for continued gains in 
productivity lay in the field of industrial 
relations. Referring again to Canada, he 
stated that the objectives of collective 
bargaining have been sought for the most 
part without government intervention. 

The Labour Minister pointed out that 
Canadian labour relations legislation is 
designed to establish orderly procedures to 
aid labour and management in those 
instances where they are unable to reach 
an agreement by themselves; the Gov- 
ernment exercises no form of compulsion 
as to what the exact contents of a 
collective agreement should be. 

"We find that freely-negotiated deci- 
sions, crucial to our economic welfare, are 
being made in thousands of separate agree- 



75802—4 



1015 



Three Speakers at 
International Labour 
Conference, Geneva 








Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, attended 
some of the early sessions of the International Labour 
Conference, delivered an address at June 8 session. 



ments, each attuned to the needs of a 
particular project and community, and 
each contributing its part to a complex 
national pattern," he said. 

Mr. Gregg stated that when the worker, 
through joint consultation machinery, is 
able to invoke the grievance and other 
clauses in his contract to maintain his 
rights, he is in a more secure position, 
"and this in itself is usually conducive to 
improved productivity." 

He thought that many employers realize 
that the collective agreement has much 
potential value to management as well as 
to labour. Management's interest is 
increasing in human relations and in the 
factors that make for satisfaction on the 
job and, thus, for good production, accord- 
ing to the Minister. Unions, on the other 
hand, are taking into consideration to a 
greater extent the problems of the 
economy as a whole, of their industry, of 
their community and of their enterprise, 
as well as their own position. 



"It is in this spirit," Mr. Gregg said, 
"that we may begin to feel confident that 
our human, as well as our material 
resources, are being more fully developed 
and utilized to the advantage of all." 

In the expansion of Canada's new 
resources and of her already established 
industries, Mr. Gregg pointed out that 
labour-management relations "have been, 
on the whole, constructive and harmonious. 
Gains in productivity have occurred and 
have been distributed in higher business 
returns, in increased real earnings and in 
more leisure time. This is a tribute to 
both employers and unions," the Minister 
stated. 

The success of collective bargaining is a 
"wholesome alternative" to the doctrines 
of the early revolutionists, Mr. Gregg 
declared. "Whereas they envisaged con- 
st an 1 conflict, to be resolved through an 
overthrow of the economic system, we see 



1016 






Senator Irving Ives of New York (left), head of the United States Government dele- 
gation to the International Labour Conference, who was elected Conference President, 
is shown discussing the agenda with the Director-General of the ILO, David A. Morse. 



this freedom for sections in our economic 
community to gather for constructive 
discussion, to put forward their views 
openly and fearlessly, and to reach 
mutually acceptable compromises as the 
very basis of our Canadian society. 

"Free and frank discussions, carried on in 
an organized way, which we know today 
as collective bargaining, are tangible expres- 
sions of our democratic life." 

While it has been argued that economic 
systems such as ours contain such inherent 
contradictions that eventually they must 
perish, Mr. Gregg thought the evidence of 
recent years plainly indicated that we have 
a flexible rather than a rigid system that, 
utilized with integrity and good will, can 
adjust itself to meet any problems that 
may arise and, at the same time, carry 
us forward in the traditions of freedom. 

The objectives in labour-management 
relations he mentioned have not been fully 
realized in Canada, the Minister said, but 
they are reflections of an encouraging 



75802—41 



attitude emerging in Canadian society. 
This attitude is not something imposed 
on the people by the Government; it is 
something that is finding its own growth 
in a spirit of compromise and under the 
urge of freedom. 

In this spirit, Canada continues to share 
in programs designed to lay a secure and 
permanent foundation for world peace, Mr. 
Gregg stated. 

Claude Jodoin 

Canada's workers' delegate, Claude Jodoin, 
Vice-President of the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada, pointed out to the 
Conference that in the field of social 
security Canada "made some progress" but 
still had "a long way to go". He 
enumerated the improvements Canadian 
labour would like to have made in old 
age pensions, widowed mothers' allow- 
ances, unemployment insurance and 
national health insurance. 

1017 



Mr. Jodoin said that the Canadian 
Government, which he described as "the 
largest single employer in Canada," had 
consistently refused to take the lead in 
employment conditions and in rates of 
remuneration but recently had been 
making substantial strides towards better- 
ing the working conditions of its employees. 
"In this," he stated, "it seems fair to say 
that our Government has been guided in 
large part by the basic decisions reached" 
in ILO conferences. 

Both the Government and private 
employers in Canada had been influenced 
'in the best sense" by the deliberations 
and conclusions of the ILO, he declared. 

"We in Canada have readily subscribed 
to the value and desirability of assistance 
to those countries with special need for 
industrial development," Mr. Jodoin said. 
"In seeking economic security and a rising 
standard of living for ourselves we recog- 
nize that this can never be fully accom- 
plished while others in other countries are 
without either. We know full well that 
dictatorship of whatever sort, be it of the 
right or left, feeds and fattens on starving, 
frustrated and insecure people. 

"Freedom reaches its fullness of stature 
in conditions of economic security and 
rising living standards. Peace will begin 
to have practical meaning only when the 
whole world has a full dinner pail." 
Canadians, he added, fully endorse the 
assistance programs and are ready and 
willing to give them the greatest possible 
support. 

"The workers of Canada are proud of 
their participation in the work of the 
ILO." Mr. Jodoin said in conclusion. 
"The Organization has proved in the past 
the necessity of its existence for fostering 
co-operation and understanding between 
races all over the world." 

Senator Ives, Conference President 

In an address after his unanimous elec- 
tion as President of the Conference, 
Irving M. Ives, senior Senator from New 



York, told the delegates that "no agree- 
ments among men can be lasting unless 
they are entered into willingly and with 
a sense of justice". 

He added: "A compact forced upon one 
party by another, or forced upon both by 
a third party, is not a compact at all — 
it is duress." He expressed the hope that 
eventually "reason, intelligence and good- 
will" would entirely replace compulsion. 

Senator Ives brought to the Conference 
the greetings and good wishes of President 
Eisenhower, who felt that the delegates 
could look confidently to the future with 
the knowledge that the ILO was an 
influential organization in world affairs and 
had accomplished much. 

Senator Ives concluded his remarks by 
noting that states could not isolate them- 
selves from "economic illness" within other 
countries and pointed out that the ILO 
had always known that prosperity could 
be neither isolated nor confined to any one 
group. 

Warning About Mass Unemployment 

A warning to the delegates to be on the 
alert against mass unempkonnent was 
sounded by A. A. Van Rhijn, Netherlands 
Secretary of State for Social Affairs, who 
stated that there was always the possibility 
of "new recessions which might spread ail 
over the world like an oil stain". 

He expressed the hope that as soon as 
defence programs were completed, produc- 
tion of war materials might be reduced. 
He further expressed concern over the 
international trade picture and pointed out 
that Europe desired trade and not aid. 

Canadian Participation 

The Canadian delegates to the Confer- 
ence were participating in the discussions 
of the following committees: resolutions, 
workers' health, minimum age in coal 
mines, the committee on labour depart- 
ments and the committee on the com- 
position of the ILO Governing Body. 



A milestone in the efforts of the International Labour Organization extending over 
34 years to improve the working conditions of women was reached May 23 of this year. 
On that date, an international convention came into force which binds countries ratifying 
it to promote equal pay for men and women for work of equal value. 

The covention is No. 100 in a series of 103 such international agreements adopted 
by the ILO since 1919. Its main provision declares that each member country shall, "by 
means appropriate to the methods in operation for determining rates of remuneration, 
promote and, in so far as is consistent with such methods, ensure the application to all 
workers of the principle of equal remuneration for men and women workers for work of 
equal value. 



1018 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



For the 27th consecutive year, the 
System Committee, Canadian National 
Railway Union-Management Co-operative 
Movement, Motive Power and Car Equip- 
ment Section, held its annual meeting in 
Montreal recently. A. C. Melanson, chief 
of the section, expressed to the repre- 
sentatives of the shop craft unions man- 
agement's appreciation of the co-operation 
extended by the employees during the 
year. He drew particular attention to the 
difficult period of transition from steam to 
diesel power. During his address, Mr. 
Melanson reviewed the task of re-organiz- 
ing steam repair facilities in the various 
shops in order to handle diesel operations 
and said that the co-operation of the shop- 
crafts has assured the success of the 
program. 

Speaking on behalf of the employees, 
J. J. Cuppello, President, Canadian 
National Railway System Federation No. 
11, Railroad Employees Department, Divi- 
sion No. 4, AFL, expressed his pleasure 
at management's appreciation of past 
co-operation and felt certain that it would 
be maintained. He said that the oppor- 
tunity for labour and management to 
consult together, afforded by the co- 
operative committees, was greatly prized by 
the employees. 

* * * 

Writing in the Co-operator, published by 
the Industry Council Association of New 
York, Pat Conroy, Canadian Labour 
Attache in Washington, has evaluated the 
work of Labour-Management Production 
Committees in Canada. Mr. Conroy, a 
former member of the Labour-Management 
Co-operation Service Advisory Committee, 
has been closely associated with this work. 
Mr. Conroy said, in part: — 

"The joint production committees are 
establishing a day-to-day permanent means 
of communication between labour and 
management. By working together, they 
get to know one another. Surprisingly 
enough, in most cases, through the joint 
production committees, labour and manage- 
ment men are finding out that both are 
not nearly as bad as they had painted 
themselves, and that they can talk to each 
other in broader terms than in the con- 



fined area of reference to each other's 
ancestors. 

"The joint committees are a leavening 
force in industrial, relations. They are 
helping in this all-important field, where 
the temptation is to do damage in place 
of good. They are helping production also, 
but that — curiously enough — is at first 
glance a secondary consideration. 

"Joint production committees are no 
new wonder drug. They do not offer over- 
night results. They will not change the 
face of the earth. They are not a panacea. 

"They are, by the test of experience, a 
good, sound, and constructive aid to assist 
people to work together. Every nation and 
people must find the means best suited to 
this end. We in Canada believe that joint 
production committees have proved to be 
beneficial. We intend to continue them, 
enlarging their numbers and making them 
work better for the whole community." 
* * * 

The British Productivity Council, 
successor to the Anglo-American Produc- 
tivity Council, has launched a campaign 
to raise the level of productivity and 
industrial efficiency in all trades and 
services in Great Britain. The attitude 
of the Trades Union Congress General 
Council to the campaign was defined by 
Sir Lincoln Evans, General Secretary of the 
Iron and Steel Trades Confederation. Sir 
Lincoln said: — 

"The central purpose of trade unions is 
to obtain, as far as conditions permit, as 
high a standard of living as they can for 
those they represent. This is really the 
be-all and end-all of their existence. Low 
productivity spells low standards, high 
productivity means high standards, or at 
least provides the conditions under which 
they can be obtained." 

The main purpose of the Council is 
to put into operation plans for spreading 
the best industrial "know-how" among 
employers, management, and workers. Co- 
operating in the project are the Trades 
Union Congress, the British Employers 
Confederation, the Federation of British 
Industries, the Association of Chambers of 
Commerce, and the nationalized industries. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



1019 



Industrial Relations 
and 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board 
met for two da}^s during May and issued 
three certificates designating bargaining 
agents. During the month the Board 
received six other applications for 
certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. United Mine Workers of America, 
District 50, Region 75, Local 13735, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Lakes 
and St. Lawrence Navigation Co. Limited, 
Montreal, comprising employees classified 
as first mate, second mate, second engineer, 
and third engineer employed aboard the 
SS. Casco. The application was submitted 
originally in the name of Local 13618 
(L.G., Sept., 1952, p. 1207). 

2. National Association of Broadcast 
Engineers and Technicians, on behalf of 
a unit of miscellaneous classifications of 
employees of Radio Station CKVL, Verdun, 
Que. (L.G., April, p. 574). 

3. Canadian Wire Services Local 213, 
American Newspaper Guild, on behalf of 
a unit of employees of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation, comprising 
employees in the News Service engaged 
in the preparation of news for television 
(L.G., May, p. 697). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, on behalf of a unit of 
unlicensed personnel employed on vessels 
operated by Hall Corporation of Canada, 
Montreal (Investigating Officer : R. 
Trepanier). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



2. United Mine Workers of America, 
District 50, Region 75, Local 13735, on 
behalf of a unit of licensed personnel 
employed on vessels operated by Hall 
Corporation of Canada, Montreal (Investi- 
gating Officer: R. Trepanier). 

3. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, Local 913, on behalf of 
a unit of employees of Eldorado Mining 
and Refining Limited, employed in the 
Company's Beaverlodge Operation at 
Uranium City, Sask. (Investigating Officer: 
J. S. Gunn). 

4. International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Local Union No. 1318, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of the Chronicle Co. 
Ltd., Halifax, employed at Radio Station 
CJCH (Investigating Officer: J. R. Kinley). 

5. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., on behalf of a 
unit of marine engineers and electricians 
employed by Canadian Pacific Steamships 
Limited on deepsea vessels in its Pacific 
service (Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

6. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., on behalf of a 
unit of marine engineers employed by Gulf 
and Lake Navigation Company Limited, 
Montreal, on board the SS. Cedarton and 
SS. Birchton (Investigating Officer: L. 
Pepin). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with the 
following disputes: — 

1. Railway Express Agency, Inc., and 
Brotherhood of Steamship Clerks, Freight 
Handlers, Express and Station Employees 
(Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier). 



2. Canadian National Steamships; Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway Company (B.C. Coast 
Steamship Service) ; Canadian National 
Railways (B.C. Coast and B.C. Lakes, 
Barge and Ferry Service) ; Union Steam- 
ships .Limited; Frank Waterhouse and 
Company of Canada Limited, Vancouver; 
and the Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc. (Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 



1020 



3. National Harbours Board, Halifax, 
and Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
Division 231 (Conciliation Officer: T. D. 
Cochrane). 

4. Canadian National Steamships; Cana- 
dian National Railways (Barge and Ferry 
Service, Port Mann: Barge and Ferry 
Service, Okanagan Lake) ; Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company (B.C. Coast Steamship 
Service); Union Steamships Limited; 
Frank Waterhouse and Company of 
Canada Limited and National Association 
of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

5. Quebec Railway, Light and Power 
Company and National Catholic Transport 
Brotherhood of Quebec, Inc. (Conciliation 
Officer: L. Pepin). 



6. Quebec Railway, Light and Power 
Company and Catholic Syndicate of Garage 
Employees of the Q.R.L. & P. Company, 
Inc. (Conciliation Officer: L. Pepin). 

7. The Brookland Company Limited 
(Radio Station CKWS, Kingston) and the 
National Association of Broadcast Engi- 
neers and Technicians (Conciliation Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough). 

8. The Brookland Company Limited 
(Radio Station CHEX, Peterborough) and 
the National Association of Broadcast 
Engineers and Technicians (Conciliation 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

9. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (Coal and Salt Boats), St. John's 
and Longshoremen's Protective Union 
(Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor). 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction, and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



1021 



10. Newfoundland Coal Company 
(Mechanical Operations), St. John's and 
Longshoremen's Protective Union (Con- 
ciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor). 

11. Canada Steamship Lines Limited; 
Colonial Steamships Limited; N. M. 
Paterson & Sons, Limited; Upper Lakes 
and St. Lawrence Transportation Company 
Limited and the National Association of 
Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. (Con- 
ciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (General Cargo), St. John's and 
Longshoremen's Protective Union (Con- 
ciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (L.G., 
June, p. 873). 

2. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (Coal and Salt Boats), St. John's 
and Longshoremen's Protective Union 
(Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (see 
above). 

3. Newfoundland Coal Company 
(Mechanical Operations), St. John's and 
Longshoremen's Protective Union (Con- 
ciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (see above). 

Conciliation Board Appointed 

Canada Steamship Lines, Limited; 
Colonial Steamships Limited; N. M. 
Paterson & Sons Limited; Upper Lakes 
and St. Lawrence Transportation Company 
Limited, and National Association of 
Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. (see 
above). The Board had not been fully 
constituted at the end of the month. 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with 
matters in dispute between Canadian 
National Newfoundland Steamship Service, 
Canadian National Railway Company and 
Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc. 
(L.G., June, p. 874) was fully constituted 
in May with the appointment of Edmund 
J. Phelan, QC, St. John's Newfoundland, 
as Chairman. Mr. Phelan was appointed 
by the Minister on the joint recommenda- 
tion of the other two members, F. J. Ryan 
and Frank Chafe, both of St. John's, who 
were previously appointed on the nomina- 
tions of the company and the union 
respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with 
matters in dispute between Canada Steam- 
ship Lines Limited, Montreal, and Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., June, 
p. 874) was fully constituted in May with 



the appointment of Eric G. Taylor, 
Toronto, as Chairman. Mr. Taylor was 
appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 
two members, Joseph Sedgwick, QC, 
Toronto and Lucien Tremblay, Montreal, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nominations of the company and the union 
respectively. 

3. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with 
matters in dispute between Colonial Steam- 
ships, Limited; N. M. Paterson & Sons, 
Limited; Upper Lakes and St. Lawrence 
Transportation Company Limited and Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., June, 
p. 874) was fully constituted in May with 
the appointment of Eric G. Taylor, 
Toronto, as Chairman. Mr. Taylor was 
appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 
two members, Joseph Sedgwick, QC, 
Toronto and Mr. Lucien Tremblay, Mont- 
real, who were previously appointed on the 
nominations of the companies and the 
union respectively. 

4. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with 
matters in dispute between National 
Harbours Board, Montreal, and Brother- 
hood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, 
Freight Handlers, Express and Station 
Employees (L.G., June, p. 874) was fully 
constituted in May with the appointment 
of H. Carl Goldenberg, QC, Montreal, as 
Chairman. Mr. Goldenberg was appointed 
by the Minister on the joint recommenda- 
tion of the other two members, K. G. K. 
Baker and Michael Rubinstein, both of 
Montreal, who were previously appointed 
on the nominations of the company and 
the union respectively. 

5. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established to deal with 
matters in dispute between National 
Harbours Board, Quebec, and the Brother- 
hood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, 
Freight IJandlers, Express and Station 
Employees (L.G., June, p. 874) was fully 
constituted in May with the appointment 
of Mr. Justice O. L. Boulanger, Quebec, 
as Chairman. Mr. Justice Boulanger was 
appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 
two members, Jean Turgeon, QC, Quebec, 
and Michael Rubinstein, Montreal, who 
were previously appointed on the nom- 
inations of the company and the union 
respectively. 



1022 



Conciliation Board Report Received 

During May the Minister received the 
report of the Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established in March to deal 
with matters in dispute between Red 
River Grain Company Limited and Malt 
and Grain Process Workers, Local 105, 
International Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers of America (L.G., May, p. 699). 



The text of the. Board's report is repro- 
duced below. 

Settlement Following Board Procedure 

Robin Hood Flour Mills Limited, 
Saskatoon and Moose Jaw, and Locals 342 
and 201, Flour and Cereal Workers' Divi- 
sion of the United Packinghouse Workers 
of America (L.G., March, p. 420). 



Report of Board in Dispute between 



Red River Grain Company Limited 

and 

Malt and Grain Process Workers, Local 105, International 

Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and 

Distillery Workers of America 



The Hon. the Minister of Labour, 
Department of Labour, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 

File 761:76:53 
In the matter of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act and 
dispute affecting Malt and Grain Pro- 
cess Workers, Local 105, International 
Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, 
Soft Drink and Distillery Workers of 
America, applicant, and Red River 
Grain Company Ltd., St. Boniface, 
Manitoba, respondent. 

The Board of Conciliation, established 
to endeavour to effect agreement between 
the above Employer and the Union, begs 
leave to present its report: — 

Members of the Board: 

J. B. Rollit, Chairman. 
Ivan J. R. Deacon, QC, 

Employer's Nominee. 
Harvey Barber, Union's Nominee. 

Appearances: 

For the Company: 
R. P. Dawson. 
H. S. Scarth, QC. 

For the Union: 
A. A. Franklin. 
M. Avanthay. 
J. Proulx. 
J. Ruest. 
E. Winzinowich. 



On May 23, 1953, the Minister of 
Labour received the report of the 
Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion appointed to deal with matters in 
dispute between Malt and Grain Pro- 
cess Workers, Local 105, International 
Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, 
Soft Drink and Distillery Workers of 
America and Red River Grain Com- 
pany Limited, St. Boniface, Man. 

The Board was under the chairman- 
ship of J. B. Rollit, Winnipeg, who was 
appointed by the Minister on the 
joint recommendation of the other two 
members. The nominee of the company 
was Ivan J. R. Deacon, QC, Winnipeg; 
the union nominee was Harvey Barber, 
Winnipeg. 

The text of the Board's report is 
reproduced herewith. 



Sittings: 

The Board held a total of eight sittings, 
including one meeting with the Union, one 
meeting with the Company, and six meet- 
ings of the Board alone. 

Points in Dispute: 

The dispute concerns changes requested 
by the Union in certain clauses of the 
Memorandum of Agreement between the 
Company and the Union, which were put 
forward in accordance with the provisions 
of the Agreement covering termination and 
negotiations to amend. 



75802—5 



1023 



The changes still in dispute at the time 
that the Board was set up were summar- 
ized in a Brief submitted by the Union, 
which reads: — 

"The main issues in the dispute are as 
follows : 

"(1) Hours of Work. Reduction of the 
present 48-hour work week to 44 hours with 
the same take-home pay. 

"(2) An additional Statutory Holiday, the 
first Monday in August, making a total 
of 9. 

"(3) An additional 2 cents per hour night 
premium for the midnight shift, raising the 
present 5-cent premium in this shift from 
5 cents to 7 cents per hour. 

"(4) Wages, (a) The Union requests 10 
cents per hour increase in all rates, after 
adjustments are made in hours as outlined 
in (1). 

(b) That present 1-cent per hour Cost- 
of-Living Bonus for each point rise in the 
Cost-of-Living old Index, be adjusted to 
the new Consumer's Price Index on an 
equivalent basis. 

"(5) Three weeks annual vacation to all 
employees with 10 years' service with the 
Company." 

A sixth point, which had been inadver- 
tently omitted from the written Brief, was 
presented orally: 

"(6) That the foregoing provisions shall 
be retroactive to February 15, 1953." 
(Date of termination of the Agreement.) 

Acknowledgment : 

It is gratifying to report that all deal- 
ings with both parties to this dispute were 
carried out in a friendly and co-operative 
atmosphere. The briefs submitted were 
ably (prepared and ably presented, and the 
Board was provided with all the informa- 
tion, much of it of a highly confidential 
nature, necessary to enable its members to 
reach a decision. 

As the discussions progressed, it became 
evident that it would not be possible to 
bring the parties into agreement on the 
major issues and that it would be necessary 
for the Board to submit its own recom- 
mendations. These are given below. It is 
also gratifying to report that the Members 
were able to reach a unanimous decision 
on all save one of the points in dispute. 

Recommendations : 
A. The Board unanimously recommends: 
(1) Hours of Work — 



That the present basic work week of 48 
hours shall be reduced to a basic work week 
of 45^ hours. 

(2) Statutory Holidays — 

That the first Monday in August, Civic 
Holiday, shall be added to the list of 
Statutory Holidays given in Section 6(a) 
of the Agreement, bringing the number of 
such Statutory Holidays up to nine. 

(3) Premium for Night Work — 

That there shall be no increase in the 
premium of five cents per hour for night 
work, which is provided in Section 7(a) 
of the Agreement. 

(4) (b) Cost-of-Living Bonus — 

That the provisions of the addendum to 
the Wage Schedule in Section 8 of the 
Agreement, covering adjustment of the 
Bonus to conform with the new Con- 
sumer's Price Index, shall be applied. 

(5) Annual Vacations with Pay — 

That employees with ten years' service 
with the Company shall be entitled to 
three weeks' annual vacation with pay. 

(6) Effective Date of Recommendations — 
That the recommendations with respect 

to increase in hourly rates recommended in 
(4) (a), below, shall become effective as of 
April 20, 1953. 

B. The Board is also unanimous in its 
recommendation that the hourly rates given 
in the wage schedule in Section 8 of the 
Agreement should be adjusted to provide 
the same take-home pay for the basic work 
week of 45^ hours as for the present basic 
work week of 48 hours. The Members are, 
however, unable to agree as to what addi- 
tional increase in hourly rates, as requested 
by the Union and opposed by the Com- 
pany, is appropriate. 

(4) (a). On this point (additional in- 
crease), majority and minority recommenda- 
tions are accordingly made: — 

Messrs. Deacon and Rollit recommend 
an increase of two cents per hour on the 
basis of the 45^ hour week, or 91 cents 
per week. 

Mr. Barber recommends an increase of 
six cents per hour on the basis of the 45^ 
hour week, or $2.73 a week. 

(Sgd.) J. B. Rollit, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) Ivan J. R. Deacon, 

Employer's Nominee. 
(Sgd.) Harvey Barber, 

Union's Nominee. 



1024 



Collective Agreements 
and Wage Schedules 



Recent Collective Agreements 



Manufacturing 

Hats and Caps — Quebec and Ontario — 
The Association of Millinery Manu- 
facturers (Quebec and Ontario Divi- 
sions) and The United Hatters, Cap 
and Millinery Workers' International 
Union, Locals 49 (Montreal) and 
46 (Toronto). 

Amendment to the agreements which 
expired February 15, 1952 (for summary of 
Toronto agreement see L.G., Dec. 1950, 
p. 2061) renews the previous agreements, 
with certain changes and additions, for a 
further period of 3 years, commencing 
February 16, 1952, and expiring February 15, 
1955. However, within 60 days prior to 
February 15, 1954, either party may demand 
a revision of wages in the event of a serious 
change in circumstances affecting the welfare 
of either party at that time. 

The amendment consolidates the Montreal 
and Toronto agreements and provides that 
the agreement "shall be deemed a national 
agreement and shall apply mutatis mutandis 
in all respects to the employers and 
employees in both the provinces of Quebec 
and Ontario". 

Escalator clause: twice a year, during the 
months May-June and October-November, 
the union or the employer may demand a 
change in wages if the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics' cost-of-living index increases or 
decreases at least 4 to 5 points above or 
below the figure 189-8 (index figure for 
September 1951), provided that in no case 
shall the decrease in wages exceed the 
amount of any increase granted under this 
clause. 

Pension fund: the parties agree to estab- 
lish pension benefits for employees, members 
of the union. The pension plan will be 
amalgamated with the existing Sick and 
Health Benefit Fund (separately for each 
province) and renamed by some suitable 
name as may be agreed upon. The pension 
plan shall be set up on the basis of pay- 
ments of an annuity of $50 per month to 
employees of retirement age of 65 years, 
who have been employed continuously in the 
industry and who have been members of the 
union for at least 10 years prior to retire- 
ment. The employers will be the sole 
contributors to the amalgamated fund; they 
guarantee that the payment to the amalgam- 
ated fund and benefits to retired workers 
will become effective as and from February 
15, 1953. 

Fine Grade Paper — Ontario and Quebec — 
Certain Fine Grade Paper Companies 
and The International Brotherhood of 
Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, 
International Brotherhood of Paper 
Makers, and International Association 
of Machinists. 

Memorandum of agreement, executed as of 
May 1, 1953, renews the previous agree- 



A file of collective agreements is main- 
tained in the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour. 
These are obtained directly from the 
parties involved and through the Indus- 
trial Relations Branch of the Depart- 
ment. A number of those recently 
received are summarized here. Agree- 
ments made obligatory under the Collec- 
tive Agreement Act in Quebec are 
summarized in a separate article follow- 
ing this. 



ment (see L.G., April, p. 577) between the 
above parties for one year, from May 1, 
1953, to April 30, 1954, with the following 
changes and additions: — 

Hours, overtime and vacation pay: 
effective as of the commencement of the 
first pay period following October 1, 1953, 
the hours of work will be reduced from 44 
to 40 hours per week; corresponding changes 
will be made in the overtime and vacation 
pay provisions. 

Wages: for each straight time hour 
worked between May 1 and October 3, 1953, 
employees will be paid 3 cents per hour, the 
total amount to be payable as a lump sum 
and included in the pay for the period 
commencing October 4, 1953. Effective as 
of the commencement of the first pay period 
following October 1, 1953, the present hourly 
rates of pay will be adjusted by 10 per cent, 
calculated to the nearest full cent. 

A joint committee will be established to 
study the existing rate structures in the 
boiler houses with a view to making 
possible recommendations for consideration. 

Commercial Printing — Montreal, Que. — 
The Employing Printers' Association of 
Montreal Inc. and The International 
Printing Pressmen and - Assistants' 
Union of North America, Local 52. 

Agreement to be in effect from the first 
full payroll period on or following December 
1, 1952, to the last full payroll period pre- 
ceding December 1, 1954, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. 

Union security: the employers agree to 
employ members of the union in good 
standing in their pressroom to cover all 
positions which this agreement contemplates, 
including that of foreman. 

Hours: 8 per day, 5 days or nights per 
week, a 40-hour week. Employees shall not 
be required to work less than a full shift 
in any day or night, except in case of 
emergency. Overtime rates at time and one- 
half for the first 3 hours and double time 
thereafter will be paid for work in excess 
of the regular daily or weekly hours and 
on a regular off-day or off-night, double time 
for all work on Sunday and triple time for 
work on 7 specified paid holidays. In addi- 
tion, employees will be given the afternoon 
of St. John Baptist Day off with pay. In 
French plants 8 specified holidays will be 
observed. • 



75802— 5J 



1025 



Vacations with pay: after one year's 
service 10 days; employees with less than 
one year's service will receive one-half day, 
or pay in lieu thereof, for each 25 days 
worked. 

Minimum hourly wage rates: pressmen- 
cylinder press $1.87!; two-colour press, 
perfecting press, pre-make ready $2,024; 
cotterell press $2.32J; platen press, small 
offset presses up to 14 by 20 inches $1.67J; 
assistants — cylinder and platen $1.62 J; two- 
colour, perfecting $1.67s; apprentices — 31 
per cent of journeyman's rate during first 
6 months, with proportionate increases each 
succeeding 6 months which will provide, 
upon completion of the fourth year, the 
equivalent of the full assistant's scale of 
wages. Each succeeding year for 3 years an 
apprentice pressman shall receive an in- 
crease of one-quarter of the difference 
between the assistant's rate of wages and 
the journeyman pressman's scale until the 
full pressman's rate is reached. The above 
journeyman's and assistant's rates are 7! 
cents per hour higher than the previous 
rates; effective December 1, 1953, these rates 
will be increased by another 7J cents per 
hour. 

Night shift differential: for night work 
journeymen and assistants will be paid 15 
per cent over the day rate. 

Employees who lose situations by reason 
of a consolidation or merger shall be 
entitled to 2 weeks' severance pay at their 
regular rates. 

Apprentices may be employed in the 
following ratio: for the first 2 journeymen 
one apprentice, for each additional 5 
journeymen one apprentice; when 4 appren- 
tices are employed an additional one may 
be employed for each 10 journeymen. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
disputes, seniority rights and complement of 
men on presses. 

Commercial Printing — Montreal, Que. — 
The Employing Printers' Association of 
Montreal Inc. and The International 
Brotherhood of Bookbinders, Local 91. 

Agreement to be in effect from the first 
full payroll period on or following December 
1, 1952, to the last full payroll period pre- 
ceding January 1, 1955, and from year to 
year thereafter, subject to notice. This 
agreement is similar to the one between the 
Employing Printers' Association of Montreal 
Inc. and the International Printing Press- 
men and Assistants' Union, summarized 
above, with the following differences: — 

Overtime: this agreement does not provide 
double time for all work on Sundays, nor 
does it contain a special provision concerning 
the observance of holidays in French plants. 

Minimum hourly ivage rates for 1953 and 
1954, respectively: journeymen $1.87* and 
$1.95, journeywomen 95 and 97! cents, appren- 
tices, male from 58 and 60£ cents during 
first 6 months to $1.57J and $1.64 during 
twelfth 6 months, female from 52 and 53 
cents during first 6 months to 81 and 83 
cents during sixth 6 months. (The above 
1953 rates for journeymen are 7| cents and 
those for journeywomen 5 cents per hour 
higher than the rates provided in the 
previous agreement.) 



Garages — Antigonish, N.S. — Certain Firms 
and The Antigonish Garage Workers 
Union, Local 226 (CCL). 

Agreement to be in effect from March 15, 
1953, to March 14, 1954, and from year to 
year thereafter, subject to 2 months' notice. 

Union security: maintenance of member- 
ship. 

Check-off: the employers agree to deduct 
union dues and assessments from the pay of 
all members who so authorize and to remit 
the amounts deducted, less 5 per cent for 
collection and bookkeeping, to the union. 

Hours: 8| per day Monday through 
Friday, 4J on Saturday, a 48-hour week 
(previously 8^ per day Monday through 
Saturday, a 51-hour week) . For regular 
service station attendants working hours will 
remain as provided by the Board of Public 
Utilities. Overtime: time and one-half for 
work in excess of the above daily hours and 
for work on Sundays, double time for work 
on all statutory and other observed holi- 
days. All holidays are paid holidays. The 
employers agree to pay overtime at the 
standard rates when the station remains 
open for business on Sunday and in the 
evening after 6 p.m. 

Vacations with pay: one day for every 24 
days worked. 

Wage rates: hourly — auto mechanic, 1st 
class $1.19, 2nd class $1.03^, 3rd class 92£ 
cents; auto bodymen, 1st class $1.30, 2nd 
class $1.03 J, 3rd class 92 \ cents; weekly — 
service stationmen, after one month $27, 
after 6 months $33, experienced $41; 
helpers a minimum of $23, increased every 

3 months so as to reach $33 per week after 
one year's service. (The above hourly rates 
are from 5J to 8 cents per hour higher 
than the previous rates.) 

Tools: first and second class auto mechanics 
must provide themselves with a complete set 
of tools and third class auto mechanics with 
sufficient tools to perform the type of work 
usually entrusted to them. 

Seniority: layoffs and rehiring will be 
conducted on a seniority basis consistent with 
the ability of the employees to perform the 
work required. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and the health and safety of employees. 

Garages — Victoria, B.C. — C ertain Auto- 
mobile Dealers and Automotive Main- 
tenance Workers' Union, Local 151 
(TLC). 
Agreement to be in effect from March 1, 
1953, to February 28, 1954, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to 60 days' 
notice. 

Union security: maintenance of member- 
ship. 

Check-off: voluntary. 

Hours: 8 per day Monday through Friday, 

4 on Saturday, a 44-hour week. Overtime: 
time and one-half for the first 4 hours of 
work in excess of the above daily hours; 
double time thereafter and for work on 
Sundays and on 9 specified holidays. 

Vacation wjth pay: "employees third 
annual and subsequent holidays shall be 
two weeks with pay." 

Hourly wage rates: journeymen — machin- 
ists, mechanics, trimmers, radiator men, 
body and fender men, battery men, elec- 
tricians, vulcanizers, painters, welders $1.70; 



1026 



mechanics' helpers $1.06£ to $1.43, lubrica- 
tion $1.01| to $1.30, washers $1.01£ to $1.24, 
janitors $1.02, service attendants $1.01^ to 
$1.30, service salesmen $57.34 to $71.41 per 
week; parts men $37.40 to $66 per week, 
car jockeys $23.75 and $30 per week. (The 
above basic rates for journeymen are 5 
cents per hour higher than the previous 
rates, while for other employees they are 
the same, except that during the proba- 
tionary period the rates now are 2£ cents 
per hour lower than previously. However, 
the previous rates were subject to a cost- 
of-living adjustment, up or down, on the 
basis of 25 cents per week for each rise or 
fall of one point in the cost-of-living index 
above or below 191-1, with a floor of $1.55 
per hour for journeymen and a floor based 
on a similar percentage for other employees.) 

Escalator clause: an escalator plan shall 
be adopted and shall be effective when the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics' consumer 
price index rises above or falls below the 
figure 115-8. However, no changes will be 
made if the adjustments amount to less than 
$1.25 per week, nor shall adjustments fluc- 
tuate more than $2.50 per week above or 
below the basic wage rates. "The value of 
a point of the Consumer Price Index shall 
be that set by the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, on the basis three (3) Points 
Consumer Price Index equal five (5) Points 
Cost-of-Living Index, .... this detail subject 
to further negotiations if necessary." 

Off -shift differential: employees required to 
work on evening shifts will receive corre- 
sponding time off during the day and will 
be paid 10 cents per hour above the regular 
rate between 5 p.m. and midnight, and 20 
cents per hour after midnight. 

Guaranteed earnings: after one month's 
continuous employment, hourly workers will 
be guaranteed 33 hours' work weekly, pro- 
vided they report daily for work. Apart 
from his regular employment, no employee 
will work on any automobile, truck or 
tractor other than those registered in his 
name. 

Clothing: uniforms and cover-alls necessary 
in the performance of the employees' work 
Avill be furnished by the company at cost. 
Rubber aprons, gum boots and rubber gloves 
will be provided for battery men, car 
washers, steam cleaners and radiator men. 

Apprentices will be treated in accordance 
with the provisions of the British Columbia 
Apprenticeship Act. The ratio of employ- 
ment shall not exceed one apprentice to 
every 4 journeymen. 

Seniority shall apply in all lay-offs and 
re-employment, subject to merit and ability. 
In promotions seniority and ability will be 
given consideration, the decision of the 
management to be accepted as final. 

The company agrees to work with the 
union on a plan of establishing an Exam- 
ining Board that will certify all workers 
in the trade according to the workers' 
ability. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 

Knitting Machine Needles — Bedford, Que. 
— The Torrington Company Limited 
and International Union, United Auto- 
mobile, Aircraft and Agricultural 
Implement Workers of America, 
Local 956. 



Agreement to be in effect from February 
18, 1953, to February 17, 1954, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to 60 days' 
notice. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. 

Hours: during the months October to May 
— 9 per day Monday through Friday, 5 on 
Saturday, a 50-hour week: during June, 
July, August and September — 9 per day 
Monday through Friday, a 45-hour week. 
Overtime: time and one-half for work in 
excess of above weekly hours and for work 
on Sundays and on 10 specified holidays, 5 
of which are paid holidays. 

Vacations with pay: the plant will close 
for 2 weeks during the summer. Employees 
who have completed one year of continuous 
service will receive one week's pay, while 
employees with 5 or more years of con- 
tinuous service will receive 2 weeks' pay. 
Employees with 3 months but less than 
one year of continuous service will receive 
one-half days' pay for each calendar month 
worked. Employees who do not return to 
work immediately after the vacation period 
will have one-half their vacation pay 
deducted from their wages, unless they have 
a legitimate excuse acceptable to the 
company. 

Wages: the wage rates in effect imme- 
diately prior to the date of the present 
agreement will remain in effect for the 
duration of this agreement. The minimum 
hiring rates will be 60 cents per hour for 
males and 45 cents for females. These rates 
will be increased by 5 cents per hour after 
3 months and by an additional 5 cents after 
6 months of continuous employment. 

Night shift differential: a premium of 5 
cents per hour will be paid to employees 
who work on a night shift. 

Insurance and Benefit Plan: the parties 
agree to enlarge the scope of the existing 
Insurance and Benefit Plan to obtain certain 
specified additional Blue Cross benefits. The 
costs of the Insurance and Benefit Plan, as 
amended, shall continue to be borne one- 
half by the company and one-half by the 
employees. 

Seniority: ability being equal, seniority 
will be the governing factor in lay-off, 
re-hiring, promotion and demotion. In cases 
of lay-off only, members of the grievance 
committee will have preferential seniority. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and the safety and health of employees. 

Construction 

Plasterers — Edmonton, Alta. — Edmonton 
Plastering Contractors and the Oper- 
ative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' 
International Association of the United 
States and Canada, Local 372. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 
1953, to March 31, 1954, and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to notice. The juris- 
diction of this agreement extends to that 
part of Alberta which lies north of a line 
drawn through the City of Red Deer, east 
and west to the boundaries of the province. 

Union security: on all work done in its 
jurisdiction, members of Local 372 must be 
employed on a fifty-fifty basis, when avail- 
able, but all men employed must be 
members of the international union in good 
standing. Members of Local 372 will work 
only for contractors recognized by this local 



1027 



as fair contractors. No men shall be 
accepted as a member of the union until 
he produces proof of his qualifications. 

Check-off: the contractors agree to collect 
all fees, dues and fines and to remit same 
to the union. 

Hours: 8 per day Monday through Friday, 
a 40-hour week. Overtime: time and one- 
half for work between 5 p.m. and 10 p.m., 
double time between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m. and 
for work on Saturdays, Sundays and on 8 
specified holidays, except that Saturday work 
outside a radius of 20 miles from Edmonton 
City limits is optional and, if worked, will 
be paid for at single time. 

Minimum wage rates: $2. 12^ (previously 
$2) per hour; foremen will be paid 10 cents 
per hour over the set scale. Any job 
employing 5 or more plasterers shall have 
one foreman who must be a skilled plasterer. 

Night shift differential: for work on 
shifts between 5 p.m. and 8 a.m. employees 
will receive 8 hours' pay for 7 hours' work. 

Out-of-town jobs: men hired in Edmonton 
for out-of-town jobs shall receive transporta- 
tion, board and room, and pay for travelling 
time (up to 8 hours in 24). Unless 
employees remain until the job is finished 
or until they are laid off or discharged, they 
will not be entitled to return expenses. On 
jobs outside a 5-mile radius from the city 
limits employees will be paid travelling time 
for travelling before 8 a.m. and after 5 p.m. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
disputes. 

Transportation, Storage, Communication 

Urban and Suburban Transportation— 

Ottawa, Out. — Ottawa Transportation 
Commission and Amalgamated Associa- 
tion of Street Electric Railway and 
Motor Coach Employees of America, 
Division 279. 
Agreement to be in effect from January 1, 
1953, to December 31, 1954, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. 
However, by giving notice prior to November 
15, 1953, either party may require re-nego- 
tiation of the wage rates for the year 1954, 
and also a revision of the normal working 
periods for employees in the operating 
department. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. How- 
ever, employees, who were subject to the 
check-off at the date of the inception of this 
agreement shall remain subject thereto 
during the life of the agreement. 

Hours: 44 (previously 48) or an average 
of 44 hours per week according to the 
following schedule: track, line, power house 
employees, night clerks, etc. 40 and 48 hours 
in alternate weeks; bus garage — day staff 8 
per day 5J days a week, night staff 9 per 
day 4 days a week and 8 hours on the fifth 
day; car barn — day staff 8 per day 5 J days 
a week, night staff 40 and 48 hours in alter- 
nate weeks; operating division 7 hours and 
20 minutes per day 6 days a week. Over- 
time: time and one-half will be paid to 
car and bus operators for platform time 
worked in excess of the equivalent of 8 
hours per day for the pay period, and to 
all other employees for all time worked in 
excess of the equivalent of 8 hours per day 
for the pay period, to trackman and day 
staff employees of power house, car shop, 
car shed, bus garage and line department 
answering emergency calls on Sundays and 



on 6 specified holidays; time and one- 
quarter for work on Sundays and on 6 
specified holidays; double time for work on 
2 specified holidays (previously time and 
one-quarter for work on 8 holidays). 
Employees engaged in overtime work will 
be given meal tickets. 

The above provisions concerning hours of 
work and overtime shall become effective 
for the operating department on March 1, 
1953, and for all other divisions on February 
16, 1953. 

Vacations ivith pay: employees with less 
than one year's service will be entitled to 
one-half day for each month worked, to be 
taken in the calendar year following the one 
in which they were hired; after one year's 
qualifying service an employee will be 
entitled to 7 days off with 6 days' pay, after 
2 or more qualifying years to 14 days off 
with 12 days' pay. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions (effective March 1, 1953, for operating 
department and February 16, 1953, for all 
other divisions) ; operators, training $1, first 
6 months $1.28, second 6 months $1.32, third 
6 months $1.36, thereafter $1.38; super- 
visors $1.38, instructors $1.43 and $1.53, 
loaders-fare collectors $1.27, linemen $1.30 to 
$1.41, groundmen $1.23 to $1.28; power 
house, etc. — water plant operators $1.33 and 
$1.38, sub-station operators $1.31 and $1.33, 
learners $1.28, maintenance and repairmen 
$1.35 and $1.47, helpers $1.22 to $1.30; bus 
garage — motor mechanic, body mechanic, 
automotive electrician $1.36 to $1.49; appren- 
tices from $1.01 in first year to $1.23 in fifth 
year; garage attendants $1.22 to $1.40, 
garage labourer $1.01 to $1.18; car shop and 
car house — blacksmiths $1.33 and $1.44, 
carpenters $1.30 to $1.44, machinists $1.34 
to $1.49, upholsterers $1.33 and $1.42, 
welders $1.33 to $1.49, armature winders 
$1.29 to $1.43, car electrical repairmen $1.32 
to $1.43, oiler $1.32, cleaners $1.22; track 
department — trackmen $1.23 and $1.27, track 
welders $1.29 and $1.33; switchmen, truck 
drivers $1.22 and $1.27; labourers $1.01 to 
$1.22, watchmen $1.09 to $1.15. (The above 
rates are from 8 to 12 cents per hour higher 
than the previous rates. Employees now 
receive approximately the same take-home 
pay for a 44-hour week as previously for a 
48-hour week.) 

The commission will provide employees 
with free transportation on its regular car 
and bus service. All operators will be 
supplied by the commission with uniform 
clothing, switchmen with rubber boots, 
waterproof coats and waterproof hats and 
trackmen, employed at drain work during 
the spring and fall, with rubber boots. 

Provision is made for a Sick Benefit Plan, 
seniority rights and grievance procedure. 

Service 

Building Service — Montreal, Que. — Build- 
ing Owners' and Managers' Association 
of Montreal Inc. and Building Service 
Employee s' International Union, 
Local 298. 
Agreements, entered into on various dates 
for the .different buildings, to be in effect 
for a period of 2 years from the date of 
signature and thereafter for an additional 
year, subject to notice. 



1028 



Check-off: the companies agree to deduct 
monthly union dues and initiation fees from 
the pay of employees who so authorize. The 
authorization may be signed to cover the 
entire period of employment during which 
an agreement exists between the union and 
the employer. 

Hours: 54 per week, except for mainten- 
ance men (48 hours) and for watchmen (66 
hours) ; 6 working days will constitute a 
working week. When 12 hours continuous 
service are required, the meal period shall 
not be deducted if required to be taken on 
the premises. Overtime: time and one-half 
for work in excess of a regular working 
week, double time for work on 7 specified 
paid holidays. 

Best periods: all elevator operators will 
be given two 15-minute rest periods per 
shift. 

Vacations with pay: one week after 6 
months' service, two weeks after one year's 
service. 

Hourly wage rates effective from April 6, 
1953: starter elevator operator 93 cents; 
elevator operator, male 91 cents, female 81 
cents; watchmen 91 cents, handy men $1.01, 
maintenance men $1.11; cleaners, male 90 
cents, female 83 cents (these rates are 5 
cents per hour higher than the previous 
rates) . 

All special equipment, including uniforms, 
if required by _ the employer shall be 
furnished and maintained by him. 

Provision is made for seniority rights and 
grievance procedure. 

Schools (Teachers) — Montreal, Que. — 
The Montreal Catholic School Com- 
mission and U Association des Educa- 
teurs Catholiques de Montreal. 

Agreement to be in effect from December 
1, 1952, to November 30, 1955; however, if, 
after December 1, 1954, economic conditions 
are radically different from those of today, 
the association may request a revision of 
the salary scales. 

Basic scale of annual salaries (the 
figures quoted are for female teachers, 
single male teachers, and married male 
teachers respectively) : elementary course — 
1st year $1,700, $1,900, $2,200; 2nd year 
$1,800, $2,000, $2,300; 3rd year $1,900, $2,100, 
$2,400; 4th year $1,900, $2,200, $2,600; 5th 
year $2,000, $2,300, $2,700; 6th year $2,000, 
$2,400, $2,800; 7th year $2,200, $2,700, $3,000; 
8th year $2,200, $2,800, $3,100; 9th year 
$2,400, $2,900, $3,200; 10th year $2,400, 
$3,200, $3,500; 11th and 12th years $2,500, 
$3,200, $3,500; 13th and 14th years $2,500, 
$3,500, $3,800; 15th year $2,600, $3,500, 
$3,800; 16th to 18th years $2,600, $3,600, 
$4,000; after 18th year $3,000, $3,700, $4,300. 

In addition, the following annual supple- 
ments will be paid: to junior high course 
teachers $300; to senior high course teachers 
$500; to unmarried teachers (male and 
female) who have dependents $200; to 
female teachers in charge of first grade 
classes who have attended and passed the 
examination for the improvement courses 
organized for teachers of this grade $200, 
provided their teaching is satisfactory; to 
teacher in charge of the school library $100, 
to teacher in charge of singing in the school 
$100; to each teacher in charge of gymnastic 
lessons a minimum annual remuneration of 
$50, plus an annual remuneration of 50 cents 
per pupil for all pupils in excess of 50 in 



the teacher's class; to teachers who teach in 
the hospitals $100; to auxiliary class teachers 
— first 3 years of teaching $100, 4th and 5th 
years of teaching $200, 6th and following 
years of teaching $300; to any teacher who 
holds the degree of Bachelor of Arts or of 
Sciences $300; if the teacher obtains a 
Licentiate in Pedagogy or a Licentiate or a 
Master's Degree in one of the basic subjects 
of the official program $350; if the teacher 
obtains a Doctorate in any of the same sub- 
jects $400; to any teacher, not holding the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, who obtains a 
Superior Diploma in Pedagogy from the 
Institut Saint-Georges $100. 

Escalator clause: in addition to the above 
salaries and supplements, the Commission 
will pay all teachers a cost-of-living bonus 
of $20 a month, increased or decreased by 
$2 for each whole point of change in the 
consumer price index above or below the 
figure 116-1. 

The by-laws of the Commission concerning 
leave of absence for study, absence through 
illness, premature retirement and group life 
insurance form an integral part of this 
agreement. 

The Commission agrees to examine with 
the representatives of the association any 
contentious case submitted by the executive 
of the association. 

Schools (Teachers) — Montreal, Que. — 
The Montreal Catholic School Com- 
mission and The Federation pf English- 
Speaking Catholic Teachers. 
Agreement t© be in effect from December 
1, 1952, to November 30, 1955; however, if, 
after December 1, 1954, economic conditions 
are radically different from those of today, 
the federation may request a revision of the 
salary scales. This agreement is similar to 
the one between The Montreal Catholic 
School Commission and L'Association des 
Educateurs Catholiques de Montreal, sum- 
marized above, with the same scale of 
salaries. 

Municipal Government — Lethbridge, Alta. 
— The City of Lethbridge and The 
Federal Union of Civic Employees, 
Local 70 (TLC). 

Agreement to be in effect from January 1, 
1953, to December 31, 1953, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. 

Check-off: compulsory for all employees 
(modified Rand Formula) . 

Hours: 8 per day 5 days a week, a 40- 
hour week. Overtime: time and one-half for 
the first 4 hours in excess of the regular 
shift; double time thereafter and for work 
on Saturdays, Sundays (or the alternative 
days of rest) and on 8 specified paid 
holidays, as well as on all general holidays 
(also paid) proclaimed by the municipal, 
provincial or federal governments. 

Vacations with pay: permanent employees 
will be granted 2 weeks after one year and 
3 weeks after 10 years of continuous service. 
No employee will be entitled to receive any 
pay for his vacations if during the vacation 
period he engages in work for which he 
receives from any party, other than the 
City of Lethbridge, any remuneration. 

Sickness and accident pay: the city agrees 
to continue the group sickness and accident 
policy in force with an insurance company. 
It will pay to its permanent employees the 



1029 



rates of pay in effect during 1952, for 
absences covered by the group sickness or 
accident policy or the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Act of Alberta during the year 1953. 
Payments to the employees will be made 
only for the same period the compensation 
is paid under the insurance policy, but 
including the one week waiting period in 
case of absence covered by the group sick- 
ness policy, and for the period of payment 
under the Workmen's Compensation Act, 
but not for more than 13 weeks in any one 
period per year, nor more than one period 
of 13 weeks per year after age 60, and no 
payment of salaries whatsoever after the 
age of 70 years. The above payments will 
be made on the understanding that any 
moneys payable by the insurance company 
and the Workmen's Compensation Board to 
the employee will be paid to the city either 
by the company, the Board, or the employee. 
Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: parks department — foreman $1.44; 
gardener, truck driver, tractor operator 
$1.30; maintenance man grave digger $1.22; 
labourer, first class $1.08, casual $1; water- 
works department — machine operator $1.47, 
pipelayer $1.39, meter reader $1.34, meter 



repairman $1.44, digger, ditch rider $1.24; 
street department — utility men $1.39 and 
$1.50, building maintenance man $1.50, 
cement finisher $1.43. garbage men $1.30 and 
$1.35, trouble man $1.30 (no change in rates 
from previous agreement). 

Shift work: members of the union requested 
to work any time between midnight and 
8 a.m. in lieu of their regular day shift 
will be paid at the rate of 8 hours' pay for 
7 hours' work. The same rate will apply for 
each of two shifts, should the employer 
require that two shifts a day be worked 
other than the normal 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
period. 

Clothing: slickers and rubber boots will 
be made available to employees when work- 
ing in wet ditches. Garbage collectors will 
be provided with slickers for use in wet 
weather. The above clothing will remain 
the property of the city; when not being 
used, it must be returned to the city. 

Seniority: promotions in any department 
shall be made from the permanent staff of 
such department on the basis of seniority 
and efficiency provided the applicants have 
the necessary qualifications. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Recent proceedings under the Collective 
Agreement Act, Quebec,* include the exten- 
sion of one new agreement and the amend- 
ment of eight others. In addition to those 
summarized below, they include: the 
amendment of the agreement for funeral 
service employees at Montreal published in 
the Quebec Official Gazette April 25, and 
the amendment of the agreements for 



*In Quebec, the Collective Agreement Act 
provides that where a collective agreement 
has been entered into by an organization of 
employees and one or more employers or 
associations of employers, either side may 
apply to the provincial Minister of Labour 
to have the terms of the agreement which 
concern wages, hours of labour, apprentic2- 
ship, and certain other conditions made 
binding throughout the province or within 
a certain district on all employers and 
employees in the trade or industry covered 
by the agreement. Notice of such applica- 
tion is published and 30 days are allowed 
for the filing of objections, after which an 
Order in Council may be passed granting 
the application, with or without changes as 
considered advisable by the Minister. The 
Order in Council may be amended or 
revoked in the same manner. Each agree- 
ment is administered and enforced by a 
joint committee of the parties. References 
to the summary of this Act and to amend- 
ments to it are given in the Labour Gazette, 
January, 1949, page 65. Proceedings under 
this Act and earlier legislation have been 
noted in the Labour Gazette monthly since 
June, 1934. 



barbers and hairdressers at Joliette and for 
garages and service stations at Sherbrooke, 
gazetted May 9. 

A request for the amendment of the 
agreement for the building trades at 
Montreal was published April 25; a request 
for a new agreement for barbers and hair- 
dressers at Quebec, and requests for the 
amendment of the agreements for the 
building trades at St. Jerome and for the 
gasoline retail trade at Chicoutimi were 
published May 2. A request for the amend- 
ment of the agreement for the baking 
industry at Trois Rivieres was published 
May 9; requests for the amendment of the 
agreements for trade and office employees 
at Jonquiere, for the paint manufacturing 
industry and the ladies' handbag manu- 
facturing industry in the province were 
gazetted May 16; requests for the amend- 
ment of the agreements for the building 
trades at St. Jean and Iberville and at 
Montreal, for printing trades at Quebec and 
a request for a new agreement for the 
baking industry at Granby were all 
gazetted May 23. 

Orders in Council were also published 
approving the constitution and by-laws of 
certain- joint committees and others approv- 
ing the levy of assessments on the parties 
to certain agreements. 



1030 



Manufacturing 

Men's and Boys' Clothing Industry, 
Province of Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated April 30 and 
gazetted May 9 makes binding the terms of 
a new agreement between the Associated 
Clothing Manufacturers of the Province of 
Quebec, Inc.; The Montreal Clothing Con- 
tractors Association, Inc.; L' 'Association des 
Fabricants de Vetements de Quebec, inc.; 
The Rainwear and Sportswear Manufac- 
turers Association; The Odd Pants Manu- 
facturers Association of Quebec and the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
"Montreal Joint Board; La Federation 
nationale des Travailleurs de V Industrie du 
Vetement, inc. Agreement to be in effect 
from May 9, 1953, until July 1, 1953, and 
thereafter from year to year subject to 
notice. 

Industrial jurisdiction: the present agree- 
ment applies to the manufacture (in factories 
or elsewhere) of men's and boys' clothing, 
as well as children's clothing, subject to 
certain exceptions. Provisions are similar to 
those previously in effect and summarized 
in the Labour Gazette, October 1952, and 
February 1953. However, in children's 
.clothing (schedule IV), the clause, clothing 
for children of ages 3, 4, 5 and 6 years and 
-clothing for girls 7 to 14 years of age, now 
reads as follows: coats for boys and girls 
4, 5 and 6 years of age, not exceeding 24 X, 
and coats for girls 7 to 14 years of age, 
inclusive. 

Territorial jurisdiction comprises the entire 
province divided into three zones: Zone I, 
the Island of Montreal and within a radius 
of 15 miles of its limits; Zone II, within a 
radius of 75 miles beyond the limits of 
Zone I; Zone III, the balance of the 
province. 

Hours are unchanged at 40 per week in 
Zone I; 44 in Zones II and III. Provision 
is made for shift work on certain contracts. 

Overtime: time and one-half for work in 
excess of regular hours in all three zones; 
.double time and one-half for work on any 
of 5 paid holidays. (Overtime provisions 
are unchanged.) 

Minimum wage rates are the same as those 
which were previously in effect and the rates 
for certain classifications are as follows: 
Schedule I, class "A" garments (coats, 
pants, vests) — skilled cutters $1,044 per 
hour in Zone I, 93 cents in Zone II, 87J 
cents in Zone III; skilled trimmers 96-2- cents 
in Zone I, 86| cents in Zone II, 82 cents in 
Zone III; pocket makers (coats and pants) 
90 cents in Zone I, 79| cents in Zone II, 
75J cents in Zone III; head operators 
and shape sewers (coats), pocket makers, 
tape sewers (vests) 98 cents in Zone I, 
87i cents in Zone II, 83J cents in 
Zone III; other minimum rates range from 
22 cents per hour in Zone I, 19J cents in 
.Zone II, 18 cents in Zone III during first 
3 months for basting pullers, to 87 cents per 
hour in Zone I, 76^ cents in Zone II and 73 
cents in Zone III for fitters, offpressers 
(coats) leg pressers (pants) and offpressers 
(vests) ; Schedule II, class "B" garments 
(raincoats, etc.) — markers or knife cutters 
94 cents in Zone I, 83| cents in Zone II, 79 
cents in Zone III; trimmers, shape sewers, 
etc. 87 cents in Zone I, 78 cents in Zone II, 
74 cents in Zone III; other minimum rates 



range from 40 cents per hour in Zone I, 36 
cents in Zone II, 34 cents in Zone III for 
finishers, button makers, button sewers, etc., 
to 79 cents in Zone I, 71 cents in Zone II, 
67 cents in Zone III for offpressers (hand 
or machine) and pocket makers; Schedule 
III (odd pants) — skilled cutters 93^ cents 
in Zone I, 83J cents in Zone II, 81 cents in 
Zone III; front and back pocket makers, 
trimmers and seamers 85 cents in Zone I, 
76 cents in Zone II, 72^ cents in Zone III; 
other rates range from 40 cents per hour in 
Zone I, 35 cents in Zone II, 34 cents in Zone 
III for fly makers, pocket sergers, finishers, 
examiners, etc., to 79 cents in Zone I, 70 
cents in Zone II, 65J cents in Zone III for 
lining stitchers and leg pressers; Schedule IV 
(children's clothing) — skilled markers 83J 
cents in Zone I, 74 cents in Zone II, 71 cents 
in Zone III; trimmers 75 cents in Zone I, 
67i in Zone II, 63| in Zone III; other rates 
range from 21 cents per hour in Zone I, 18 
cents in Zone II, 17 cents in Zone III for 
sleeve lining tackers, sleeve lining sewers, 
basting pullers, etc. (during first 3 months), 
to 64-J cents in Zone I, 58 cents in Zone II, 
54 cents in Zone III for shape makers, tape 
sewers, offpressers and sleeve hangers. 

Cost-of-living bonus provisions which 
specify amounts ranging from 17J to 28| 
cents per hour, subject to certain specific 
conditions in the industry, are unchanged 
from those previously in effect (L.G., June 

1951, p. 827; Oct. 1952, p. 1361; Feb. 1953, 
p. 283). 

Vacations with pay provisions are 
unchanged as follows: all employees will be 
granted one week with pay equal to 2 per 
cent of total earnings during the 12 months 
preceding June 30; 2 weeks with pay to all 
employees with 2 years' continuous service 
except those working in the manufacture of 
children's clothing comprising ages 4 to 6 
years inclusive, not exceeding size 24X and 
girls coats up to the age of 14 years 
inclusive. 

Other provisions of this agreement include 
regulations governing restrictions on certain 
types of work, piecework rates and appren- 
ticeship conditions. 

Printing Trades, Montreal. 

An Order in Council dated April 30 and 
gazetted May 2 amends the previous Orders 
in Council for this industry (L.G., June 

1952, p. 780; Jan. 1953, p. 97, March, p. 432, 
May, p. 728, and previous issues). 

Industrial jurisdiction: as previously in 
effect, this agreement applies to all persons 
engaged in the production of printing, except 
daily newspapers, by Letterpress process, 
multicopying processes of every description, 
typesetting, press work, cutting, ruling book- 
binding and finishing, whether in trade 
plants, private, industrial, commercial or any 
other establishment and whether such oper- 
ations constitute its principal business or 
are accessory to some other enterprise. It 
is now provided that this agreement will 
also apply to all persons engaged in the 
production of seals and labels by the stamp- 
ing process, the French Edge Process or the 
process whereby such seals and labels are 
printed or embossed in one or more colours 
and die cut in one continuous operation. 

Hours: 40 per week in Zone I, 44 per 
week in Zones II and III for persons 
engaged in the production of printing; 42 
hours per week in Zone I, 46 hours in Zones 
II and III for all persons engaged in the 



1031 



production of seals and labels by the stamp- 
ing p •<:., between May 1, 1953, and 
April 30, 1954. Effective May 1, 1954 and 
thereafter, weekly hours will be reduced to 
40 in Zone I, 44 in Zone II for persons 
engaged in the production of seals, etc. 

Minimum hourly icage rates for day work: 
composing room — minimum rates for journey- 
men compositors, journeymen machine key- 
board operators, proof readers and caster- 
men are increased by 8 cents per hour to 
$1.80 per hour in Zone I, $1.51 in Zone II, 
$1.38 in Zone III; rates for caster runners 
are from 2 to 4 cents per hour higher and 
are now as follows: from 56 cents per hour 
in first 6 months of the first year to 85 
cents per hour in the second 6 months of 
the third year in Zone I, 49 to 74 cents in 
Zone II, 46 to 71 cents in Zone III, there- 
after a rate agreed upon between employers 
and employees but not less than the rate 
set for a third year second 6 months appren- 
tice; press room — rates for journeymen 
pressmen (rotary presses, flat bed, cylinder 
presses, etc.) now range from $1.80 to $2 
in Zone I instead of from $1.72 to $1.91 as 
previously, from $1.51 to $1.58 in Zone II 
instead of from $1.43 to $1.50 as previously, 
and from $1.38 to $1.50 in Zone III instead 
of from $1.30 to $1.42 as previously; rates 
for journeymen pressmen on platen pr< 
etc. are increased from $1.48 to $1.56 in 
Zone I, from $1.18 to $1.26 in Zone II and 
from $1.12 to $1.20 in Zone III; rates for 
assistant pressmen ( rotary presses, etc.) are 
8 cents per hour higher and are now $1.56 
in Zone I, $1.26 in Zone II and $1.20 in 
Zone III; rates for assistant pressmen 
(platen presses, etc.) are increased from 
$1.43 to $1.51 in Zone I, from $1.14 to $1.22 
in Zone II and from $1.08 to $1.16 in Zone 
III; rates for feeders on rotary and platen 
presses, etc. are 8 cents per hour higher and 
now range from $1.21 to $1.56 in Zone I, 
from $1.01 to $1.26 in Zone II and from 
95 cents to $1.20 in Zone III; bookbinding 
and finishing departments — rates for book- 
binders and operators on machines are in- 
creased from $1.72 to $1.80 in Zone I, from 
$1.43 to $1.51 in Zone II and from $1.30 
to $1.38 in Zone III; paper trimmers and 
choppers from $1.15 to $1.22 in Zone I, from 
'.)'.', cents to $1 in Zone II and from 87 to 
94 cents in Zone III; rates for female help 
and males replacing females (all classes of 
employment including printing bookbinding, 
etc.) are 5 cents per hour higher in all 3 
zones making the new rates 91 cents per 
hour in Zone I, 77 cents in Zone II and 
71 cents in Zone III. Minimum rates for 
unskilled helpers in all departments are 3 
cents per hour higher and are now as 
follows: during first 6 months of first year 
56 cents in Zone T, 49 cents in Zone II, 4§ 
cents in Zone III; thereafter 68 cents in 
Zone I, 60 cents in Zone II, 57 cents in 
Zone ITT. Minimum rates for apprentices 
of all classes (male and female) are from 
1 to 8 rents per hour higher than those 
previously in effect. 

Metal Trades, Quebec District. 

An Order in Council dated April 16, and 
gazetted April 25, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
April 1951, p. 546, Nov., p. 1538, and 
previous issues). Other Orders in Council 
were published in the Quehec Official 
Gazette, March 1 and May 17, 1952. Agree- 

1032 



ment to remain in force until July 10, 1953, 
thereafter from year to year, subject to 
notice. 

Overtime: work performed between 6 p.m. 
Saturday and 12 p.m. Sunday (previously 
7 a.m. Monday), by night shifts, is payable 
at double time. 

Minimum hourly wage rates: toolmaker 
$1.38 in Zone I, $1.25 in Zone II; tracer 
$1.28 in Zone I, $1.15 in Zone II; general 
welder, general machinist $1.18 in Zone I, 
$1.05 in Zone II; acetylene or electric arc 
welder, sheet metal mechanic, lathe, miller, 
etc. machinists, marine mechanic, fitting 
mechanic, boilermaker, pipe mechanic, 
temperer $1.13 in Zone I, $1 in Zone II; 
machine shop joiner, blacksmith, cutter $1.08 
in Zone I, 95 cents in Zone II; assembler 
from 68 cents in first year to 98 cents in 
fourth year in Zone I, from 62 to 89 cents 
in Zone II; machine operators from 83 
cents in first year to 98 cents in third year 
in Zone I, from 76 to 88 cents in Zone II; 
storemen 98 cents in Zone I, 85 cents in 
Zone II; production worker (structural 
construction) from 83 cents in first 3 months 
to 88 cents in second 3 months in Zone I, 
from 76 to 80 cents in Zone II; production 
workers from 53 cents in first 3 months to 
58 cents in second 3 months, thereafter 63 
cents in Zone I, from 48 to 53 and there- 
after 58 cents in Zone II; truck driver 93 
cents in Zone I, 83 cents in Zone II; 
labourer 83 cents in Zone I, 75 cents in 
Zone II; apprentices (all trades) from 52 
cents in first year to 78 cents in fourth 
year in Zone I, 48 to 72 cents in Zone II. 
(The above rates are 8 cents per hour higher 
than those previously in effect.) Minimum 
rates for construction boilermaker, erector, 
steam generator mechanic and welder are 
increased from $1.50 to $1.65; steam 
generator mechanics' and welder's helpers 
from $1.10 to $1.20. 

Other provisions of this amendment in- 
clude regulations governing definitions, call 
pay and apprenticeship. 

Construction 

Building Trades, Quebec District. 

An Order in Council dated April 16 and 
gazetted May 2, extends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Sept. 1950, p. 1679; July 1951, p. 877, Aug., 
p. 1109, Sept., p. 1251, Nov., p. 1539, Dec, 
p. 1672; Oct., 1952, p. 1362, Nov., p. 1481; 
March 1953, p. 433, and previous issues), to 
June 1, 1953. 

Building Trades, Hull District. 

An Order in Council dated April 30 and 
gazetted May 9, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Jan. 1950, p. 78, April, p. 517, Nov., p. 1905; 
Jan. 1951, p. 64, March, p. 358, June, p. 828, 
Jan. 1952, p. 56, April, p. 452, May, p. 611, 
June, p. 781). Another amendment was 
published in the Queoec Official Gazette, 
October 4, 1952. 

Minimum hourly wage rates: the minimum 
rates for carpenter — joiner and millwright 
$1.40 in Zone I and $1.25 in Zone II are 
now replaced as follows: carpenter — joiner 
$1.65 in Zone I, $1.25 in Zone II; mill- 
wrright $1.40 in Zone I, $1.25 in Zone II. 
I \ previous amendment summarized in the 
Labour Gazette, May, 1952, set the 
minimum rate for carpenter — joiner at $1.60 
per hour in Zone I.) 

{Continued on page 1044) 



Labour Law 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



Highlights of Labour Laws Enacted 
by Provincial Legislatures in 1953 

Manitoba passed Fair Employment Practices Act; New Brunswick, fair 
wages legislation. Alberta made provision for pensions for disabled. 
Trend towards higher workmen's compensation benefits was continued 

At the 1953 sessions of the provincial 
Legislatures new labour laws were enacted 
in several different fields. Through amend- 
ments to existing statutes, the trend 
towards higher workmen's compensation 
benefits was continued. 

The Manitoba Legislature passed a Fair 
Employment Practices Act to ensure 
equality of opportunity in employment by 
forbidding discrimination based on racial 
and religious prejudices. 

New legislation in New Brunswick, to 
be administered by the Department of 
Labour, requires the payment of "fair 
wages" and sets limits on working hours on 
government construction works. 

Two new measures aimed at the safety 
of the public were the Gas Inspection and 
Licensing Act in Saskatchewan and the 
Elevators and Lifts Act in Ontario. 

Saskatchewan passed a new type of law 
to make medical and vocational rehabilita- 
tion services available to the disabled; 
Alberta followed the example set by Ontario 
last year in providing pensions for disabled 
persons. 

The provinces of Alberta and Saskat- 
chewan made provision for settlement by 
compulsory arbitration of wage disputes 
involving policemen and firemen. 

The prohibition on night work for 
women and young persons in Ontario was 
relaxed to the extent that the Minister 
of Labour was given power to issue permits 
allowing work during hours other than those 
presently prescribed by the factories Act. 



Workmen's Compensation 

Changes were made in seven of the ten 
Workmen's Compensation Acts. In some — 
Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island — the amendments were 
minor. In the other provinces — Manitoba, 
Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan — 
following the trend of recent years, benefits 
were increased and other changes made 
which have the effect of liberalizing the 
Acts. The most extensive changes were in 



Manitoba, where a select committee of the 
Legislature appointed in 1952 continued its 
inquiry into the Act during the 1953 session. 

Manitoba increased the rate of payment 
for disability from 66f to 70 per cent, 
becoming the seventh province since 1945 
to increase the percentage rate. With this 
change in Manitoba, the rate is now 75 
per cent in four provinces, 70 in three 
provinces, and 66f per cent in the remaining 
three. 

In Nova Scotia, the minimum payment 
for temporary total disability was raised 
from $12.50 to $15 a week, which is the 
minimum in all provinces except Alberta. 
In Alberta, the minimum is $25. 

The only province to reduce the waiting 
period this year was Nova Scotia. Pre- 
viously, no compensation was payable in 
that province for any disability which 
lasted less than seven days. In such cases 
the workman received medical aid only. 
The 1953 amendments reduced this period 
to five days. 

A new section added to the Saskat- 
chewan Act will allow the Workmen's 
Compensation Board to pay compensation 
to a workman for a recurring disability on 
the basis of his present-day earnings instead 
of on his wages at the time of the accident, 
which were likely to have been considerably 
lower. The amendment states that, if an 
injured workman who has returned to work 
suffers a temporary recurrence of his dis- 
ability, the compensation payable will be 
based on his weekly earnings at the time 
of the injury or his average weekly earn- 
ings during the 12 months preceding the 
recurrence of the disability, whichever 
amount is greater. 



1033 



In Manitoba, a change was made with 
respect to the vocational training which 
the Board has authority to provide for the 
purpose of preparing an injured workman 
for another occupation to which he may 
seem adapted and which is likely to 
increase his future earning capacity. The 
provision which stated that the cost of such 
training for an individual workman was to 
be paid from the reserve set aside for his 
compensation was struck out and the Board 
was authorized to spend up to $10,000 on 
vocational training in a year. In all the 
Acts but those of Alberta, British Columbia 
and Saskatchewan, a limit is placed on the 
Board's annual expenditure for rehabilita- 
tion work, varying from $5,000 in Prince 
Edward Island to $100,000 in Ontario and 
Quebec. 

Four provinces increased benefits payable 
in fatal cases. The funeral allowance was 
increased from $150 to $200 in Manitoba 
and from $175 to $250 in Saskatchewan. 
The $250 maximum, also payable in 
British Columbia since 1952, is the highest 
amount payable under any of the Acts. 
In addition, the Manitoba Board may pay 
all expenses of transporting the workman's 
body within the province (the limit of $100 
on the amount to be spent was removed) 
and, at its discretion, may pay part of 
the necessary expenses if the body has to 
be moved for burial either to or from a 
point outside the province. In Saskat- 
chewan, a new section was added to the 
Act authorizing the Board to make an 
allowance for transportation of the body. 
The amount is not to exceed $100. 

Ontario made the payment to a widow 
$75 a month, as British Columbia did in 
1952. The Manitoba Legislature followed 
the pattern set in Alberta in 1952 and 
provided that payments to all widows 
should be brought up to the present level 
of $50 a month, regardless of when the 
accident occurred. Persons widowed before 
1948 when the allowance was raised to $50 
will now receive whatever additional com- 
pensation is necessary to bring their 
monthly payment up to $50. The sums 
necessary to pay the increased pensions are 
to be collected from employers within 
Part I of the Act. 

It was further enacted in Manitoba that, 
if there is no widow and a workman lived 
with a common-law wife for the three full 
years before his death, compensation may 
be paid, at the discretion of the Board, to 
the common-law wife until she marries. 

As a result of substantial increases in 
the amounts of children's allowances, a child 
under 16 years of age in the care of one 
remaining parent must now receive $20 a 



month -in Manitoba and Nova Scotia and 
$25 in Ontario; for orphans the allowance 
is now $30 a month in Manitoba and Nova 
Scotia and $35 in Ontario. In Nova Scotia, 
the increases are applicable to children 
for whom compensation was being paid on 
May 1, 1953, with respect to past accidents 
as well as to children who will be granted 
compensation arising out of accidents which 
occur after that date. 

In Nova Scotia, too, the maximum com- 
pensation payable to other dependants, 
where there is no widow or children, was 
raised. In such cases, a reasonable sum to 
be determined by the Board, taking into 
account the pecuniary loss sustained, is to 
be paid but the amount is now limited to 
$45 a month (formerly $30) to a parent or 
parents and to $60 a month (formerly $45) 
to all such dependants. 

Except in Alberta and British Columbia, 
each Act places a maximum on the total 
amount of benefits payable to all depen- 
dants of a deceased workman. In Mani- 
toba, this maximum was raised to 70 per 
cent of the workman's average monthly 
earnings, instead of 66f per cent. Irre- 
spective of the workman's earnings, how- 
ever, compensation may not fall below 
certain minimum monthly amounts and 
these minima were revised upwards in both 
Manitoba and Ontario. In Manitoba, the 
minimum compensation where the depen- 
dants are a widow and one child was raised 
from $12.50 a week to $70 a month and 
where the dependants are a widow and 
two or more children from $15 a week 
to $90 a month. In Ontario, the minimum 
payable to a widow is $75 a month, with 
a further payment of $25 to each 
child under 16 years, up to $150 a month 
for mother and children. The former 
minimum amounts were $50 for a widow 
and $12 for each child, up to, in the 
whole, not more than $100 a month. 

Amendments were also made to the 
sections which deal with accidents occur- 
ring outside the province. Compensation 
is payable under the Ontario Act for an 
accident which happens to a workman 
whose residence is in Ontario and who is 
injured in his employment on a ship or 
railway where the work is performed both 
in and out of Ontario. The scope of this 
section was extended to accidents happen- 
ing on an aircraft, truck or bus. In this 
respect the Ontario Act is now like the 
Act of British Columbia. A similar pro- 
vision -in the Manitoba Act which applies 
to employment on a ship, railway or air- 
craft was amended to provide for the pay- 



1034 



ment of compensation for an accident 
which occurs outside the province to 
members of a fire brigade or other muni- 
cipal employees. 

With respect to extra-provincial employ- 
ment in any industry under the Act in 
which the employer is liable to contribute 
to the Accident Fund, a further amend- 
ment to the Ontario Act permits coverage 
of workmen who are sent by their employer 
to work out of Ontario for a longer period 
than six months. Before this amendment, 
the Act provided for the payment of 
compensation for injuries incurred outside 
the province by workmen whose residence 
and usual place of employment are in 
Ontario and who work for an employer 
whose business is located in Ontario only 
where the period of employment outside 
the province lasted less than six months. 
The amendment meets the request of many 
employers who desire coverage for their 
workmen for a longer time. 

A further change, and one which was 
recommended by Mr. Justice Roach in his 
1950 Royal Commission Report, is that the 
Ontario Act now makes provision for an 
agreement between the Ontario Board and 
the Board of any other province in order 
to prevent employers of workmen who work 
part of the time in Ontario and part of the 
time in another province from having to 
pay double assessments. Under such an 
arrangement, the employer would be 
assessed by the Ontario Board only for 
the wages of these workmen which are 
earned in Ontario and by the Board of 
the other province for the earnings which 
are earned in that province. Under the 
authority of a comparable statutory pro- 
vision, the Workmen's Compensation 
Boards in some of the other provinces have 
made such agreements. 

Administrative changes of interest in- 
cluded a provision for the appointment 
of an officer of the Manitoba Department 
of Labour to assist an injured workman, 
at his request, in preparing and presenting 
his case in a review made by the Board, 
and a further provision in Manitoba 
directing that the two members of the 
Board other than the chairman must be 
appointed for a five-year term but may 
be re-appointed. All members of the 
Manitoba Board must retire at the age of 
75 unless otherwise directed by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

In Newfoundland, the Board was given 
authority to use its discretion with respect 
to making payments for medical aid when 
an account is not received by the Board 
within the required six months. It was 
also stipulated that in investing the funds 



under its control the Board must have 
the approval of the Minister of Finance. 

Labour Relations 

Four provinces — New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia, Quebec and Saskatchewan — made 
minor changes in their labour relations Acts 
and two — Alberta and Saskatchewan — pro- 
vided for compulsory arbitration in disputes 
involving firemen and policemen. 

The New Brunswick amendment enables 
the Government to bring employees of any 
government board or commission under the 
Labour Relations Act by Order in Council. 
It was passed for the specific purpose of 
bringing under the Act the employees of 
the Government-owned New Brunswick 
Electric Power Commission. 

In Nova Scotia, the Trade Union Act 
was amended to alter the form of the 
assignment by which an employee author- 
izes his employer to check off his union 
dues. The amendment makes provision for 
the deduction of such amount as may, from 
time to time, be fixed as dues under the 
union constitution or by-laws, and would 
eliminate the making of a new authoriza- 
tion with each change in the amount of 
dues. 

Cited as "An Act to eliminate delays 
in the settlement of disputes between 
employees and employers", the legislation 
in Quebec amended the Labour Relations 
Act, the Trade Disputes Act and the Act 
respecting municipal and school corpora- 
tions and their employees to state, more 
explicitly than had been done by similar 
amendments in 1951, that decisions of the 
Labour Relations Board and of concilia- 
tion boards are not subject to review by 
the courts. In all three Acts, it is now 
categorically stated that the decisions of 
the Board or of a council of arbitration 
(conciliation board) shall be without appeal 
and cannot be revised by the courts. 

A new section added to the Saskat- 
chewan Trade Union Act provides that, 
when an employer has been ordered by the 
Labour Relations Board to bargain collec- 
tively, he continues to be bound by the 
order and by any collective agreement 
made under it even if he ceases to be an 
"employer" under the Act, that is, if he 
has less than the required number of 
employees laid down in the definition of 
employer. The amendment is intended to 
cover a situation where an employer in a 
seasonal industry such as construction has 
no employees during the off-season and 
would make it unnecessary for a union to 
re-apply for certification following each 
occasion when the employer ceased to 
employ anyone. 



1035 



In Saskatchewan, by amendments to the 
City Act, a dispute relating to hours and 
conditions of work, wages or employment 
between members of the police force and 
the city which employs them (or the Board 
of Police Commissioners) may be sub- 
mitted to a board of arbitration for a 
decision which is binding on both parties, 
provided that the constitution of the local 
labour union of which the policemen are 
nembers contains a provision prohibiting 
;hem from going on strike. 

An Act to amend the Fire Departments 
Platoon Act made similar provision for 
compulsory arbitration for full-time fire- 
fighters, subject to the same condition that 
their union constitution must contain a 
provision forbidding its members to strike. 

The Acts set out what is now standard 
procedure under labour relations Acts for 
the giving of notice, for the meeting of 
the parties for bargaining and, at the 
written request of either party when the 
proceedings have reached an impasse, for 
the setting up of a three-man board of 
arbitration. Hearings of the board are to 
be open to the public. 

The written decision of the board (which 
when a majority fail to agree is the 
decision of the chairman) is binding and 
must be put into effect. Each side bears 
its own costs and pays an equal share of 
the costs of the chairman and other 
general expenses. 

Practically the same procedure for 
bargaining and compulsory arbitration was 
provided for in Alberta in a new Police 
Act and an Act amending the Fire Depart- 
ments Platoon Act. In these Acts, how- 
ever, the board of arbitration appointed 
to bring down a final and binding deci- 
sion in any dispute may consist of either 
three or five members. In either case it 
is equally representative of the parties and 
there is an impartial chairman. 

The new provisions in Alberta are 
modelled on legislation enacted in Ontario 
in 1947. In Alberta, as in Ontario, mem- 
bers of a municipal police force may not 
remain or become members of a trade union 
but they may belong to their own police 
association. There is no such restriction 
on fire-fighters. The Fire Departments 
Platoon Act requires all members of the 
bargaining committee to be full-time fire- 
fighters but, where at least half the 
fire-fighters belong to a trade union, one 
representative each of the provincial body 
and of the international body with which 
the union is affiliated may assist and advise 
the bargaining committee in its negotia- 
tions with the council. 



Besides Saskatchewan, Alberta and 
Ontario, two other provinces — British 
Columbia and Quebec— have legislation in 
effect which requires disputes between fire- 
men or policemen and the municipality to 
be settled by arbitration. 

Fair Employment Practices 

Manitoba passed an Act to prevent 
discrimination in regard to employment and 
in regard to membership in trade unions 
by reason of race, national origin, colour 
or religion. Ontario has had a Fair 
Employment Practices Act in operation 
since June 1951, and a federal Fair Employ- 
ment Practices Act, applying to all under- 
takings under federal authority with five 
or more employees, came into effect July 1. 

The Manitoba Fair Employment Practices 
Act lays down certain prohibitions which 
apply to all employers in the province who 
employ five or more workers. An employer 
may not refuse to hire any person because 
of his race, national origin, colour or 
religion, unless his refusal is based upon 
a bona fide occupational qualification, and, 
in seeking new employees, he may not use 
any employment agency that so discrim- 
inates. He is likewise forbidden to 
discriminate on any of these grounds 
against any person already in his employ- 
ment. 

Advertisements in connection with 
employment which express a preference as 
to race, national origin, colour or religion, 
unless the preference is based upon a bona 
fide occupational qualification, may not be 
published. 

The Act also forbids trade unions to 
discriminate against any person because of 
his race, national origin, colour or religion. 
They may not exclude a person from 
membership in the union for any of these 
reasons; may not expel, suspend or other- 
wise discriminate against any of their 
members; nor may they discriminate 
against any person in regard to his 
employment by any employer. 

Enforcement of the Act begins with the 
filing of a written complaint with the 
Department of Labour, whereupon an 
officer of the Department will be assigned 
to make an inquiry into the circumstances 
and settle the matter, if possible. If these 
efforts at conciliation are unsuccessful, the 
Minister may appoint an Industrial Inquiry 
Commission to make further investigation 
and to recommend the course that should 
be followed to set the matter right. When 
the Minister receives the commission's 
report, he must furnish a copy to each of 
the persons affected; he may make the 



1036 



report public if he thinks it advisable. 
Finally, the Minister has power to issue 
"whatever order he deems necessary" to 
carry the recommendations of the commis- 
sion into effect. Subject to the right of 
appeal to a judge of the Court of Queen's 
Bench (one respect in which the Mani- 
toba Act differs from that of Ontario or 
the federal Act), a person affected by such 
an order must comply with it. 

In the last resort, there is provision for 
prosecution in the courts and for the 
imposition of a maximum fine of $100 for 
an individual and $500 for a corporation, 
trade union, employers' organization or 
employment agency. In addition, an 
employer convicted of having suspended, 
transferred, laid off or discharged an 
employee in violation of the Act may be 
required to reinstate him and to pay him 
compensation for his loss of employment, 
Discrimination against any person by an 
employer or trade union because he has 
made a complaint is contrary to the Act. 

The right of an aggrieved person to take 
court action regarding alleged discrimina- 
tion is retained but he must choose between 
court proceedings and making a complaint 
to the Department of Labour. He cannot 
do both. 

Domestic servants in private homes and 
non-profit educational, social, religious or 
charitable organizations do not come under 
the Act. 

Wages and Hours 

Effective from May 1, a new Act in New 
Brunswick, the Fair Wages and Hours of 
Labour Act, sets standards of wages and 
hours for work on government contracts 
such as are set in some of the other prov- 
inces and in the federal Act of the same 
name. 

A contractor who contracts with the 
Provincial Government to construct, 
remodel, repair or demolish any work must 
pay the workmen whom he employs to do 
the work "fair wages," i.e., the current 
wages paid to other workmen performing 
the same class of work in the same district. 
He may not require his employees to work 
more than eight hours in a day or 44 hours 
in a week, except where longer hours are 
provided for by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council or in an emergency declared to 
be such by the Minister of Labour. Except 
for the standards regarding hours laid down 
in industrial standards schedules for the 
construction trades, this is the first legal 
limitation on working hours for men in 
New Brunswick. 



Enforcement of the fair wage policy on 
government contracts comes under the 
jurisdiction of the Minister of Labour. A 
Government department or Crown corpor- 
ation contemplating the letting of a con- 
tract must report to the Minister the 
nature of the work and the classes of 
employees likely to be employed. It is the 
Minister's responsibility to prepare fair 
wage schedules to be posted and observed 
by the contractor (where the same class of 
work is not being carried on in the district, 
the Minister may prepare minimum wage 
schedules). 

Before the contractor is paid in full, the 
Minister must be satisfied that wages and 
hours have been in accordance with the Act 
and that every worker has been paid his 
full wages. As security for the payment 
of the proper wages, the Minister may 
direct that a percentage of the money 
owing the contractor be withheld. This 
sum may be drawn on, at the Minister's 
direction, when a contractor is in default. 

Changes as regards minimum wages were 
made in British Columbia and Saskat- 
chewan. In British Columbia, a new pro- 
vision was added to both the Male and 
Female Minimum Wage Acts which enables 
the Board of Industrial Relations to fix an 
overtime rate payable after a lesser 
number of weekly hours than 44. Hereto- 
fore, the Acts provided only for the 
setting of an overtime rate after 44 hours, 
i.e., in cases when the Board, under the 
Hours of Work Act, allowed longer hours 
than 44 (the weekly limit set by the Act) 
to be worked. 

The amendments were made to enable 
the Board to establish uniform overtime 
conditions on large construction projects 
where some employees working under a 
collective agreement might be paid over- 
time after 40 hours, while others working 
for another employer and not covered by 
an agreement might be paid overtime after 
44 hours, as fixed by a minimum wage order 
of the Board. 

The Saskatchewan Minimum Wage Act 
was amended to provide that when 
Christmas or New Year's Day occurs on 
Sunday the rates of pay fixed by the 
Minimum Wage Board for work on the 
holiday will apply to the following 
Monday. The same provision applies when 
the Monday following Remembrance Day 
is declared a holiday. 

In Ontario, the Minister of Labour was 
given discretionary power to permit the 
employment of women and young persons 
in factories, shops and restaurants during 
hours other than those presently pre- 
scribed by the Factory, Shop and Office 



1037 



Building Act. At present, girls and women 
workers and boys between 14 and 16 years 
may not work after 6.30 p.m. in a factory 
or after 11 p.m. in a restaurant, except 
with a permit from the inspector. With 
a permit they may work in a factory up to 
9 p.m. In a restaurant, if the employer 
obtains a permit, women over 18 years 
may work up to 2 a.m. Work until a later 
hour may now be authorized by the Min- 
ister if he is satisfied that it will not 
adversely affect the worker's health, 
welfare and safety. The Minister may lay 
down conditions under which permits will 
be granted. 

In Manitoba, an amendment to the 
Hours and Conditions of Work Act brought 
under the Act the Local Government 
District of Snow Lake, a mining community 
in the northern part of the province. The 
Act, which limits weekly hours to 48 for 
men and to 44 for women unless time and 
one-half is paid, has applied since its enact- 
ment in 1949 to the chief industrial areas 
of the province — Winnipeg and its environs, 
Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Flin Flon and 
Selkirk. 

A further amendment had to do with the 
payment of overtime in the week in which 
Remembrance Day occurs. The day is 
observed as a statutory holiday in Mani- 
toba by virtue of the Remembrance Day 
Act, 1951. The amendment provided that 
an employer is not required to pay time 
and one-half the regular rate for extra time 
worked in the week unless employees work 
more than 11 hours in a day or more than 
the weekly maximum fixed by the Act. This 
provision does not apply when November 
11 falls on a Sunday or on another day on 
which an employee would not normally be 
at work. 

In an amendment to the Remembrance 
Day Act, it was stipulated that employees 
who are required to work on the holiday 
are to get time off with regular pay within 
30 days only when, they are paid at their 
regular rate for working on the holiday. 

Safety Legislation 

Safety laws enacted this year dealt with 
several different fields, including the in- 
spection of elevators and other lifting 
devices, the inspection and licensing of gas 
installations, the operation and inspection 
of boilers and pressure vessels and the 
certification of operating engineers. 

In Ontario, a new Act was passed pro- 
viding for provincial control over the 
licensing and regulating of passenger and 
freight elevators and other types of lifts. 
At the present time the Municipal Act 
authorizes cities, towns and villages to 



license and regulate passenger and freight 
elevators but, apart from the City of 
Toronto, this power is being used only in 
a few municipalities. The new Elevators 
and Lifts Act, when proclaimed in force, 
will require every elevator and lift to be 
inspected annually by an inspector who 
holds a certificate of competency. The 
CSA Safety Code for Passenger and Freight 
Elevators is to be used as a standard by 
inspectors in carrying out their duties. It 
is proposed, however, to exempt from the 
Act by regulations passenger elevators in 
Toronto and freight elevators in muni- 
cipally-owned buildings in Toronto. A new 
branch will be established in the Depart- 
ment of Labour for the administration of 
the Act, under the direction of a chief 
inspector. 

Because of the growing number of power 
and gas installations in Saskatchewan, a 
new Act entitled The Gas Inspection and 
Licensing Act was passed. It also will be 
proclaimed in effect. This Act will forbid 
a person to manufacture, sell or use any 
gas equipment unless it has been approved. 
All gas installations and gas equipment for 
consumers must be inspected and must 
conform to the regulations which are to 
be issued under the Act. 

Before a contractor begins a gas instal- 
lation, he must notify the Department of 
Labour and obtain a permit authorizing 
the work and, at the request of the Depart- 
ment, must submit his plans and specifica- 
tions for approval. Further, a person who 
installs gas equipment, works as a gas- 
fitter or engages in the business of a 
supply house must hold the proper licence 
under the Act. 

A new Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 
passed in Ontario in 1951 was proclaimed 
on March 27, 1953, putting into effect 
standards in line with technical advances 
and with the most up-to-date legislation 
in the field. A few minor amendments 
were made to the Act at the 1953 session, 
making the Act applicable to the fittings 
attached to or used in connection with 
boilers and pressure vessels and providing 
for stricter supervision of welders' quali- 
fications. 

The Newfoundland Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Act enacted in 1949 was amended 
to extend its coverage to hoisting plants 
and traction plants. Boilers, pressure 
vessels, steam plants, compressed gas 
plants and refrigeration plants were already 
covered. Another amendment provided 
that, when a boiler or pressure vessel of 
a registered design has been inspected 
during its construction outside Newfound- 
land, and this fact is attested to in the 



1038 



affidavit of the manufacturer, the chief 
inspector may, upon payment of the 
required inspection fee, issue a certificate 
authorizing its operation without further 
inspection. The certificate permits the 
boiler to be operated until its annual 
inspection under the Act. 

In Alberta, the administration of the 
Boilers Act was transferred from the 
Department of Public Works to the Depart- 
ment of Industries and Labour. 

In Ontario, as in some other provinces, 
provision for the examination and certifi- 
cation of stationary enginemen and firemen 
is contained in a separate Act. This Act 
was completely revised at the 1953 session. 
The new Operating Engineers Act will be 
proclaimed in force at a later date. 

By an amendment to the Engine Oper- 
ators Act of Nova Scotia, it was provided 
that after December 31, 1953, the practice 
of granting a certificate of qualification to 
an engine operator on the basis of experi- 
ence is to be discontinued. Hereafter, 
certificates will be granted by the Engine 
Operators Board by examination only. 

A new departure in Ontario is that, by 
an amendment to the Factory, Shop and 
Office Building Act, the Department of 
Labour was authorized to collect fees for 
its work in examining and approving the 
drawings and plans which are required to 
be submitted to it before the construction 
of a building to be used as a factory or 
of one more than two storeys in height 
intended for use as a shop, bakeshop, 
restaurant or office building may be 
commenced. 

Social Legislation 

Two provinces enacted legislation to 
provide aid to disabled persons, Alberta by 
means of a pension and Saskatchewan by 
the provision of rehabilitation services. 

The Alberta Disabled Persons' Pensions 
Act, like the one passed in Ontario last 
year, provides for a pension of up to $40 
a month, subject to a means test, for a 
person suffering from a chronic disability 
which makes him unfit for gainful employ- 
ment. To be eligible for the allowance 
the person must be at least 21 years old, 
a resident of Alberta for 10 years and not 
in receipt of benefits under any other 
pension legislation. The Act went into 



effect on June . 1. The Ontario Act is 
similar except that the pension may be 
given at the age of 18. 

The Saskatchewan legislation, the Reha- 
bilitation Act, is of a different type, in 
that it is designed to provide rehabilitation 
services for disabled persons so that they 
may develop broader and more remunera- 
tive skills. Both physical and vocational 
rehabilitation are provided for. The 
Minister of Social Welfare and Rehabilita- 
tion may furnish disabled persons with 
medical care, nursing and hospital services, 
drugs and prosthetic appliances and, as 
regards vocational rehabilitation, with 
occupational guidance and training, main- 
tenance, tools and equipment. In addition, 
he is authorized, with the approval of the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, to operate 
a rehabilitation school and to make grants 
to any organization for the rehabilitation 
of the disabled. Provision is also made 
for an agreement between the province and 
the Federal Government, another province, 
or a municipality for the purpose of pro- 
viding rehabilitation services for the 
handicapped. 

Alberta also enacted a measure, the 
Hospitalization and Treatment Services 
Act, providing for payment from provincial 
funds of all or part of the cost of hospital 
and medical benefits for certain needy 
persons. Those eligible include recipients 
of old age assistance, mothers' allowances, 
supplementary allowances and widows' 
pensions, persons receiving federal old age 
security benefits (subject to a means test 
and provided they have lived in Alberta 
for three years), persons afflicted with 
cerebral palsy and persons under 25 years 
of age suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. 

Changes were made, too, in the Mothers' 
Allowances Acts of Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. These permit an allow- 
ance for the care of a dependent child to 
be continued in Nova Scotia from the age 
of 16 to the age of 18 while the child is 
attending high school, and in Prince 
Edward Island authorize an allowance to 
be paid, on the recommendation of the 
Director, in special circumstances where a 
mother is not strictly eligible for assistance 
under the Act. Provision was also made 
in the Prince Edward Island Act for pay- 
ment to a mother whose husband is 
imprisoned for a year or more. 



Sixty-four thousand disabled men and women were restored to useful employment 
during 1952, according to statistics recently released by the American Federation of the 
Physically Handicapped, sponsors of the "National Employ the Physically Handicapped 
Week". 



1039 



Labour Legislation Enacted in 1953 

in British Columbia and Quebec 

Power to fix overtime rates enlarged by change in B.C. Minimum Wage 
Acts. Que. Act seeks to bar court review of labour board decisions 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

The only labour enactment passed at 
the 1953 session of the British Columbia 
Legislature, which sat from February 3 
until March 27, was an amendment to the 
Minimum Wage Acts. A number of labour 
Bills introduced by private members failed 
to pass. 

Minimum Wages 

A new provision added to both the Male 
and Female Minimum Wage Acts enlarges 
the power of the Board of Industrial Rela- 
tions to fix overtime rates. 

The Act authorizes the Board of Indus- 
trial Relations to fix a minimum rate for 
overtime worked where, under powers con- 
ferred by any other Act, the Board has 
authorized longer hours than those per- 
mitted by statute. This provision has 
meant that the Board could fix an over- 
time rate payable after 44 hours had been 
worked in a week, the limit fixed by the 
Hours of Work Act, but not after fewer 
than 44 hours. The 1953 amendment will 
enable the Board to fix an overtime rate 
payable after a lesser number of weekly 
hours than 44. 

Uniform working conditions may there- 
fore now be established on large construc- 
tion projects where some workers are 
covered by a collective agreement and 
others are paid overtime in accordance 
with the requirements of a minimum wage 
order. 

A further amendment permits the Board, 
after an inquiry has been made, to exempt 
by regulation employers or workers from 
any provision of the Act either for the 
whole year or for a season. This provi- 
sion would enable the Board to exempt 
such employees as travelling salesmen, for 
whom the keeping of records of wages and 
hours is not practicable. 

Bills not Passed 

Five Private Member's Bills were intro- 
duced during the session. Three of these 
were a Fair Employment Practices Bill, an 
Equal Pay Bill and a Bill of Rights. Two 



others sought to make significant amend- 
ments in the Industrial Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act and the Annual Holidays 
Act. None of the Bills went beyond first 
reading. 

Fair Employment Practices 

The Fair Employment Practices Bill 
sought to prohibit discrimination in 
employment because of race, creed, colour, 
nationality, ancestry or place of origin, and 
to forbid trade unions to expel from 
membership, suspend -or otherwise discrim- 
inate against any persons for these reasons. 
It would also ban expressions of discrim- 
ination in application forms or advertise- 
ments in connection with employment. 

It would not apply to employers of 
fewer than four persons, to domestic 
servants in private homes, or to religious, 
philanthropic, educational, fraternal or 
social organizations not operated for 
private profit. 

A Fair Employment Practices Board, 
consisting of a Chairman and four mem- 
bers appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council, was to be set up to receive and 
decide complaints of discrimination, and 
the necessary staff appointed to assist the 
Board. 

Each complaint received would be 
allotted by the Chairman to a member 
of the Board for investigation. If the 
member found that "probable cause" 
exists, it would be his duty to try to 
settle the complaint by "conference, con- 
ciliation and persuasion". At this stage 
the proceedings would be entirely confi- 
dential. If he failed to eliminate the 
practice, he would report to the Chairman, 
who would then appoint three members of 
the Board as a hearing tribunal. The 
tribunal would be empowered to hold 
hearings, subpoena witnesses, require 
attendance, administer oaths, take the 
testimony of any person under oath, and 
require the production of documents. The 
tribunal would be required to state its 
findings of fact; if no discriminatory 
practice was found to exist, it would issue 
and file an order dismissing the complaint; 
or if it made a finding of discriminatory 



1040 



practice, it would issue such order "as it 
may deem just". The order could require 
reinstatement with or without compensa- 
tion and could impose penalties of up to 
$100 for an individual or up to $500 for a 
corporation, trade union, or employment 
agency. Orders of the tribunal would be 
served on all the parties concerned and 
would be enforceable in the same manner as 
a judgment of the Supreme Court of 
British Columbia is enforced. 

The Board would also have authority 
to create advisory agencies to study 
problems of discrimination and to assist 
in a program of formal and informal 
education. 

This Bill is more like the Acts in effect 
in a number of the American States than 
the Fair Employment Practices Act of 
Ontario (or the Acts passed by Parlia- 
ment and the Manitoba Legislature at the 
1953 sessions) in that it would provide for 
administration by a Commission rather than 
by a branch of the Department of Labour; 
but the' prohibition of discrimination in 
respect to employment is essentially the 
same, as is the general method of enforce- 
ment (i.e. investigation, conciliation and, 
if these fail, a hearing which may be 
followed by an enforceable order). 

Equal Pay for Equal Work 

The Equal Pay Bill would have pro- 
hibited an employer from paying a female 
employee at a lower rate than a male 
employee employed by him for work of 
comparable character in the same estab- 
lishment. The Board of Industrial Rela- 
tions, which administers the minimum wage 
and hours of work legislation in the 
province, was designated to receive and 
investigate complaints. Failure to comply 
with the equal pay provision would con- 
stitute an offence, punishable on summary 
conviction by a fine not exceeding $100. 
This Bill differs from the equal pay legis- 
lation in Ontario and Saskatchewan in that 
it would not have dealt with complaints 
by means of conciliation procedure and 
inquiry commissions. 

Civil Rights 

A Bill entitled "An Act to protect 
certain Civil Rights" was the same as Bills 
introduced during the previous two sessions 
and similar to the Saskatchewan Bill of 
Rights Act passed in 1947. It would have 
enacted a Bill of Rights declaring the right 
of all persons to the fundamental freedoms, 
limiting the life of the Legislative Assembly 
to five years, forbidding discrimination on 
the grounds of race, creed, religion, colour 
or national origin with respect to employ- 
ment, the conduct of any occupation or 



business, the purchase or rental of prop- 
erty, access to public places, membership 
in a trade union or other occupational 
organization; and would have prohibited 
the publication of material likely to foster 
discrimination. Any person who deprived 
another of these rights could be restrained 
by an injunction issued in the Supreme 
Court of British Columbia. 

Industrial Relations 

Extensive amendments were proposed to 
the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration 
Act, largely based on the recommendations 
of the Inquiry Board set up in 1950 to 
investigate the Act, several following the 
minority report of A. J. Turner (L.G., 
May 1952, p. 563). 

The section of the Act which now 
declares the right of every employee to 
be a member of a trade union or employees' 
organization in which he is eligible for 
membership and to participate in its 
lawful activities would have been changed 
to read as follows: — 

Every employee shall have the right to 
apply for membership in a union of his 
choice, and, if accepted in membership by 
that union, shall then have the right to 
participate in the lawful activities thereof. 

An amendment of similar purpose with 
respect to certification sought to remove 
from the Board the responsibility of 
determining whether or not the majority 
of the employees in a unit are members 
in good standing of the trade union 
applying for certification. Under the pro- 
posed amendment the Board's responsi- 
bility would be limited to determining 
whether a majority "have made applica- 
tion to join the labour organization and 
have been accepted by the labour organiza- 
tion as members in good standing". 

Another amendment would have repealed 
the provision for government supervision 
of the strike vote. Further, it provided 
that a strike vote should be taken among 
the union members in the unit affected 
rather than among all the employees in 
the unit. 

The Bill would also have deleted Sec- 
tion 62, which provides that, if employees 
have gone on strike contrary to any of 
the provisions of the Act, the Board may 
cancel the certification of the bargaining 
authority for these employees. 

It would also have removed the provision 
which permits the Board, where employees 
are on strike or locked out, to direct that 
an offer of settlement be submitted to a 
vote supervised by the Board. 



1041 



It was proposed to replace the section 
permitting union security clauses in collec- 
tive agreements by a new section similar 
to the one in the Saskatchewan Trade 
Union Act. This requires an employer, at 
the request of a trade union repre- 
senting the majority of employees in any 
appropriate bargaining unit, to include a 
maintenance of membership clause in a 
collective agreement. 

A further amendment would have per- 
mitted the Lieutenant-Governor in Council 
to make regulations to allow the province 
to co-operate with the Dominion or with 
other provinces in dealing with labour 
relations in the railway hotel industry as 
well as in meat packing and coal mining 
as at present. 

Under another new provision, the Board 
would have been required to issue all 
decisions and rulings in writing and, if 
requested by a party affected by the 
decision, to furnish reasons for decision. 
Before making regulations, the Board would 
have been required to consult all interested 
parties. Also all regulations were to be 
gazetted. 

Holidays with Pay 

A proposed amendment to the Annual 
Holidays Act provided for an annual holi- 
day with pay of two weeks after one year 
of employment instead of one week as at 
present, and accordingly would have in- 
creased from two to four per cent of annual 
earnings the holiday pay to which a worker 
is entitled. 

QUEBEC 

At the 1953 session of the Quebec 
Legislature, which opened November 12 
and prorogued February 26, "An Act to 
eliminate delays in the settlement of 
disputes between employees and employers" 
was passed to ensure that decisions of the 
Labour Relations Board and councils of 
arbitration are not subject to review by 
the courts. Aside from this, labour Acts 
were not amended. 

The Superior Council of Labour has in 
progress a study of the laws pertaining to 
labour relations with a view to recom- 
mending a "labour code" to replace the 
several laws now in effect. Other Acts 
passed dealt with time off to vote at 
municipal elections, housing and rent 
control. 

Review by Courts Prohibited 

The sections of the Labour Relations Act, 
the Trade Disputes Act and the municipal 
and school corporations Act which pro- 



vided that decisions of the Labour Rela- 
tions Board and of conciliation boards are 
not subject to appeal to the courts were 
replaced so as to state more definitely that 
such decisions and the procedures of these 
bodies are not subject to control by the 
courts. 

The revised sections specifically state 
that the decisions of the Board are without 
appeal and cannot be revised by the 
courts. They also expressly prohibit the 
issuing of the prerogative writs of quo 
warranto, mandamus, certiorari, prohibition 
or injunction against the Labour Relations 
Board or against a council of arbitration 
or against any of their members acting in 
their official capacity. 

Article 50 of the Code of Civil Pro- 
cedure is declared not to apply to the 
Labour Relations Board and to councils of 
arbitration, including those established 
under the Act respecting Municipal and 
School Corporations and their Employees 
or any members of the Board or councils 
acting in their official capacity. 

Article 50 states that, excepting the 
Court of Queen's Bench , "all courts, 
circuit judges and magistrates, and all other 
persons and bodies politic and corporate 
within the province, are subject to the 
superintending and reforming power, order 
and control of the Superior Court and of 
the judges thereof". 

Time Off to Vote 

One of two amendments to the Cities 
and Towns Act of interest to labour 
requires employers on the day of a city 
or town election to grant their employees 
who are eligible to vote at least two hours 
off work with pay in addition to the lunch 
period. Employees of railway companies 
are covered by this section except those 
engaged in the actual operation of trains 
who cannot be given time off without 
impairing the service. 

Previously, the Act merely required 
employers to grant any of their employees 
who were electors a reasonable time to 
vote. 

A penalty of S100 may be imposed on 
summary conviction on an employer who 
contravenes this section. 

Hospitalization Premiums 

A further amendment to the Cities and 
Towns Act authorizes a city or town 
council to pass a by-law providing for the 
payment, out of the general funds of the 
municipality, of premiums for a group 
insurance plan to provide medical, surgical, 
or hospital services for the officers and 



1042 



employees of the corporation. The Act 
already provided for by-laws to be passed 
authorizing the payment out of municipal 
funds of premiums for a group insurance 
plan providing for life insurance for 
municipal employees, and contributions to 
a pension fund. 

Licensing of Chauffeurs and Motor Mechanics 

An amendment to the Motor Vehicles 
Act, which will come into force on 
proclamation, replaces the section of the 
Act under which licences are now issued 
to chauffeurs and motor vehicle mechanics 
by the technical schools. The new provi- 
sion authorizes the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council to prescribe arrangements for 
holding examinations for chauffeurs and 
automobile mechanics, as well as for drivers 
generally, the subject matter of the exam- 
ination, the fees payable and the form of 
the certificates of competency issued to 
successful candidates. The Minister of 
Roads is to appoint the examining boards. 

Housing 

Further amendments were made to two 
of the Acts passed in 1948 to improve 
housing conditions in the province. The 
powers granted to municipal corporations 



to enable them to contribute to the 
solution of the housing shortage were 
extended from February 1, 1954, to June 1, 
1955. The powers granted by the 1948 Act 
include authority to' cede land at $1 per 
unit to co-operative building societies or 
individuals and to reduce the valuation of 
any new dwelling for taxation purposes to 
50 per cent of its real value for a period 
of 30 years. 

A further sum of $10,000,000 was added 
to the amount which the Government is 
authorized to appropriate for the purpose 
of bearing interest charges in excess of two 
per cent on loans made by credit unions or 
loan companies to individuals, syndicates 
or co-operative building societies for the 
construction of homes. This increase brings 
the total amount which has been author- 
ized to date for this purpose to $40,000,000. 

Rent Control 

The Act to promote conciliation between 
lessees and property holders under which 
the Provincial Government took over rent 
control when the Federal Government 
evacuated the field was extended, with 
amendments, to April 30, 1954. The Act 
was to have expired on May 1, 1953 (L.G., 
1951, p. 703). 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 



Two lower courts rule on wages and hours standards on Quebec bridge 
building project and compensation to injured Saskatchewan trainman 



Court ot the Sessions of the Peace, Terrebonne. . . 

. . . finds that fair wage schedule, not Collective 
Agreement Act decree, applies to bridge builder 

In a case tried before a judge of the 
Sessions of the Peace for the District of 
Terrebonne it was held that the decree for 
the construction industry was not appli- 
cable to the building of a bridge. 

The parity committee for the construc- 
tion industry of Terrebonne and Labelle 
charged the contractor with not having 
filed certain monthly reports, and with 
having failed to pay the levy, in violation 
of the Collective Agreement Act and orders 
under it. 

The contractor, who was constructing a 
bridge over the North River and the 
approaches to it under contract to the 



provincial Department of Public Works, 
claimed that he was not subject to the 
decree under the Collective Agreement Act 
for the construction industry in the area 
but to the fair wage schedule under Order 
in Council 800 of April 24, 1929. He 
claimed that he was excluded from the 
decree, although the construction of bridges 
is listed in its industrial jurisdiction, since 
"road work" carried out under contract to 
a department of the provincial Government 
is excluded. 

The question to be decided was whether 
the building of the bridge was "road work". 

In the present case, Judge Lafontaine 
considered it would be difficult to imagine 
a finished road without the construction of 
the bridge. To complete the road a bridge 
had to be built, and it formed an integral 
part of the road which extended across the 
North River. 



1043 



When the interpretation of the strict 
letter of the law leads to an absurdity, it 
is the rule that the intention of the legis- 
lature may be consulted. He found that 
the Roads Act, in a section setting out the 
duties of the Minister of Roads, speaks of 
"embankments, bridges, drains, guard walls. 
and other road work" forming part of a 
highway. From this and a similar section 
in the Public Works Department Act he 
concluded that the Legislature intended 
"road work" to include the construction 
and maintenance of bridges. He therefore 
dismissed the charge, with costs. Le comite 
Paritaire des Metiers de la construction 
(Terrebonne et Labelle) v. Champoux, 
Rapports Judiciaires de Quebec, [19531 
CS Montreal, Nos. 3 and 4, 130. 

District Court, Saskatoon. . . 

. . . holds it lacks jurisdiction to set aside a 
settlement between injured trainman and railway 

In an action in the District Court at 
Saskatoon, a workman injured in the 
course of his duties as a trainman for 
the Canadian National Railways sought 
an order setting aside the settlement to 
which he had agreed and claimed com- 
pensation under the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act. This is the individual liability 
statute applicable to certain groups of 
railway employees, not the Workmen's 
Compensation (Accident Fund) Act similar 
to the collective liability statutes in other 
provinces. 

The Court held that it lacked jurisdic- 
tion to set aside the settlement. 

Judge Smith of the District Court in 
his reasons for decision set out the facts 
of the case. On July 31, 1950, the train- 
man was injured in the course of his 
duties. After receiving medical treatment 
he returned to work but was unable to 
carry out his duties. In October 1950, he 
consulted the company's clinic in Winnipeg 
and was informed there that he had no 



physical disability. He returned to work 
on October 22. On November 9 he signed 
a release in writing in settlement of his 
claim against the company arising out of 
the accident, including any claim to com- 
pensation. The company agreed to assume 
payment of reasonable medical expenses 
incurred up to that date. He worked until 
December 23, when he consulted a 
Saskatoon doctor who advised him that he 
was suffering from a definite fracture of 
the pedicle of the spine. 

Before the District Court, the trainman 
alleged that the settlement was based on a 
fundamental mistake of both parties, and 
that the mistake was induced by the 
company's medical clinic, which had 
honestly but falsely represented to him 
that there was nothing seriously the 
matter with him. He further alleged that 
he had been unable to work since 
December 23, 1950, and he claimed $3,000 
(the maximum compensation then pro- 
vided for in the statute), less the amount 
paid by the company under the settle- 
ment for medical expenses. 

Judge Smith stated that the district 
court is purely a statutory court, that is, 
it possesses only such jurisdiction as has 
been conferred on it by statute. He 
examined the sections of the Workmen's 
Compensation Act delegating jurisdiction to 
the district court. It is expressly stated 
that compensation may be recovered by 
action in the district court, but he could 
not find that jurisdiction had been dele- 
gated to the court to set aside an agree- 
ment of settlement between an empk>3 r er 
and a workman. 

For these reasons he stayed the pro- 
ceedings under Section 34 of the District 
Courts Act. When proceedings are stayed 
under this section for lack of jurisdiction, 
the records are transferred to the Court 
of Queen's Bench. Hurman v. Canadian 
National Railways, [19531 8 WWR (NS) 
509. 



Collective Agreements 

(Continued from page 1032) 

Plumbers and Roofers, Trois Rivieres. 

An Order in Council dated April 30 and 
gazetted May 9, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
May 1948, p. 488, June 1950, p. 876; April 
1951, p. 546; May 1952, p. 611). 

Overtime: double time for work on any of 
9 specified holidays. (Previously time and 
one-half with double time for Sunday work 
only.) 



Vacation with pay: as previously, 
employees are entitled, each year, to one 
week's vacation with pay equal to 2 per 
cent of earnings. Vacation to be taken at 
a date set by the employer between June 10 
and September 10. However, this amend- 
ment now provides that the week of vaca- 
tion with pay may be taken at any time of 
the year, at the employee's request. 



1044 



40 th Annual Convention of Association of 

International Government Labour Officials 



Discussion of such topics as industrial 
health and safety, the role of the states 
and the provinces in settling labour dis- 
putes, legislation affecting women and 
children and the training of factory in- 
spectors highlighted the 40th annual 
convention of the International Association 
of Governmental Labour Officials, at 
Providence, Rhode Island, May 25 to 27. 
Delegates from United States federal and 
state governments, from the Canadian 
provincial and federal governments and 
from Alaska and Puerto Rico attended. 

During the conference session devoted to 
industrial health and safety, the delegates 
were told that the United States Bureau 
of Labor Standards renders assistance to 
the states in the field of industrial safety 
and will, upon request, conduct courses and 
set examinations for factory inspectors. 

Frank McElroy of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported the results of a survey 
of circular saw accidents. Statistics 
collected by state safety inspectors were 
compiled and analysed by the Bureau. The 
survey, based upon 1,021 case records, 
indicated the activity of the injured person 
at the time of the accident, the broad 
categories of accidents and the agencies 
which inflicted the injuries, the type of 
injuries experienced and the physical and/or 
mechanical hazards which directly con- 
tributed to the accidents. 

In the session studying the role of the 
states and the provinces in settling labour 
disputes, N. D. Cochrane, Deputy Min- 
ister of Labour for New Brunswick, 
described the measures for settling labour 
disputes in Canada. Mr. Cochrane told 



the session that in 1952, 70 per cent of 
Canada's labour disputes were settled 
between labour and management alone, 19 
per cent by a single government concilia- 
tion officer and 10 per cent by conciliation 
boards. 

During the session dealing with the 
legislation affecting women and children in 
industry, the Hon. C. C. Williams, Min- 
ister of Labour for Saskatchewan, outlined 
the legislation in his province as it affected 
female employees. In addition, problems 
dealing with equal pay legislation were 
discussed at this session. 

Among the Canadian delegates to the 
conference were: the Hon. C. C. Williams, 
Minister of Labour of Saskatchewan; 
W. .Elliott Wilson, Deputy Minister of 
Labour for Manitoba; Miss Alice 
Buscombe, Statistician, Ontario Department 
of Labour; Dr. Bertrand Bellemarre, indus- 
trial hygienist with the Quebec Depart- 
ment of Labour; Cyprien Miron, Director, 
Conciliation and Arbitration Service, Quebec 
Department of Labour; Clovis Bernier, 
Chief of the Factory Inspection Service of 
the Quebec Department of Labour; N. D. 
Cochrane, Deputy Minister of the New 
Brunswick Department of Labour; and 
Misses Edith Lorentsen and Evelyn Best 
of the Legislation Branch, Federal Depart- 
ment of Labour. 

Elected President of the Association for 
the next year was David Walker, Pennsyl- 
vania Commissioner of Labour. W. Elliott 
Wilson, Manitoba's Deputy Minister of 
Labour, was named Vice-President. 

The Association's 1954 meeting will be 
held in Wyoming, it was decided. 



Laws affecting labour were passed in all 
but one of the 15 United States Legisla- 
tures meeting in regular session in 1952: 
14 of the states and Puerto Rico. This 
legislative action is summarized in the 
U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of 
Labor Standards new Annual Digest of 
State and Federal Labour Legislation. 

The bulletin, No. 163, also includes a 
digest of several Acts passed in the 1951 
sessions in Massachusetts and Pennsyl- 
vania, which adjourned after the 1951 
Annual Digest had gone to press. 



General increases in workmen's com- 
pensation benefits were approved in four 
states and the trend towards occupational 
disease coverage was continued. Virginia 
shifted from schedule coverage to com- 
pulsory full coverage and Louisiana covered 
occupational diseases for the first time. 

New Jersey passed an equal-pay law 
prohibiting wage discrimination because 
of sex. 

The publication may be obtained from 
the Bureau of Labor Standards, U.S. 
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 



1045 



Unemployment Insurance 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Statistics* for April, 1953 
were fewer than in March 

Initial and renewal claims for unemploy- 
ment insurance declined in April but were 
more numerous than in the same month in 
1952. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
monthly report on the operation of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act shows that 
during April 117,171 initial and renewal 
claims for benefit were received in local 
offices across Canada, compared with 
179,714 in March and 100,951 in April 1952. 

There was a substantial decrease in the 
volume of recorded unemployment as 
measured by a count of ordinary claimants 
on the live unemployment register the last 
working day of the month. On April 30, 
ordinary claimants recorded on the live 
register totalled 215,242 (179,024 males and 
36,218 females), a decline of some 27 per 
cent from the count of 294,497 claimants 
(255,256 males and 39,241 females) on 
March 31. On April 30, 1952, ordinary 
claimants numbered 218,055 (173,386 males 
and 44,669 females). Of the remaining 
claimants whose registers were in the active 
file on April 30, there were 17,341 on short 
time, 3,200 on temporary lay-off and 4,115 
on supplementary benefit (chiefly postal 
claimants in Newfoundland and Quebec). 

Adjudication officers disposed of a total 
of 138,879 initial and renewal claims during 
the month. Entitlement to benefit was 
granted in 90,427 cases, while 36,305 initial 
claims were disallowed because of insuffi- 
ciency of contributions. Disqualifications 
were imposed in 19,438 cases (including 
5,757 on revised and 1,534 on supplementary 
benefit claims). The chief reasons for 
disqualification were: voluntarily left 
employment without just cause, 5,673 cases; 
not unemployed, 5,670 cases (in 62 per cent 
of the "not unemployed" cases, the dura- 
tion of the disqualification period was six 
days or less) ; not capable of and not 
available for work 1,833 cases. 

New beneficiaries during the month 
totalled 83,659, compared with 114,683 in 
March and 79,424 in April 1952. 



, show claims for unemployment insurance 
but more numerous than in April last year 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



A total of $16,389,294 was paid in com- 
pensation for 5,225,796 days of proven 
unemployment during April, in comparison 
with $20,796,825 and 6,613,705 days in March 
and $13,253,537 and 4,911,679 days during 
April 1952. 

For the week April 25-May 1, $3,634,010 
was paid to 196,315 persons in compensa- 
tion for 1,159,164 days, compared with 
$3,635,074 paid to 211,442 persons in com- 
pensation for 1,155,540 days during the week 
March 28-April 3. During the week April 
26-May 2, 1952, 196,973 beneficiaries were 
paid $3,096,642 as compensation for 1,150,419 
days of unemployment. 

Average daily rate of benefit was $3.14 
for the week under review this month, 
compared with $3.15 for the same week last 
month, and $2.69 for the same week last 
year. 

Insurance Registrations* 

Reports received from local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission for 
the month of April show that insurance 
books have been issued to 2,877,634 
employees who have made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund at one 
time or another since April 1, 1953. 

At April 30, 247,486 employers were 
registered, a decrease of 1,065 since 
March 31. 



See Tables E-l to E-7 at end of bock. 



*Cumulative during each fiscal year, 
revised .beginning in April each year. The 
renewal of insurance books was incomplete 
at April 30 and a revised figure will appear 
in next month's issue. 



1046 



Supplementary Benefit 

Since the period for which supplementary 
benefit is payable expired April 15, no 
claims filed on or after April 9 were con- 
sidered under the supplementary benefit 
provisions of the Act. Thus, of a total of 
36,305 claims disallowed, only about 85 per 
cent (30,818) were referred for supple- 
mentary benefit. Of a total of 23,817 initial 



claimants entitled to benefit, 20,482 or some 
86 per cent qualified under class 1. An 
amount of $2,801,555 was paid in supple- 
mentary benefit during the month. 

As stated above, the period for which 
these benefits are payable expired on 
April 15, consequently no data are avail- 
able for Table E-7. During 1952, the 
period expired on March 31, hence no 
comparable data exist for last year. 



Decision of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Digest of a selected decision rendered by the Umpire 



Decision CUB 918, March 20, 1953 

Held: (1) That if in cases of refusal to 
cross picket lines where no actual violence 
is displayed, satisfactory evidence is adduced 
that the workers refrained from doing so on 
account of a legitimate fear of reprisals 
against them, their families or material 
possessions, they are not participating 
within the meaning of subsection (2) of 
Section 89 of the Act. 

(2) That the claimant, by refraining 
from crossing a peaceful picket line formed 
by workers of an affiliated union on strike, 
became a participant in the dispute and 
consequently was subject to disqualification 
under Section 39(1) of the Act. 

Material Facts of Case. — The claimant 
filed an initial application for benefit on 
May 26, 1952, stating that he had worked 
as a tool crib man for the Ford Motor 
Company of Canada Limited, Windsor, 
Ont., from February 26, 1928, to May 23, 
1952, when he was separated from his 
employment because of a work shortage. 

According to the submissions, the salaried 
office workers of the said company who are 
members of Local 240, UAW-CIO, went on 
strike on May 19, 1952, and set up a picket 
line at the entrance of Plant No. 1, which 
houses the offices and some production 
departments of the company. The hourly- 
rated employees (members of Local 200, 
UAW-CIO) employed in that plant were 
permitted to cross the picket line in order 
to carry on their regular work. On May 
23, 1952, however, picketing was extended 
to all the plants and the hourly-rated 
employees refrained from crossing the 



picket lines with the result that there was 
a complete stoppage of work at the com- 
pany's premises until June 1, 1952, when 
the dispute was settled. 

The insurance officer disqualified the 
claimant (a member of Local 200), from 
the receipt of benefit from May 23, 1952 
to June 1, 1952, because, in his opinion, the 
claimant's loss of employment for that 
period was by reason of a stoppage of work 
due to a labour dispute (Section 39(1) of 
the Act). 

The claimant appealed to a court of 
referees, which, after having heard him, 
his representative (an official of Local 200), 
and an official of the company, by a 
majority finding upheld the decision of the 
insurance officer. 

Local 200, UAW-CIO, appealed to the 
Umpire. The Canadian Congress of 
Labour, with which the interested union is 
affiliated, in addition to submitting a 
lengthy brief, requested an oral hearing of 
the case before the Umpire, which was held 
in Ottawa March 4, 1953, and attended by 
the Assistant Research Director of the said 
Congress and a representative of the 
Commission. 

Conclusions. — Mr in his brief 

to me made it clear that the Canadian 
Congress of Labour did not intend to con- 
test the finding of the court of referees 
that the picketing at the Ford plants in 
Windsor was entirely peaceful, that there 
was work available for the claimant and 
those associated with him in his appeal and 
that they deliberately refrained from cross- 
ing the picket lines. He stated, however, 



75802—6 



1017 



that it was the Congress' belief that the 
position taken by me and my predecessor 
in similar instances in the past (that 
refusal to cross a peaceful picket line is 
evidence of participation in a labour 
dispute), has had the result of introducing 
and preserving an unduly rigid interpreta- 
tion of the rights of a claimant where 
Section 39 of the Act is concerned. 

He went on to state that the Congress' 
objection "is to the assumption that there 
is not, or ought not to be, any reason 
which should prevent a union member from 
crossing a picket line other than the 
presence or the threat of physical violence". 

According to the Congress, Parliament, 
by the inclusion of Section 40(2) (a) in the 
Act, which states that employment arising 
in consequence of a stoppage of work due 
to a labour dispute shall be deemed not to 
be suitable for a claimant, has recognized 
and respected a state of mind which exists 
among organized workers at least that to 
take a job in a strikebound plant would 
be not only a dishonourable deed but would 
be to strike at the very roots of the labour 
movement. Unions, like other organized 
groups, for instance doctors, lawyers, etc., 

contends Mr , "are governed by 

mores which are not set by law or even 
by the constitutions of their professional 
associations but have been established on 
the basis of experience and tradition. . . . 
(Organized workers) are bound by attitudes 
and customs which go beyond the law. 
They do things, or abstain from doing 
them, not because they are unlawful but 
because it is morally wrong to do other- 
wise. . . . To insist, therefore, that trade 
unionists must permit no other motivation 
but the fear of a broken head to influence 
them in regard to their employment is to 
set them aside as a sort of pariah caste, 
inferior to others and not subject to the 
same human susceptibilities." 

In the opinion of Mr , the 

foregoing considerations are particularly 
important to the workers engaged in the 
automotive industry in Windsor, where the 
major part of the population is made up 
of union members and their families. 

"In the mind of the appellant and his 

fellow-workers," continues Mr , 

"some very real problems arose when they 
found themselves confronted by Local 240's 
picket lines. One was that by crossing 
those lines they might become declasses, 
in regard to their particular power group 
(i.e., the unions, the others in Windsor 
being, according to a Canadian sociologist, 
the automobile manufacturers, the Catholic 
Church and the local business group). The 



second, flowing from the first, was that as 
a further consequence of their breach of 
union mores, they might cut themselves on 
from the very real benefits which they 
enjoyed because of their union's extra- 
economic activities and status." 

Mr summed up his carefully 

and ably prepared brief as follows: — 

(a) that the labour movement is a social 
institution whose functions transcend 
the economic, and which has certain 
codes of behaviour recognized by 
Parliament in the Unemployment 
Insurance Act; 

(b) that, under these circumstances, reli- 
ance on physical violence as the sole 
criterion with regard to refusing to 
cross a picket line is contrary to 
public policy, in addition to being 
discriminatory; 

(c) that the appellant had very real 
cause to refrain from crossing the 
picket lines set up by Local 240, in 
addition to the moral compulsion 
induced by a trade union environ- 
ment ; and 

(d) that the term "violence" should be 
broadened in its meaning to include 
the potential loss of beneficial treat- 
ment enjoyed by virtue of trade union 
membership and/or adherence to trade 
union standards of behaviour even 
where these are not necessarily those 
prescribed by law. 

I have read with considerable interest the 

views expressed by Mr concerning 

the ethics which do or should govern the 
actions of the members of "organized 
labour" particularly in connection with 
labour disputes when, although not 
directly interested therein, they are con- 
fronted with the problem of making the 
decision as to whether or not they should 
cross a picket line. 

I quite agree that if one chooses to 
associate himself with others in the pursu- 
ance of common and legitimate interests, 
he should act in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of his association. I purposely under- 
lined the word "legitimate" because Mr. 

has omitted to differentiate between 

legal and illegal strikes, although I am 
confident that it was not his intention to 
argue that a union member is morally 
justified in refraining from crossing a picket 
line formed by workers of an affiliated 
union who are illegally on strike. The 
concept of ethics spurns any idea of 
participation in immorality whether by 
positive or negative acts. 

The weakness of Mr 's argu- 
ment, however, is not in the underlying 
principle upon which* he relies but in its 
application to the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act. The disqualification for reason 
of participation depends upon the fact of 
(Continued on page 1061) 



1048 



Labour Condititms 

in Federal t*overniiient Contracts 



Wage Schedules Prepared And Contracts Awarded during May 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 142 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 105 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each (b) hours of work shall not exceed eight 

of the contracts listed under this heading in the day and 44 in the week, except in 

provide that: — emergency conditions approved by the Min- 

(a) the wage rate for each classification ister of Labour; 
of labour shown in the wage schedule in- ( } overtime rates of be estab . 

eluded in the contract is a minimum rate Hshed b th Minister Sf Labour for all 

only and contractors and subcontractors are h ^ M fa excesg f . ht d and 

not exempted from the payment of higher 44 week* 

wages in any instance where, during the v ' 

continuation of the work, wage rates in (d) no employee shall be discriminated 

excess of those shown in the wage schedule against because of his race, national origin, 

have been fixed by provincial legislation, by colour or religion, nor because the employee 

collective agreements in the district, or by has made a complaint with respect to such 

current practice; discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded under this heading for the month of May are set out below: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Agriculture 2 $81,694.00 

Defence Construction (1951) Ltd 2 34,833.00 

Defence Construction (1951) Ltd.: 

(Building and Maintenance) 1 85,748 . 00 

Post Office 10 98,422.66 

Public Works 1 5,728.00 

(The labour conditions included in con- district, or if there be no such custom, then 

tracts for the manufacture of supplies and fair and reasonable hours; 
equipment provide that:— ( c ) overtime rates of pay may be estab- 

(a) all persons who perform labour in Hshed by the Minister of Labour for all 
such contracts shall be paid such wages as hours worked in excess of those fixed by 
are currently paid in the district to com- custom of the trade in the district, or in 
petent workmen, and if there is no current excess of fair and reasonable hours; 

rate then a fair and reasonable rate; but in (d) no emp i oyee shall be discriminated 

?host'SaSeX ttffa^s'of tL'^ov^ **« -cause »f his race, national origin, 

in which the work is being performed; colour or religion, nor because the employee 

(b) the working hours shall be those has made a complaint with respect to such 
fixed by the custom of the trade in the rliserimination.) 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour 
legislation of the federal Government has 
the purpose of insuring that all Govern- 
ment contracts for works of construction 
and for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment contain provisions to secure 
the payment of wages generally accepted 
as fair and reasonable in each trade or 
classification employed in the district 
where the work is being performed. 

The practice of Government depart- 
ments and those Crown corporations to 
which the legislation applies, before 
entering into contracts for any work of 
construction, remodelling, repair or demo- 
lition, is to obtain wage schedules from 
the Department of Labour, showing the 
applicable wage rate for each classifica- 
tion of workmen deemed to be required 
in the execution of the work. These 



wage schedules are thereupon included 
with other relevant labour conditions as 
terms of such contracts to be observed 
by the contractors. 

Wage schedules are not included in 
contracts for the manufacture of supplies 
and equipment because it is not possible 
to determine in advance the classifica- 
tions to be employed in the execution 
of a contract. A statement of the labour 
conditions which must be observed in 
every such contract is, however, included 
therein and is of the same nature and 
effect as those which apply in works of 
construction. 

Copies of the federal Government's 
Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 
lation may be had upon request to the 
Industrial Relations Branch of the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



104fr 



75802—6* 



Wage Claims Received and Payments made during May 

During the month of May the sum of $1,371.96 was collected from two employers 
who had failed to pay the wages required by the labour conditions attached to their 
contracts. This amount has been or will be distributed to the 60 employees concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wages Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 



Department 

Amherst Point Marsh N S: R K 
Chappell, construction of dyke. John 
Lusby Marsh N S: R K Chappell, con- 
struction of dyke. Kennetcook Marsh N S: 
Welton Construction, construction of dyke. 
Martock Marsh N S: Welton Construction, 
construction of dyke; J G Webster, marsh 
drainage. Newport Town Marsh N S: 
McCully & Soy, construction of dyke; J G 
Webster, marsh drainage. River Hebert 
Marsh N S: J G Webster, construction of 
dyke. Dixon Island Marsh N B: E L 



of Agriculture 

Casey, construction of dyke. Hillsboro 
Marsh N B: Wheaton Bros, construction 
of dyke and aboiteau. Memramcook West 
Marsh N B: Bay Construction, construc- 
tion of dyke. Sackville Marsh N B: E R 
Stiles, construction of dyke. Vauxhall 
Altai Remington Construction Co Ltd, 
reinforced concrete irrigation structure, Bow 
River project; Assiniboia Construction Co 
Ltd, reinforced concrete irrigation struc- 
ture, Bow River project. 



Central Mortgage and 

Gander Nfld: Eastern Woodworkers Ltd, 
construction of houses. Eastern Passage 
N S: Halifax Painters & Decorators, 
exterior painting. New Glasgow N S: 
H K Brine, exterior painting. Saint John 
N B: Harry A Clark, re-insulating & 
wrapping of pipes, Rockwood Court. 
Montreal P Q: Lewis Bros Asphalt Paving 
Ltd, *grading & paving, Benny Farm; 
D'Errico Bros Asphalt Paving Ltd, *grading 
& installation of drainage system, Villeray 
Terrace. Barriefield Ont: Walter J Hals- 
grove, landscaping. Brantford Ont: Nap 
Beauchamp Construction Co, repairs to 
houses. Cobourg Ont : R H Clark, *exterior 
painting. Deep River Ont: Shalamar 
Gardens, landscaping. Dry den Ont: J H 
Turcotte, exterior painting. Gloucester 
Ont: Shalamar Gardens, *landscaping. 
London Ont: J Bushan, interior & 
exterior painting. Pickering Ont: Oliver 
Maurer, ^stockpiling coal. Toronto Ont: 
Atlas Excavators Ltd, *reinforcing under- 
ground tunnel. Uplands Ont: H H Sutton, 
landscaping. Brandon Man: Al Decorating 



Housing Corporation 

& Signs, exteric minting. Selkirk Man: 
E Oswald & oon, exterior painting. 
Winnipeg Man: Ideal Decorating Co, 
exterior painting. Lloydminster Sask: G J 
Mogenson, exterior painting. North Battle- 
ford Sask: Reg Parsons, *exterior paint- 
ing. Prince Albert Sask: Wm Sigalet & 
Co Ltd, exterior painting. Regina Sask: 
Norman Clark, *renovation of landscaping. 
Weyburn Sask: Norman Clark, *renova- 
tion of landscaping. Claresholm Alta: 
General Construction Co (Alberta) Ltd, 
construction of roadway & driveways. 
Medicine Hat Alta: J H Back, exterior 
painting. Namao Alta: T J Pounder & 
Co Ltd, paving roads & driveways. 
Penhold Alta: Standard Gravel & Sur- 
facing of Canada Ltd, construction of 
roads, driveways, catch basins & open 
drainage system. Kamloops B C: R H 
Neven Co Ltd, *exterior painting. Van- 
couver B C: Ed Johnston, landscaping, 
Fraserview; R H Neven Co Ltd, exterior 
painting; Ed Johnston, *landscaping. 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 



St John's Nfld: Byers Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of stores, workshop, office 
bldg, etc. Fredericton N B: Caldwell 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
garage, RCASC. Bagotville P Q: North 
Shore Construction Co, construction of 
roads. Falconbridge Ont: A W Robertson 
Construction Ltd, construction of addi- 



tional work. Foymount Ont: A W 
Robertson Construction Ltd, construction of 
additional work. Meaford Ont: Keiller 
Construction Co Ltd, installation of water 
supply system. Shirley Bay Ont: M 
Sullivan & Son Ltd, construction of central 
workshop bldg. Toronto Ont: Fassel & 
Baglier Construction, addition to north 



1050 



wing, HMCS "York". Trenton Ont: H J 
McFarland Construction Co, hangar aprons 
& drainage. Winnipeg Man: Benjamin 
Bros Ltd, construction of water supply, 
sewerage, power & communications duct 
lines. Namao Altai Standard Iron & 
Engineering Works Ltd, erection of vertical 



steel tanks. Comox B Ci Hanssen Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of deep well 
pumphouse. Esquimalt B Ci General 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
magazine & services bldgs & associated 
services. Aklavik N W T: Tower Co Ltd, 
construction of barrack block. 



Building and 
Lachine P Q: Charles Duranceau Ltd, 
construction of parking areas, RCAF 
Station. Valcartier P Q : Magloire Cauchon 
Ltee, construction of observation shelter & 
storage bldg, Small Arms Artillery Proof 
& Experimental Establishment. Ottawa 
Ont: Alex I Garvock Ltd, construction of 
roof hatches, No 26 COD, Plouffe Park. 
Rockcliffe Ont: Dominion Steel & Coal 
Corporation Ltd, erection of chain link 



Maintenance 
fence, RCAF Station. Trenton Ont: H J 
McFarland Construction Co Ltd, paving of 
road, RCAF Station. Rivers Man: J H 
From, landscaping, RCAF Station. Calgary 
Alta: Assiniboia Construction Co Ltd, 
replacement of asphalt standing, RCAF 
Station. Matsqui B C: Ralph & Arthur 
Parsons Ltd, removing, overhauling & 
re-installing diesel electric unit, Naval 
Radio Station. 



National Harbours Board 

Halifax Harbour N S: Atlas Construction Co Ltd, construction of addition to grain 
elevator. Montreal Harbour P Q: Miron & Freres Ltd, asphalt paving, lower floors of 
sheds Nos. 12 & 14; Jean Paquette, construction of offices in shed No. 12. 



Department of 

St John's Nfld: L S B Stokes & Sons 
Ltd, alterations & addition to bldg No. 2, 
for RCMP, Kenna's. Hill. RvHico 
Harbour P E I: L G . M H Smit 1 Ltd, 
breakwater repairs. Chester N S: J P 
Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Dingwall N S: 
McNamara Construction Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Herring Cove N S: Atlantic Bridge Co 
Ltd, reconstruction of breakwater and 
wingwall. Port Hood Island N S: A D 
MacDonald & C J McDonald, closing 
northern entrance. Swim's Point N S: 
Mosher & Rawding Ltd, wharf repairs & 
improvements. Cape Bimet N B: Modern 
Construction Ltd, construction of wharf. 
Fairhaven N B: Colin R MacDonald 
Ltd, wharf reconstruction & extension. 
Little Aldouane & Grand Aldouane N B: 
Roger LeBlanc, *dredging. McEachern's 
Point N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf 
extension. Middle Caraquet N B: Comeau 
& Savoie Construction Ltd, wharf exten- 
sion. Forestville P Q: McNamara Con- 
struction Co Ltd, wharf extension. Riviere 
au Renard P Q: Mannix Ltd, wharf recon- 



Public Works 

struction. Ste Anne de la Pocatiere P Q: 
Dieppe Construction Inc, addition to 
headerhouse. Honey Harbour Ont: R A 
Blyth, wharf reconstruction. Little Current 
Ont: Canadian Dredge & Dock Co, 
*dredging. London Ont: Ellis-Don Ltd, 
alterations to provide for plant growth 
chambers, Science Service laboratory. 
Ottawa Ont: Stanley G Brookes, installa- 
tion of transformers & switchboard, alter- 
ations, etc, Mortimer Bldg; Edge Ltd, 
installation of automatic sprinkler with 
central supervisory & fire alarm system 
"G" & "H", 562 Booth St; Canadian 
Comstock Co Ltd, fluorescent lighting & 
transformer room changes, Dominion 
Archives bldg. Port Stanley Ont: Mc- 
Namara Construction Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Kimberley B C: C J Oliver Ltd, erection 
of public bldg. Shawinigan Lake B C: 
B C Pile Drivers Ltd, construction of 
wharf & floats. Vancouver B C: Walach 
Construction Co Ltd, alterations, lighting, 
plumbing, paving, etc, RCMP Sub-Division 
Hdqrs. 



Department 

Cape Spear Nfld: S J Clark, construction 
of dwelling. Lamaline Nfld: S J Clark, 
erection of dwelling and tower. Dartmouth 
N S: Acadia Construction Ltd, additional 
airport development. Dorval P Q: The 
Highway Paving Co Ltd, additional 
development, Montreal Airport. Timmins 
Ont: Storms Contracting Co Ltd, addi- 



of Transport 

tional airport development. Regina Sask: 
Mannix Ltd, additional airport develop- 
ment; A D Ross & Co Ltd, installation of 
field lighting. Comox B C: S & S Electric 
Ltd, installation of field lighting. Mill 
Bay (Patricia Bay) B C: A V Richardson 
Ltd, construction of radio beacon station. 



1051 



wages, I a ours and 
Working Conditions 



Wage Rates for Male Labourers 

in Manufacturing in Recent Years 

Labourers' wage rates rose 201 -7 per cent between 1939 and 1952 
while those of all plant workers advanced by 178 -7 per cent. In terms 
of averages, labourers' rates are highest in British Columbia, Ontario 



The wage rates paid to labourers are of 
particular importance in that they often 
form the base for the entire wage structure 
of individual establishments or the focal 
point from which the differentials for many 
other skills are determined. Generally 
speaking they are the lowest rates paid in 
a plant, apart from hiring rates or those 
paid to apprentices. 

In numerical terms, labourers are the 
most important occupational group in 
manufacturing. This study, for example, 
covers more than 72.000 workers in this 
classification. Important, too, is the fact 
that labourers constitute the largest group 
of workers in most of the manufacturing 
industries. 

For these reasons, and the fact that 
the duties of labourers are similar, regard- 
less of the firm or industry in which they 
are employed, the rates paid to such 
workers are useful in helping to determine 
relative wage levels in various establish- 
ments, industries and localities. 

For purposes of this article a labourer 
is a worker who performs one or a variety 
of heavy or light manual duties which can 
be learned in a short period of time and 
which require a minimum of independent 
judgment. Only those whose duties are 
too general to be classified otherwise are 
included in this occupation. 

Wage Trends 

A widely-shared opinion is that unskilled 
workers have succeeded in obtaining gains 
in wages over the past decade or more 
sufficient to narrow percentage differentials 
that existed between them and the skilled 
and semi-skilled workers in the late '30's 
and early '40's. This view appears to be 
supported by statistics showing the upward 
movement of wage levels for labourers, the 
most important constituent of the unskilled 



group, and plant workers as a whole in the 
manufacturing industries. For labourers, 
rates rose by 201-7 per cent between 1939 
and 1952 and for all plant workers by 178-7 
per cent. In recent years, the two indexes 
on a base of 1939 as 100 run as follows: — 



Year 


Labourers" 


All Plant 
Employees 


Index 


Annual 
per cent 
Increase 


Index 


Annual 
per cent 
Increase 


1945 


150-2 

165-9 
189-9 
214-0 
224-1 
244-6 
274-9 
301-7 


"io-5 

14-5 
12-7 

4-7 
9-1 
12-4 

9-7 


146-5 
161-5 
183-3 
205-9 
217-9 
230-7 
261-6 
278-7 




1946 


10-2 


1947 


13-5 


1948 


12-3 


1949 


5-8 


1950 


5-9 


1951 


13-4 


1952 


6-5 







It is apparent that during the war years 
1939-1945, there was a significant disparity 
between the average percentage wage gains 
of labourers and plant workers as a whole. 
During this period the rates of labourers 
rose by 50-2 per cent whereas those of 
plant workers as a group advanced by 
only 46-5 per cent. Since the war, with 
an accelerated upward movement of wage 
levels generally, labourers' rates have 
advanced by a correspondingly greater 
amount. From 1945 to 1952, the rates of 
labourers doubled whereas those of plant 
workers rose by 90 per cent. In five of 
the seven post-war years, the increase in 
labourers' rates has, in percentage terms, 
been higher than that for plant workers 
of all levels of skill. 

While cents-per-hour differentials in wage 
rates between labourers and semi-skilled 
and skilled workers have widened con- 
siderably during the period since 1939, 
percentage differentials, as evidenced by 
these statistics of wage trends, have 



1052 



narrowed. These trends reflect the 
tendency of unions and employers to 
negotiate wage increases in terms of single 
cents-per-hour or other amounts that are 
not proportionate to actual wage levels for 
individual occupations. With rising living 
costs, the escalator wage formulas, which 
have become widespread throughout indus- 
try, tend to narrow skill differentials, as 
they generally provide for a fixed hourly 
increase for a given change in the cost- 
of-living index, regardless of the occupation 
or class of employee receiving the wage 
adjustment. With a decline in living costs, 
the opposite result is, of course, obtained, 
as the more skilled workers lose less pro- 
portionately than those receiving lower 
wages. Operating in the direction of 
maintaining inter-occupational percentage 
differentials is the frequent practice of 
maintaining the take-home-pay of workers 
with a reduction in hours of work. This 
serves to increase all hourly rates by the 
same percentage amounts. 

Wage Structure 

The rates for labourers given in Table 1 
show that the Canadian wage structure is 
characterized by fairly pronounced regional 
and local differentials in wage rates. These 
reflect the underlying economic conditions 
as well as customs and social attitudes that 
exist in various sections of the country. In 
many cases, geographical differentials are 
associated with the degree of concentration 
of high-wage or low-wage industries and the 
extent and strength of trade unionism 
within regions or metropolitan areas. 

In terms of averages, wage rates for 
labourers are highest in British Columbia 
and Ontario; but even within these prov- 
inces local differences in wage levels are 
substantial and many centres in the 
Atlantic Provinces, Quebec and the Prairie 
Provinces have rates that exceed those of 
many communities in the two high-wage 
provinces. 

Wage levels in the larger cities, where 
industry is generally more diversified, tend 
to fall close to the provincial averages. In 
other centres where one industry predom- 
inates, such levels are greatly influenced by 
the nature of that industry. In Sydney, 
Hamilton and Welland the high wage scales 
of the primary steel manufacturers raise 
local wage rate averages for labourers well 
above those for most other cities of 
comparable size in Nova Scotia and 
Ontario. In Trois Rivieres, Cornwall and 
Thorold, the pulp and paper industry is 
the largest employer of labourers and thus 
exerts a great influence on the pattern of 
wages for unskilled males. In Kitchener 



and Saskatoon, the meat packing industry 
plays an important role in determining 
local wage levels for this class of employee. 



AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE RATES FOR 

LABOURERS, MALE, IN 

MANUFACTURING, BY CITY 

October 1950, 1951 and 1952 





1950 


1951 


1952 




Locality 


Aver- 
age 
Rate 


Aver- 
age 
Rate 


Aver- 
age 
Rate 


Range of 
Rates 




$ 
.96 


$ 
1.10 

.91 

.74 

•68 

.87 

.83 

•73 

1.20 

.88 

1.16 

.88 

.98 
1.10 

.83 
1.01 

.96 

.88 
1.16 

.77 
1.07 

.79 

1.16 

.96 
1.21 
1.01 
1.18 
1.20 
1.12 
1.03 
1.28 
1.14 
1.12 
1.14 
1.30 

.87 
1.30 

.85 
1.17 
1.22 
1.22 
1.10 
1.26 
1.26 
1.02 
1.32 
1.14 
1.44 
1.29 

.96 

.97 
.97 

1.01 
1.00 
1.03 

1.04 
1.16 
1.01 

1.31 
1.38 
1.32 
1.28 


$ 

1.25 

1.09 
.97 

•69 

1.32 

1.02 

•79 

1.30 

.96 

1.12 

.96 

1.08 
1.14 

.88 
1.12 
1.07 

.96 
1.29 

.86 
1.13 

.80 

1.29 
1.06 
1-19 
1.07 
1.14 
1.22 
1.13 
1.10 
1.36 
1.26 
1.19 
1.22 
1.37 

.90 
1.26 

.92 
1.19 
1.26 
1.24 
1.17 
1.43 
1.35 
1.08 
1.39 
1.23 
1.50 
1.44 
1.12 

1.10 
1.12 

1.14 
1.14 
1.21 

1.11 
1.27 
1.14 

1.40 
1.41 
1.41 
1.46 


$ 










.75-1.09 


P.E.I. . 








.89 

.83 

•78 

1.04 

.80 
.94 
.74 

.86 
.91 
.72 
.91 
.92 
.82 
.96 
.65 
.90 
.70 

1.00 
.92 

1.09 

1.09 
.96 
.97 
.91 
.96 

1.08 
.91 
.94 

1.08 

1.07 
.77 

1.04 
.76 

1.03 
.97 

1.06 
.97 

1.05 

1.12 
.83 

1.08 
.99 

1.08 

1.16 
.88 

.88 
.88 

.92 
.93 

.88 

.97 
1.00 

.98 

1.16 
1.19 
1.16 
1.10 






.90-1.09 


New Glasgow 


•75-1-00 
1.24-1.36 








•75-1.39 




.80-1.11 






Hull 


.97-1.32 




.71-1.00 




.90-1.40 




.88-1.27 




.71-1.12 


Shawinigan Falls 


1.25-1.34 
.57-1.02 


Trois Rivieres 


.74-1.25 
.70- .90 






Bellevilb 


.70-1.37 




.80-1.37 




.85-1.41 




1.14-1.17 


Fort William 


1.00-1.33 


Gait 


.95-1.22 


Guelph 


.80-1.20 




1.05-1.52 




1.25-1.30 




.95-1.30 




.90-1.58 


Niagara Falls 

Orillia 


1.35-1.44 
. 75-1 . 10 




1.10-1.31 




.75-1.12 


Peterborough 

Port Arthur 


1.01-1.32 
1.17-1.50 


St. Catharines 

St. Thomas 


.89-1.43 
1.12-1.24 




1.28-1.56 


Sault Ste. Marie 






1.05-1.14 


Thorold 


1.34-1.58 




1.00-1.42 


Welland 


1.48-1.63 




1.36-1.49 




1.00-1.27 








.83-1.33 








1.00-1.40 




.95-1.32 








1.00-1.45 




.88-1.31 






New Westminster. . . . 
Vancouver 


1.06-1.52 
1.24-1.56 
1.45-1.52 







1053 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, June 1, 1953 

Following a decline dating from last 
November, when the consumer price index 
was 116*1, the index rose 0-4 per cent from 
114*4 at May 1 to 114-9 at June 1. Higher 
food prices were mainly responsible for the 
increase, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
reported. 

The food index advanced from 110*1 to 
111*4 as a result of substantially firmer 
prices for fresh and cured pork, fresh fruits 
and vegetables and lesser increases for 
most other meats, bread and eggs. Butter 
and canned fruits and vegetables were 
lower. 

The shelter component moved up from 
122*9 to 123*6, reflecting an increase of 1-0 
per cent in rentals; the home-ownership 
index remained the same. 

Other group indexes, exhibiting unusual 
stability, were unchanged at 110-1 for 
clothing, 116-6 for household operation and 
115*1 for other commodities and services. 
In the household operation group a sea- 
sonal reduction in coal was balanced by 
small increases in home furnishings, and in 
supplies and services. 

The index one year earlier (June 2, 1952) 
was 116*0; group indexes were: food 115*7, 
shelter 120-4, clothing 111*8, household 
operation 115-9, other commodities and 
services 115*7. 



Cost-of-Living Index, June 1, 1953 

The cost-of-living index (1935-39:= 100) 
rose from 183*6 to 184*8 between May 1 
and June 1. At June 2, 1952, it was 187*3. 

Group indexes at June 1 (May 1 figures 
in parentheses) were: food 225-7 (222-8), 
rent 152-5 (151-0), fuel and light 152*6 
(153-2), clothing 206*4 (206-3), home 
furnishings and services 196-2 (196-2) and 
miscellaneous 149-0 (149-0). 

Group indexes one year earlier (June 2, 
1952) were: food 237-0, rent 147-9, fuel 
and light 149*8, clothing 209-3, home 
furnishings and services 197*2 and miscel- 
laneous 147*4. 

City Cost-of-Living Indexes, May 1, 1953 

Declines occurred in six and increases 
in three of the cost-of-living indexes for 
the nine regional cities between April 1 
and May 1. 

Changes in food prices resulted in lower 
food indexes in five centres and increases 
in the remaining four. Prices of fresh pork 
and eggs were generally firmer while 
butter, beef and fresh vegetables were 
cheaper in most cities. An advance in 
the price of bread was reported in 
Edmonton. 

Clothing indexes were up in all nine 
cities as a result of scattered advances in 



See Tables F-l to F-6 at end of book. 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1949 




1054 



men's and women's wear items. Changes 
in the home furnishings and services group 
were also scattered over a number of 
items, advances in furniture and washing 
machine prices and declines in refrigerator 
prices being predominant. Telephone rates 
were reported up in Halifax and Van- 
couver. Coal prices were lower in St. John, 
Montreal and Toronto, reflecting the intro- 
duction of summer rates. Winnipeg and 
Saskatoon prices were slightly higher while 
in the remaining four cities fuel and light- 
ing indexes were unchanged. 

Rent indexes advanced in seven cities 
but remained unchanged in Halifax and 
Winnipeg. Increases in theatre admissions 
and barbers' fees contributed to advances 
in the miscellaneous items index in six 
cities. This component remained unchanged 
in Montreal and was lower in St. John's 
and Toronto. 

Composite city cost-of-living index point 
changes between April 1 and May 1 were: 
Halifax —0-7 to 172-6, Winnipeg —0-5 to 
176-4, St. John's —0-4 to 101-1, Saint John 
—0-3 to 180-2, Saskatoon —0-3 to 182-2, 
Toronto —0-1 to 180-9, Vancouver +0-3 
to 187-5, Edmonton +0-2 to 176-6 and 
Montreal +0-1 to 188-3. 

Wholesale Prices, May 1953 

Wholesale prices continued in May to 
move within narrow limits. The com- 
posite index rose fractionally to 220-1 from 



219-6 the preceding month, according to 
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. A year 
earlier the index stood at 224-6. 

Three of the eight major sub-group 
indexes advanced between April and May, 
four declined and one remained unchanged. 

Animal products led the increases with 
a rise in the index from 234-4 to 239-1 as 
a result of higher prices for livestock, 
notably hogs, and for pork carcass, veal, 
cured meats, eggs, hides, raw furs, and 
footwear. Fishery products, fluid milk, 
butter, fowl and tallow declined. 

Narrow gains in newsprint and cedar 
shingles outweighed weakness in fir lumber 
and wood pulp to move the wood, wood 
products and paper index from 289-9 to 
290-3. A continued easing of the Cana- 
dian dollar in terms of United States funds 
was a supporting factor in the export items 
in this and other groups. 

Vegetable products remained practically 
unchanged, moving from 197-3 to 197-4 
when advances in fresh fruits, certain 
grains, rubber, sugar and flour outweighed 
declines in green coffee, potatoes, onions 
and some vegetable oils. 

Reflecting continued weakness in the 
price of copper, lead and zinc, which over- 
balanced advances in silver and gold 
quotations, the composite index for non- 
ferrous metals receded from 170-7 to 168-1. 

In the non-metallics section, seasonally 
lower prices for coal were responsible for 
a drop in the index for this group from 
174-4 to 173-9. 



COST-OF-LIVING INDEX FROM JANUARY 1946 




75802—7 



1055 



Lower quotations for scrap iron, steel 
and tinplate moved the iron and steel 
products index down from 221-5 to 221-2. 

No net change was registered in the 
chemicals group index, which continued at 
176-2. 

Fibres, textiles and textile products 
changed from 241-6 to 241-2 as prices 
declined for woollen hosiery and both 
worsted and cotton yarns. On the other 
hand, a firmer tone was exhibited for 
worsted cloth, cotton knit goods and both 
domestic and imported raw wool. 

Canadian farm product prices at terminal 
markets advanced slightly in May to an 
index reading of 216-9, compared with 



214-5 in April. Strength was concentrated 
in animal products and the group index 
for this series moved up from 256-0 to 
263-2 because of firmer prices for live- 
stock, principally hogs, and also for eggs 
and raw wool. In the same period, field 
products moved down from 173-0 to 170-6 
as decreases occurred for potatoes and 
grains. 

Prices entering into residential building 
materials were slightly easier in May and 
the composite index declined from 283-6 
in April to 282-8 in May. Price declines 
were noted in plumbing and heating equip- 
ment, notably copper piping, and in elec- 
trical equipment. 



Strikes and Lockouts 

Canada, May, 1953* 



The number of industrial disputes result- 
ing in work stoppages increased slightly 
during May 1953, but the resulting time 
loss, while somewhat higher, was little 
changed from the low figures of the 
previous four months. Strike idleness in 
May 1953, was only a fraction of the loss 
in May 1952. 

No great amount of loss was shown by 
any one stoppage but three disputes with 
the greatest loss were: flour, cereal and 
feed mill workers at Peterborough, Ont., 
and Saskatoon, Sask.; clothing and hosiery 
factory workers at Montreal, Que.; and 
garage workers at Fort William and Port 
Arthur, Ont. 

Wages and related questions were the 
central issues in 25 of the 30 stoppages in 
May 1953, causing more than 90 per cent 
of the total loss. Of the other disputes, 
two arose over causes affecting working 
conditions, two over discharge and lay-off 
of workers, and one over a union question. 

Preliminary figures for May 1953, show 
30 strikes and lockouts in existence, in- 
volving 4,748 workers, with a time loss of 
36,127 man-working days, compared with 
21 strikes and lockouts in April 1953, with 
3,562 workers involved and a loss of 29,120 
days. In May 1952, there were 44 strikes 
and lockouts, with 23,360 workers involved 
and a loss of 248,575 days. 

For the first five months of 1953 prelim- 
inary figures show 69 strikes and lockouts, 



involving 14,638 workers, with a time loss 
of 153,092 days. In the same period in 
1952 there were 93 strikes and lockouts, 
with 43,916 workers involved and a loss 
of 611,308 days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada, the 
time lost in May 1953, was 0-04 per cent 
of the estimated working time; 0-03 per 
cent in April 1953; 0-30 per cent in May 
1952; 0-04 per cent for the first five 
months of 1953; and 0-15 per cent for the 
first five months of 1952. 

Of the 30 stoppages in existence in May 
1953. three were settled in favour of the 
workers, two in favour of the employers, 
five were compromise settlements, and five 
were indefinite in result, work being 
resumed pending final settlement. At the 
end of the month 15 stoppages were 
recorded as unterminated. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in another paragraph nor 
does it include strikes and lockouts about 
which information has been received indi- 
cating that employment conditions are no 
longer affected but which the unions con- 
cerned have not declared terminated. Strikes 
and lockouts of this nature still in progress 
are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg, Man., 
which began on November 8, 1945, and at 
Ottawa' and Hamilton, Ont., and Edmonton, 
Alt a., on May 30, 1946: and waitresses at 
Timmins, Ont., on May 23, 1952.) 



'See Tables G-l and G-2 at end of book. 



1056 



Great Britain and Other Countries 



(The latest available information as to 
strikes and lockouts in various countries is 
given in the Labour Gazette from month to 
month. Statistics given in the annual review 
and in this article are taken, as far as 
possible, from the government publications 
of the countries concerned or from the 
International Labour Office Year Book of 
Labour Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

The British Ministry of Labour Gazette 
publishes statistics dealing with disputes 
involving stoppages of work and gives some 
details of the more important ones. 

The number of work stoppages beginning 
in March 1953, was 176 and 12 were still 
in progress from the previous month, 
making a total of 188 during the month. 
In all stoppages of work in progress, 
40,800 workers were involved and a time 
loss of 251,000 working days caused. 

Of the 176 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work which began in March, 10, directly 
involving 5,900 workers, arose over demands 
for advances in wages; and 70, directly 
involving 5,800 workers, over other wage 
questions; six, directly involving 300 
workers, over questions as to working 



hours; 28, directly involving 4,700 workers, 
over questions respecting the employment 
of particular classes or persons; 61, directly 
involving 4,300 workers, over other ques- 
tions respecting working arrangements; and 
one, directly involving 4,800 workers, was 
in support of workers involved in another 
dispute. 

India 

For the year 1952, preliminary figures 
show 955 industrial disputes resulting in 
work stoppages. These involved 807,623 
workers directly and indirectly and caused 
a time loss of 3,330,684 man-working days. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for April 1953, show 
550 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month in which 275,000 workers were 
involved. The time loss for all strikes and 
lockouts in progress during the month was 
2,500,000 man-days. Corresponding figures 
for March 1953, are 450 work stoppages 
involving 180,000 workers and a time loss 
of 1,100,000 days. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed, free of 
charge, by making application to the 
Librarian, Department of Labour, Ottawa. 
Students must apply through the Library 
of their institution. Applications for loans 
should give the number (numeral) of the 
publication desired and the month in 
which it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 59. 

Accident Prevention 

1. Congres Technique National de 
Securite et d'Hygiene du Travail. 3d, 
Avignon, France, 1952. La Securite Sociale 
au Service de la Prevention. Travaux, 9-12 
octobre, 1952. Paris, Institut National de 



Securite pour la Prevention des Accidents 
du Travail et des Maladies Profession- 
nelles, 1953? Pp. 376. 

2. National Industrial Safety Confer- 
ence. Proceedings of the National Indus- 
trial Safety Conference, 1952, The Spa, 
Scarborough, May 16th, 17th and 18th. 
London, Royal Society for the Prevention 
of Accidents, 1952. Pp. 99. 

3. President's Conference on Industrial 
Safety, Washington, D.C., 1952. Pro- 
ceedings . . . June 2-4, 1952. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 183. 

Collective Bargaining 

4. National Planning Association. 

American Velvet Company and Textile 
Workers Union of America; a Case Study, 
by George S. Paul. Washington, 1953. 
Pp. 59. (This is the Association's Causes 
of Industrial Peace under Collective 
Bargaining, Case Study No. 11.) 



75802— U 



105' 



5. Schaffner, Margaret Anna. The 

Labour Contract from Individual to Collec- 
tive Bargaining. Madison, University of 
Wisconsin, 1907. Pp. 182. 

Economic Conditions 

6. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. Britain's Economic Problem and its 
Meaning for America; a statement on 
national policy by the Research and Policy 
Committee of the Committee for Economic 
Development. New York, 1953. Pp. 52. 

7. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. Flexible Monetary Policy: What it 
is and How it works; a statement on 
national policy by the Research and Policy 
Committee of the Committee for Economic 
Development. New York, 1953. Pp. 35. 

8. Marx, Karl. A History of Economic 
Theories from the Physiocrats to Adam 
Smith. Edited with a preface by Karl 
Kautsky. New York, Langland Press, 
1952. Pp. 337. 

9. Mills, Frederick Cecil. Productivity 
and Economic Progress. New York, 
National Bureau of Economic Research, 
1952. Pp. 36. 

10. United Nations Economic and Social 
Council. Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East. Economic Survey of 
Asia and the Far East, 1952. Prepared by 
the Research and Statistics Division, 
Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East. Bangkok, 1953. Pp. 104. 

Housing 

11. House & Garden. Book of Building: 
40 Houses & Plans, Remodelling, Main- 
tenance. New York, Conde Nast Publica- 
tions, 1953. Pp. 246. 

12. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Cooperative Housing in the United States, 
1949 and 1950. Washington, G.P.O., 1952. 
Pp. 133. 

Industrial Relations 

13. Employers' Association of Chicago. 

Industrial Relations Survey, 1951. Chicago, 
1952. Pp. 16. 

14. Great Britain. Ministry of Labour 
and National Service. Industrial Rela- 
tions Handbook. An Account of the 
Organization of Employers and Workpeople 
in Great Britain; Collective Bargaining and 
Joint Negotiating Machinery; Conciliation 
and Arbitration ; and Statutory Regulation 
of Wages in Certain Industries. Rev. ed. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 284. 

15. Industrial Relations Research Asso- 
ciation. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual 
Meeting . . . Chicago, Illinois, December 
28-29, 1952. Edited by L. Reed Tripp. 
Madison, Wis., 1953. Pp. 254. 



Industry 

16. British Iron and Steel Federation. 

Annual Report, 1952. London, 1953. 1 
Volume. 

17. Industrial Development Board of 
Greater Winnipeg. Annual Report . . . 
1952. Winnipeg, 1953. Pp. 7. 

Labour Bureaus 

18. California. Department of Indus- 
trial Relations. Union Labor in California, 
1952. San Francisco, State Printing Office, 

1952. Pp. 31. 

19. Gambia Labour Department. Annual 
Report, 1950. Bathurst, Government 
Printer, 1951. 1 Volume. 

20. Gold Coast. Labour Department. 
Report for 1950/51. Accra, Government 
Printing Department, 1952. 1 Volume. 

21. Hawaii (Ter.) Department of Labor 
and Industrial Relations. Annual Report 
. . . July 1, 1945 to June 30, 1946. Honolulu, 
1946. Pp. 51. 

22. International Labour Office. 
Organization and Working of National 
Labour Departments. Seventh item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1953. Pp. 92. 

23. Nigeria'. Department of Labour. 
Annual Report, 1950/51. Lagos, Govern- 
ment Printer, 1952. 1 Volume. 

24. Nova Scotia. Department of Labour. 
Annual Report . . . for the Fiscal Year 
April 1, 1951 to March 31, 1952. Halifax, 
Queen's Printer, 1952. Pp. 74. 

Labour Supply 

25. Long, Clarence Dickinson. The 

Labor Force in War and Transition, Four 
Countries. New York, National Bureau of 
Economic Research, 1952. Pp. 61. 

26. Morin, Alexander. The Organiz- 
ability of Farm Labor in the United 
States. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1952. Pp. 102. 

27. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Manpower Resources in Chemistry and 
Chemical Engineering. Washington, G.P.O., 
1953. 

28. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Occupational Mobility of Scientists; A 
Study of Chemists, Biologists and Physicists 
with Ph.D. Degrees. Washington, G.P.O., 

1953. Pp. 63. 

29. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Papers 
on Labor Force Statistics in the United 
Stales. Prepared under the supervision of 
Calvert L. Dedrick. Washington, 1952. 1 
Volume. Prepared for a group of European 
labor force statisticians who visited the 
United States, February 24 to March 31, 
1952, under the auspices of the Mutual 
Security Agency and the Organization for 
European Economic Co-operation (Mission 
TA-OEEC-105). 



1058 



30. U.S. Office of Defense Mobilization. 

Manpower for Defense; Policies and State- 
ments of the Office of Defense Mobiliza- 
tion. Washington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 51. 

Labour Unions 

31. Japan. Ministry of Labor. Divi- 
sion of Labor Statistics and Research. 

Labor Union in Japan; Survey of June 
1951. Tokyo, 1952? Pp. 175. 

32. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Directory of Labor Unions in the United 
States, 1953; National and International 
Unions, State Labor Organizations. Wash- 
ington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 46. 

33. What the T.U.C. is doing. Spring 
1953. London, Trades Union Congress, 
1953. Pp. 47. 

Labouring Classes 

34. American Labor Education Service. 

Annual Report . . . 1952. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 11. 

35. Canada. Unemployment Insurance 
Commission. National Employment Ser- 
vice. Unemployment Assistance in the 
Post-War Period. Ottawa, Department of 
Labour, 1953. Pp. 25. 

36. Hours, Joseph. Le Mouvement 
Ouvrier Frangais. Paris, les Editions 
Ouvrieres, cl952. Pp. 153. 

37. International Labour Office. 
Protection of the Health of Workers in 
Places of Employment. Fifth item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1952-1953. 2 Volumes. 
At head of title: Report V(l)-(2) Inter- 
national Labour Conference. Thirty-sixth 
session, 1953. 

• 38. Passfield, Sidney James Webb, 
Baron. The Breaking-Up of the Poor Law: 
being Part One of the Minority Report of 
the Poor Law Commission, edited, with 
introduction, by Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 
London, Longmans Green, 1909. Pp. 601. 

39. Passfield, Sidney James Webb, 
Baron. The Public Organization of the 
Labour Market: being Part Two of the 
Minority Report of the Poor Law Commis- 
sion; edited, with introduction by Sidney 
and Beatrice Webb. London, Longmans 
Green, 1909. Pp. 345. 

Lumbering 

40. Canadian Pulp and Paper Associa- 
tion. Reference Tables, April 1953. Mont- 
real, 1953. Pp. 31. 

41. Koroleef, Alexander Michael. 

Logging Mechanization in the U.S.S.R.; a 
Review of Russian Data. Montreal, Pulp 
and Paper Research Institute of Canada, 
1952. Pp. 158. 



Occupations 

42. Alway, Lazelle D. Up your Alley, a 
Mail Survey of Pinboys. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 31. 

43. National Association of Manufac- 
turers of the United States of America. 
Your Opportunities in Science and Engi- 
neering. New York, cl952. Pp. 30. 

44. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Employment Outlook in Metalworking 
Occupations . . . Washington, G.P.O., 1953. 
Pp. 186-224. 

45. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Federal White-Collar Workers, Their Occu- 
pations and Salaries, June 1951. Washing- 
ton, G.P.O, 1953. Pp. 43. 

Social Conditions 

46. British Columbia. University. 
Doukhobor Research Committee. The 

Doukhobors of British Columbia; report of 
the Doukhobor Research Committee. 
Harry B. Hawthorn, editor. Vancouver, 
University of British Columbia, 1952. 
Pp. 342. 

47. Furnas, J. C. Fair Employment 
Practices Commission — How it works in 
Seven States. New York, Cowles Maga- 
zines, Inc., cl951. Pp. 3. 

48. Minnesota. Commission on Aging. 
Minnesota's Aging Citizens; a Report on 
Their Employment, Recreation, Living 
Arrangements, Economic Welfare. St. Paul, 
1953. Pp. 68. 

49. Osborne, Ernest. Democracy begins 
in the Home. 1st ed. New York, Public 
Affairs Committee, 1953. Pp. 28. 

50. Walton, Eloise. Let's work Together 
in Community Service. New York, Public 
Affairs Committee, cl953. Pp. 28. 

Social Security 

51. Inter- American Committee on Social 
Security, Consideration of the Report of 
the Secretary General. Second item of the 
agenda. Mexico, 1952. Pp. 4. At head 
of title: Inter-American Conference on 
Social Security. Permanent Inter-American 
Committee. General Secretariat. 

52. Inter- American Committee on Social 
Security. Election of the Executive Body. 
First item on the agenda. Mexico, 1952. 
Pp. 5. At head of title: Inter-American 
Conference on Social Security. Permanent 
Inter-American Committee. General 
Secretariat. 

53. Inter-American Committee on Social 
Security. Family Allowances in Canada, 
by R. B. Curry, national director, family 
allowances and old age security, Depart- 
ment of National Health and Welfare. 
Mexico, 1952. Pp. 18. At head of title: 



1059 



Inter-American Conference on Social 
Security. Fourth session. Item III of the 
agenda. 

54. Inter-American Committee on Social 
Security. Relations with International 
Organizations. Third item of the agenda. 
Mexico, 1952. Pp. 4. At head of title: 
Inter-American Conference on Social 
Security. Permanent Inter-American Com- 
mittee. General Secretariat. 

55. Inter-American Committee on Social 
Security. Report of the Secretary General. 
Geneva, 1952. Pp. 114. At head of title: 
Report I. Inter-American Conference on 
Social Security. Fourth session, Mexico, 
1952. 

Wages and Hours 

56. International Labour Office. 

Guaranteed Wages in the Textile Industry. 
Third item on the agenda. Geneva, 1952. 
Pp. 101. At head of title: Report III. 
International Labour Organization. Textile 
Committee. Fourth session, Geneva, 1953. 

57. New York (State) Department of 
Labor. Division of Research and 
Statistics. Wages and Hours in the 
Children's Camp Industry in New York 
State Summer 1952. New York, 1952. 
Pp. 51, 20. 

58. Quebec (City). Universite Laval. 
Ecole des Sciences Sociales. Departe- 
ment des Relations Industrielles. Struc- 
ture des Salaries. Cinquieme Congres des 
Relations Industrielles de la Faculte des 
Sciences Sociales de l'Universite Laval. 
Quebec, 1950. Pp. 192. 

59. Ross, Arthur Max. The Lessons of 
Price and Wage Controls. Berkeley, 1953. 
Pp. 8. 

60. National Union of Railwaymen. 
Rates of Pay and Conditions of Service 
of Railway Workshop Staff employed under 
the Provisions of I.C.A. No. 728 and 
R.S.N.C. Min. No. 577 and Railway Elec- 
trical Staff employed under the Provisions 
of C. on P. Award 2773. 4th ed. London, 
1953. Pp. 127. 

61. National Union of Railwaymen. 
Rates of Pay and Conditions of Service 
of Salaried and Conciliation Staff employed 
by Railway Executive. 8th ed. London, 
1952. Pp. 336. 

62. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Union Wages and Hours: Motortruck 
Drivers and Helpers, July 1, 1952. Wash- 
ington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 39. 

Women — Employment 

63. U.S. Department of Labor. 
Women's Advisory Committee on Defense 
Manpower. Annual Report, 1951/52. 
Washington, 1952. 1 Volume. 



64. U.S. Women's Bureau. Women- 
power Committees during World War II, 
United Slates and British Experience. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 73. 

Workmen's Compensation 

65. New York (State) Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Annual Report, 1952. 
Albany, 1953. Pp. 43, 17. 

66. Newfoundland. Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Annual Report . . . 

1952. St. John's, Queen's Printer, 1953. 
Pp. 44. 

67. Nova Scotia. Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Report for 1952. 
Halifax, Queen's Printer, 1953. Pp. 26. 

68. Ontario. Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board. Report for 1952. Toronto, 
Queen's Printer, 1953. Pp. 34. 

69. Saskatchewan. Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Twenty-third Annual 
Report . . . 1952. Regina, Queen's Printer, 

1953. Pp. 23. 

Youth — Employment 

70. International Harvester Company. 

Apprenticeship Standards. [Hamilton? 
n.d.] Pp. 9. 

71. International Labour Office. 
The Minimum Age of Admission to work 
Underground in Coal Mines. Geneva, 1952- 
1953. 2 Volumes. At head of title: Report 
VI. International Labour Conference. 
Thirty-sixth session, Geneva, 1953. 

72. U.S. Interdepartmental Committee 
on Children and Youth. Youth; the 
Nation's Richest Resource, Their Educa- 
tion and Employment Needs. A report, 
1951. Washington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 54. 

Miscellaneous 

73. Council of Profit Sharing Indus- 
tries. Profit Sharing, the Keystone of 
Industrial Peace. Proceedings of the Fifth 
Annual Conference, Benjamin Franklin 
Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Novem- 
ber 6 and 7, 1952. Akron, cl953. Pp. 120. 

74. International Association of Gov- 
ernment Labor Officials. Labor Laws and 
their Administration. Proceedings of the 
Thirty-Fifth Convention . . . San Juan, 
April 28-May 1, 1952. Washington, G.P.O., 
1953. Pp. 101. 

75. Joint Expert Committee on the 
Physically Handicapped Child. First 
report. Geneva, World Health Organiza- 
tion, 1952. Pp. 26. The Committee was 
convened by WHO with the participation 
of United Nations, ILO, and UNESCO. 

76. Lake Carriers' Association. Annual 
Report . . . 1952. Cleveland, 1953. Pp. 
162. 



1060 



77. Parliamentary Conference on World 
Government. 2nd, London, 1952. 

Report of the Second London Parlia- 
mentary Conference on World Government, 
September 20-26, 1952. Edited by Gilbert 
McAllister. London, World Association of 
Parliamentarians for World Government, 
1953. Pp. 187. 

78. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Industrial Research and Development, a 
Preliminary Report. Washington, G.P.O., 
1953. Pp. 42. 

79. U.S. Congress. Senate. Com- 
mittee on Armed Services. Investigation 



of the Preparedness Program. Fortieth 
report of the Preparedness Investigating 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed 
Services, United States Senate under the 
authority of S. Res. 263, 82nd Congress. 
Report on the utilization of manpower by 
the armed services. Tables of organization. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1952. Pp. 19. 

80. Van Eenam, Weltha. Analysis of 
846 Group Annuities underwritten in 1946- 
50, by Weltha Van Eenam and Martha E. 
Penman. Washington, Social Security 
Administration, Division of the Actuary, 
1952. Pp. 64. 



Decisions of the Umpire 

(Continued from page 1048) 
voluntary action and not upon the motives 
which led to it. The morality of the 
motives is not questioned, precisely because 
the legislator in Section 39 of the Act, and 
quite rightly so, does not concern himself 
wth the merit of labour disputes. 

Section 39 deals with matters which 
spring from conflicts of interests between 
two parties who are contributors to the 
Unemployment Insurance Fund and it 
stands to reason that it was not the intent 
of the legislator that moneys in which 
both have a proprietary interest should be 
used for the benefit of one in the pursuit 
or the furtherance of an economic battle 
against the other. 

When a worker, because of his convic- 
tions, his conscience or his faith in the 
principles of his union, refuses to cross a 
picket line and thereby withdraws his 
labour, he, in effect, sides with the strikers 
and adds strength to their cause. If we 
were to accept the Congress' arguments as 
valid, it would mean that unions, with 
subsidies from the Fund, could paralyse 
a whole industry to the detriment not only 
of the employer but of the public at large. 



I do not agree therefore with the con- 
tention that my predecessor and I have 
introduced and preserved an unduly rigid 
interpretation of Section 39 in regard to 
cases like the present one. The language 
and context of that section cannot be 
strained to include exemptions equivalent 
to the exercise of what virtually could 
become an economic blockade by organized 
labour. It is true that the legislator in 
Section 40(2) (a) has recognized the right 
of a worker to refuse employment which 
arises in consequence of a stoppage of work 
due to a labour dispute but then there is 
no legal relationship between the prospec- 
tive employer and the claimant and the 
consequences are not the same. 

In concluding, I might say that if in 
cases of refusal to cross picket lines where 
no actual violence is displayed, satisfactory 
evidence is adduced that the workers 
refrained from doing so on account of a 
legitimate fear of reprisals against them, 
their families or material possessions, they 
are not participating within the meaning 
of subsection (2) of Section 39 of the Act. 

The appeal is dismissed. 



1061 



Labour Statistics 



Page 
A— Labour Force 

D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 

Table A-l — Estimated Distribution of Canadian Manpower 1063 

Table A-2— Persons Looking for Work in Canada 1063 

Table A-3— Regional Distributions, Week Ended February 21, 1953 1064 

Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Table A^ — Distribution of All Immigrants by Region 1064 

Table A-5 — Distribution of Workers Entering Canada by Occupations 1065 



B— Labour Income 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics Monthly Estimates of Labour Income 
Table B-l — Estimates of Labour Income 1065 



C— Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Employment and Payrolls 

Table C-l — Employment Index Numbers by Provinces 1066 

Table C-2 — Employment, Payrolls and Weekly Wages and Salaries 1066 

Table C-3 — Summary of Employment, Payrolls and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries 1067 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings 

Table C-4 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing 1068 

Table C-5 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing by Provinces and Cities 1068 

Table C-6 — Hours and Earnings by Industry 1069 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 
Table C-7— Real Earnings in Manufacturing 1070 



D— Employment Service Statistics 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table D-l — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants as at First of Month 1071 

Table D-2— Unfilled Vacancies by Industry and by Sex 1072 

Table D-3 — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants by Occupation and by Sex 1073 

Table D-4 — Activities of National Employment Service Offices 1074 

Table D-5 — Applications and Placements Since 1943 1079 

E — Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment Insurance Commission and Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
Report on the Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Table E-l— Number Receiving Benefit with Amount Paid 1080 

Table E-2— Persons Signing the Live Unemployment Register by Number of Days Continu- 
ously on the Register 1080 

Table E-3 — Claims for Benefit by Provinces and Disposal of Claims 1081 

Table E-4 — Claimants Not Entitled to Benefit with Reasons for Non-Entitlement 1082 

Table E-5— Estimates of the Insured Population ' 1082 

Table E-6 — Unemployment Insurance Fund 1083 

Table E-7— Claims for Supplementary Benefit, April, 1953 1084 



F— Prices 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table F-l— Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada 1085 

Table F-la — Consumer Price Index Numbers, Canada 1086 

Table F-2— Index Numbers of the Cost of Living for Nine Cities of Canada 1087 

Table F-3— Index Numbers of Staple Food items 1087 

Table F-4— Retail Prices of Staple Foods and Coal by Cities 1088 

Table F-5 — Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada and Other Countries 1092 

Table F-6— Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada 1093 



G— Strikes and Lockouts 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table G-l— Strikes and Lockouts in Canada by Month 1094 

Table G-2 — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada During May 1095 

1062 



A — Labour Force 



TABLE A-l.— ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN MANPOWER 

(Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Total civilian noninstitutional population 

A. Civilian labour force 

Persons at work 

35 hours or more 

Less than 35 hours 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a) laid off for part of the week 

(b) on short time 

(c) lost job during the week 

(d) found job during the week 

(e) bad weather 

(f) illness 

(g) in dustrial dispute 

(h) vacation 

(i) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons with jobs not at work 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a) laid off for full week 

(b) bad weather 

(c) illness 

(d) industrial dispute 

(e) vacation 

(f) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs and seeking work (1) 

B. Persons not in the labour force 

(a) permanently unable or too old to work. . 

(b) keeping house 

(c) going to school 

(d) retired or voluntarily idle 

(e) other 



Week Ended April 18, 1953 



Total 



10,002 

5,241 

4,941 

4,645 

296 

104 

* 

24 



192 
135 



131 
27 



165 

4,761 
175 

3,338 

681 

547 

20 



Males Females 



4,993 
4,097 
3,834 
3,674 
160 



20 



72 
112 



109 
24 



50 



151 

S9G 
117 

346 

419 

12 



5,009 

1,144 

1,107 

971 

136 



120 

23 



14 

3,865 
58 

3,336 
335 
128 



Week Ended March 21, 1953 



Total 



5,192 

4,859 

4,534 

325 

130 

10 

31 



23 



195 
101 



157 
39 



172 

4,794 
188 

3,342 

685 

555 

24 



Males 



4,984 
4,064 
3,772 
3,585 
187 
111 

26 



70 
134 



131 

36 



158 

920 
122 
i 

348 
434 

15 



Females 



5,002 

1,128 

1,087 

949 

138 

19 



119 

27 



14 

3,874 
66 

3,341 
337 
121 



(') Included here are only those who did not work during the entire survey week and were reported looking for work. 
For all those who were reported as seeking work during the survey week, see Table A-2. 
* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousand) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended April 


18, 1953 


Week Ended March 21, 1953 





Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work 


Seeking 
Part-Time 

Work 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 




176 

165 
46 
62 
42 
10 

11 

* 
* 


158 
151 


18 
14 


184 

172 
46 

77 

38 

* 

* 

12 

* 
* 


167 
158 


17 




14 


























7—12 months 






























Worked 


* 
* 
* 


* 
* 
* 


* 
* 
* 


, 




* 




* 







Less than 10,000. 



1063 



TABLE A-3.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS, WEEK ENDED APRIL 18, 1953 

(Estimates in thousands) 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 


5,241 

837 

4,404 

4,097 

808 

3,289 

1,144 

29 

1,115 

5,241 
483 

721 
2,444 
1,387 

206 


101 

100 

81 

80 

20 

20 

101 
13 
18 
44 
24 
* 


391 

55 

336 

319 

53 

266 

72 

* 

70 

391 

36 

52 

182 

104 

17 


1,507 

213 

1,294 

1,162 
208 
954 

345 

340 

1,507 
176 
236 
701 
354 
40 


1,867 

203 

1,664 

1,442 

193 

1,249 

425 

10 
415 

1,867 
144 
236 
880 
523 
84 


945 
344 

601 

759 
334 
425 

186 

10 

176 

945 
87 
130 
428 
257 
43 


430 




21 




409 




334 




19 




315 




96 




* 




94 




430 




27 




49 




209 




125 




20 






Persons with Jobs 


5,076 
3,946 
1,130 

833 
4,243 

3,821 

2,797 
1,024 


89 
69 
20 

* 
88 

69 
52 
17 


367 

297 

70 

55 
312 

274 

211 

63 


1,446 

1,106 

340 

212 
1,234 

1,110 
799 
311 


1,829 

1,408 

421 

201 
1,628 

1,479 

1,093 

386 


930 
746 

184 

344 

586 

537 
375 
162 


415 




320 




95 




20 




395 




352 




267 




85 






Persons without Jobs and Seeking Work 
Both sexes 


165 


12 


24 


61 


38 


15 


15 


Persons not in the Labour Force 


4,761 

896 

3,865 


137 
42 
95 


453 

95 

358 


1,310 

229 

1,081 


1,575 

262 

1,313 


852 
167 
685 


434 


Males 

Females 


101 
333 



than 10,000. 



TABLE A-4.— DISTRIBUTION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 
Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Canada 
Total 


Adult 
Males 


1949— Total 


2,777 
2,198 
3,928 
4,531 

1,544 

1,446 


18,005 
13,575 
46,033 
35,318 

14,129 

7,007 


48,607 
39,041 
104,842 
86,059 

33,733 

20,403 


17,904 
12,975 
25,165 
23,560 

7,654 

6,768 


7,924 
6,123 
14.423 
15,030 

5,180 

3,431 


95,217 
73,912 
194,391 
164,498 

62,240 

39,055 


39,044 


1950— Total 


30,700 


1951— Total 


95,818 


1952— Total 


66,083 


1952— Jan.— Apr 


28,967 


1953— Jan.— Apr 


15,690 







1064 



TABLE A-5.— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


5 a 
C ° 

ST '" 

§ 2 


"3 

6 


B 1 

If! 

1 1 


Is — 

.3 

a § g 

1 E 

o 


1 


3 

"3 
u 


bo 

.S M^ 
aJh-5 


.13 
M c 

C OJ g 

ill 

"Hi 

03 (U o 


3 
O 

S3 


2 

1 
O 


tn 
o 

O 

"o 


1951— Total 


4,001 
7,054 

2,025 

2,507 


5,317 
6,900 

2,288 

1,613 








25,890 
16,971 

6,961 

4,614 








5,402 
1,526 

601 

311 


114,786 


1952 Total 














85,029 


1952— Jan.— Apr 

1953— Jan.— Apr 














35,392 


444 


897 


2,968 


179 


6,257 


1,237 


21,027 



Due to changes in occupational classifications, comparisons with earlier periods can not be made for"all groups. 
Where possible, comparisons are indicated in the above table. 



B — Labour Income 



TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



1943— Average. . . 
1944 — Average. . . 
1945 — Average. . . 
1946 — Average . . . 
1947 — Average. . . 
1948— Average . . . 
*1949 — Average. . 
1950 — December . 



1951— January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December . 



1952 — January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. 



1953— January... 
February . 
March 



Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 



Manu- 
facturing 



168 
171 
156 
147 
177 
203 
214 
250 

248 
250 
256 
261 
265 
271 
272 
275 
280 
279 
279 
285 

278 
283 
288 
289 
290 
290 
293 
303 
310 
311 
316 
323 

315 
320 
323 



Construc- 
tion 



Utilities 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 



95 
100 
114 
134 
154 
169 
192 

188 
189 
193 
198 
203 
210 
211 
213 
216 
217 
221 
221 

213 
214 
215 
219 
225 
229 
231 
232 
234 
236 
240 
242 

246| 

233 

234 



Finance 
Services, 
(including) 
Govern- 
ment) 



78 
83 
90 
103 
114 
131 
147 
162 

163 
161 
174 
170 
176 
178 
178 
179 
182 
187 
190 
187 



194 
194 
195 
199 
202 
203 



204 

208 
207 

203 
209 
214 



Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 



Total 



399 
412 
413 
444 

518 
597 
647 
745 

734 
733 
753 

768 
797 
822 
829 
839 
855 
865 
872 
865 



858 
862 
862 
885 
900 
916 
928 
942 
951 
960 
958 

931 



* Includes Newfoundland, since 1949. t Includes'retroactive wage payment to railway employees. 



1065 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT INDEX NUMBERS BY PROVINCES 

(Average calendar year 1939 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 
Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At April 1, employers In 
i lie principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,373,323. 



Year and Month 



-a 

111 



X& 






or 



.3 

m p 
'Co 

mo 



1947 — Average. 
1948 — Average. 
1949 — Average. 
1950— Average. 
1951— Average. 
1952— Average . 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 



Percentage Distribution of Employees of Report- 
ing Establishments at April 1, 1953 



1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 

1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 



158-3 
165-0 
165-5 
168-0 
180-2 
184-7 

181-0 
177-8 
1780 
177-9 
177-4 
182-5 
185-5 
188-8 
190-6 
192-6 
192-3 
192-2 

187-0 
182-5 
182-0 
181-8 



100-0 



146-5 
161-0 
157-0 
173-1 
176-8 
193-4 

175-2 
183-4 
160-6 
213-4 
175-6 
191-7 
199-4 
207-9 
209-2 
205-4 
199-8 
199-0 

184-4 
176-5 
167-6 
168-0 



0-2 



137-2 
148-4 
149-0 
142-5 
149-4 
155-0 

149-2 
150-9 
146-7 
148-9 
146-2 
151-5 
160-6 
160-4 
163-8 
163-6 
160-2 
158-0 

154-5 
151 1 
146-7 
145-9 



3-5 



172-7 
174-2 
165-6 
169-9 
180-5 
181-3 

190-7 
186-3 
185-3 
192-4 
167-4 
174-6 
178-6 
172-3 
183-5 
186-0 
177-1 
180-9 

178-9 
167-3 
164-3 
160-8 



2-4 



150-9 
156-2 
154-3 
155-0 
168-5 
175-0 

171-7 
1690 
169-6 
166-4 
164-2 
170-9 
177-3 
183-5 
179-3 
182-1 
182-8 
183-1 

175-6 
171-3 
170-6 
168-9 



28-9 



163-9 
171-2 
173-1 
177-7 
191-0 
193-8 



190-3 
187-6 
187 

1ST 

188 
191 
196 
195 
198 
200 
200 
200 



198-2 
195-7 
195-4 
195-9 



43-9 



1560 
162-0 
166-7 
168-0 
173-2 
176-7 

1730 
169-1 
167-8 
168-8 
170-9 
176-6 



183-9 

177-9 
173-3 
170-9 
171-2 



5-1 



135-8 
139-0 
139-7 
140-8 
148-1 
155-7 

152-1 
142-4 
141-7 
1420 
147-3 
158-5 
162-3 
166- 1 
164-2 
162-4 
164-2 
164-7 

158-5 
148-4 
147-6 
147-4 



2-2 



158-9 
168-9 
180-3 
188-5 
202-6 
217-9 

206-0 
201-7 
201-8 
201-6 
207-0 
214-1 
222-4 
231-5 
235-3 
230-7 
231-3 
231-6 

226-6 
219-3 
221-3 
220-1 



4-9 



186-4 
179-9 
183-9 
188-6 



192-7 
195-1 
171-2 
183-9 
201-9 
206-3 
205-2 
200-8 

190-7 
181-1 
183-1 



8-9 



Note: — The percentage distribution given above shows the proportion of employees in the indicated province, to 
the total number of employees reported in Canada by the firms making returns at the latest date. 



TABLE C-2.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1939 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 







Industrial Composite 1 




Manufacturing 




Year and Month 


Index Numbers 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 
Wages and 
Salaries 


1939— Ave 

1947— Ave 
1948— Ave 
1949— Ave 
1950— Ave 
1951— Ave 
1952-Ave 




100-0 

158-3 
165-0 
165-5 
168-0 
180-2 
184-7 

181-0 

177-8 
178-0 
177-9 
177-4 
182-5 
185-5 
188-8 
190-6 
192-6 
192-3 
192-2 

187-0 
182-5 
182-0 
181-8 


100-0 

245-2 
282-9 
303-7 
321-8 

381-3 
426-1 

388-8 
402-9 
409-0 
411-5 
410-6 
420-2 
426-3 
433-3 
442-7 
452-2 
455-8 
459-5 

428-7 
441-1 
445-0 
443-8 


100-0 

154-4 
170-9 
183-3 
191-3 
211-6 
230-9 

215-1 
226-9 
230-2 
231-7 
231-8 
230-7 
230-2 
229-9 
232-7 
235-2 
237-4 
239-4 

229-6 
242-0 
244-9 
244-5 


$ 
23.44 

36.19 

40.06 
42 96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 

50.42 
53.19 
53.95 
54.32 
54.34 
54 08 
53.96 
53.89 
54.55 
55.12 
55.65 
56.12 

53.81 
56 72 
57.40 
57.31 


100-0 

171-0 
1760 
175-9 
177-5 
190-0 
192-4 

183-6 
185-2 
187-3 
188-3 
188-7 
190-9 
191-4 
194-1 
198-5 
200-8 
199-8 
199-6 

196-3 
197-6 
199-5 
200-8 


100-0 

272-7 
3141 
339-2 
360-2 
427-6 
474-0 

417-8 
449-9 
458-0 
467-2 
468-4 
470-1 
470-1 
474-6 
490-9 
503-0 
505-7 
512-2 

473-2 
510-3 
518-7 
523-9 


1000 

159-5 
178-5 
192-9 
202-8 
224-9 
246-2 

227-4 
242-9 
244-5 
248-1 
248-1 
246-2 
245-5 
244-4 
247-3 
250-5 
253-0 
256-5 

241-0 
258-1 

260-0 
260-9 


s 

22.79 




36.34 




40.67 


rage 


43 97 
46.21 




51.25 




56.11 


1952 


51.82 


Feb. 1 


1952 


55.36 


Mar. 1 


1952 


55 73 


Apr. 1 


1952 


56 55 


xlay 1 


1952 


56.55 


June 1 


1952 


56.10 


July 1 


1952 


55 . 95 




1952 


55 71 


Sept. 1 


1952 


56 36 


Oct. 1 


1952 


57 09 


Nov. 1 


1952 


57 66 


Dec. 1 


1952 


58.46 


Jan. 1 
Feb. 1 
Mar. 1 
Apr. 1 


1953 


54 93 


1953 


58 83 


1953 


59.25 


1953 


59.45 







1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade. (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recre- 
ational service). 

1066 



TABLE C-3.— AREA AND INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS 
AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1939 = 100) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Area and Industry 



Index Numbers (1939 = 100) 



Employment 



Apr. 1 Mar. 1 
1953 1953 



Apr. 1 
1952 



Payrolls 



Apr. 1 
1953 



Mar. 1 Apr. 1 
1953 1952 



Average Weekly 
Wages and Salaries 



Apr. 1 
1953 



Mar. 1 
1953 



Apr. 1 
1952 



(a) Provinces 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

CANADA 

(b) Metropolitan Areas 

Sydney 

Halifax 

Saint John 

Quebec 

Sherbrooke 

Three Rivers 

Drummondville 

Montreal 

Ottawa— Hull 

Peterborough 

Oshawa 

Niagara Falls 

St. Catharines 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

Brantford 

Gait 

Kitchener 

Sudbury 

London 

Sarnia 

Windsor 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 

Winnipeg 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Edmonton 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Victoria 

(c) Industries 

Forestry (chiefly logging) 

Mining 

Manufacturing 

Durable Goods 1 

Non-Durable Goods 

Construction 

Transportation, storage, communi- 
cation 

Public utility operation 

Trade 

Finance, insurance and real estate 

Service 2 

Industrial composite 



168-0 
145-9 
160-8 
168-9 
195-9 
171-2 
147-4 
220-1 
186-4 

181-8 



110-6 
218-0 
184-9 
161-8 
169-6 
157-9 
172-4 
186-9 
188-1 
191-0 
307-3 



307 

243' 

209 

207 

193' 

164 

183' 

182-9 

202-8 

314-8 

243-7 

256-3 

232-1 

174-1 

174-9 

190-6 

295-4 

228-6 

200-5 

227-5 



123-6 
120-4 
200-8 
263-1 
160-6 
156-9 

176-6 
192-3 
180-0 
182-5 
188-1 

181-8 



167-6 
146-7 
164-3 
170-6 
195-4 
170-9 
147-6 
221-3 
183-1 

182-0 



110-7 
215-6 
184-1 
159-3 
171-2 
156-3 
172-9 
185-1 
187-0 
190-1 
304-9 
304-7 
242-2 
207-5 
204-8 
201-4 
163-7 
182-8 
182-5 



200-5 
319-5 
238-7 
244-8 
226-6 
173-2 
173-5 
189-9 
292-7 
226-4 
200-2 
230-1 



168-7 
121-7 
199-5 
260-7 
160-0 
153-6 

175-9 
192-0 
178-3 
182-5 
187-5 

182-0 



213-4 
148-9 
192-4 
166-4 
187-6 
168-8 
142-0 
201-6 
188-6 

177-9 



110 
221 
201 
149 
168 
163 
186 
176 
185 
197 
246 
268 
236 
194 
201 
211 
150 
168 
176 
185 
294 
229 
228 
222 
168 
159 
186 
244 
213 
200 
221 



200-3 
122-3 
188-3 
241-3 
154-0 
159-6 

181-3 
186-9 
171-3 
178-2 
181-0 

177-9 



386-5 
333-4 
393-3 
435-2 
475-3 
363-5 
326-9 
499-6 
447-5 

443 8 



278-6 
445-2 
382-5 
406-5 
418-4 
423-3 
477-1 
454-1 
416-4 
548-0 



660-8 
494-2 
530-7 
527-8 
433-6 
476-6 
427-9 
465-4 
812-7 
618-1 
629-2 
540-1 
367-6 
383-5 
423-6 
720-7 
486-7 
466-1 
542-6 



426-5 
280-4 
523-9 



694- 
401 
507 



371-7 
424-7 
395-9 
326-4 
413-5 

443-8 



381-6 
335-9 
406-0 
440-6 
475-0 
362-7 
326-4 
502-4 
440-9 

445 



298-1 
425-6 
388-3 
396-0 
419-2 
413-5 
466-0 
448-4 
415-2 
547-2 
894-1 
889-8 
660-0 
488-6 
522-2 
553-9 
431-3 
473-1 
426-8 
459-9 
789-6 
592-1 
632-0 
533-4 
365-1 
376-5 
419-0 
700-0 
484-0 
464-5 
550-7 



601-6 
285-9 
518-7 
687-8 



397- 
503- 

374- 

427- 
391- 
315- 



445-0 



376-4 
331-8 
442-5 
406-5 
432-3 
337-1 
294-1 
429-9 
432-6 

411-5 



294 
436 
428 
346 
391 
412 
463 
400 
390 
544 
648 
716 
622 
434 
486 
590 
371 
409 
393 
404 
693 
554 
541 
505 
338 
334 
388 
530 
436 
445 
505 



348-8 
393-0 
359-1 
302-7 
366-3 

411-5 



45.80 
48.95 
49.74 
54.84 
19.47 
54.60 
53.70 
57.73 
62.42 

57.31 



56.31 
47.84 
44.31 
46.82 
47.95 
53.65 
52.97 
55.52 
51.19 
60.62 
68.11 
70.46 
66.59 
59.77 
61.93 
56.72 
54.20 
55.02 
70.24 
54.30 
71.48 
70.60 
65.10 
59.41 
51.54 
49.86 
49.18 
57.45 
54.90 
58.32 
57.15 



59.75 
67.19 
59.45 
64.13 
54.51 
60.75 

60.20 
65.05 
48.03 
52.07 
36.82 

57.31 



45.32 
49-05 
50.25 
54.98 
59.56 
54.58 
53.58 
57.76 
62.59 

57.40 



60.23 
46.23 
45.18 
46.30 
47.58 
52.92 
51.60 
55.36 
51.33 
60.79 
69.22 
70.53 
66.85 
59.51 
61.69 
57.13 
54.13 
54.87 
70.21 
54.28 
68.43 
69.05 
68.48 
60.11 
51.46 
49.33 
48.84 
56.32 
55.13 
58.21 
57.37 



61.72 
67.80 
59.25 
64.10 
54.15 
61.60 

60.93 
65.58 
47.99 
50.37 
36.59 

57.40 



35.09 
47.74 
46.67 
52.01 
56.49 
51.37 
50.21 
54.25 
59.63 

54.32 



59.59 
46.15 
45.63 
43.14 
45.15 
50.56 
47.75 
52.00 
48.74 
58.15 
62.28 
64.19 
64.51 
56.41 
58.54 
57.97 
50.67 
51.48 
66.78 
51.57 
65.36 
67.56 
63.01 
57.87 
48.88 
47.67 
46.32 
51.05 
52.77 
55.79 
54.67 



59.96 
65.88 
56 55 
60.95 
52.09 



55.04 
62.02 

45.82 
49.40 
33.81 

54.32 



1 Includes wood products, iron and steel products, transportation equipment, non-ferrous metal products, electrical 
apparatus and supplies and non-metallic mineral products. The non-durable group includes the remaining manufacturing 
industries. 

2 Mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants and business and recreational services. 



1067 



Tables C-4 to C-6 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available, whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



1945— Average. 
1946— Average. 
1947 — Average. 
1948 — Average. 
1949 — Average. 
1950 — Average. 
1951 — Average. 
1952— Average. 



*Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

*Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 



1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 

1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 



All Manufactures 



Average 
Hours 



No. 



44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 

38-1 
41-6 
41-7 
42-1 
41-9 
41-3 
41-3 
41-1 
41-6 
42-1 
42-1 
42-5 

38-3 
41-9 
42-1 
42-0 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



cts. 



69-4 
70-0 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 

127-1 
127-1 
127-8 
129-0 
129-4 
129-7 
128-6 
128-9 
129-5 
129-9 
131-0 
132-1 

134-0 
134-2 
134-4 
135-0 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



30.74 
29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 

48.43 
52.87 
53.29 
54.31 
54.22 
53.57 
53.11 
52.98 
53.87 
54.69 
55.15 
56-14 

51.32 
56.23 
56.58 
56.70 



Durable Goods 



Average 
Hours 



No. 



44-7 
42.8 
42-7 
42-3 
42-5 
42.5 
42-0 
41-6 

38-3 
41-9 
41-8 
42-3 
42-1 
41-4 
41-4 
41-1 
41-8 
42-2 
42-1 
42-6 

38-5 
41-9 
42-4 
42-3 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



cts. 



76-7 
76-4 
87-2 
98-4 
106-5 
112-0 
125-8 
139-8 

136-4 
137-5 
138-4 
139-6 
139-5 
139-6 
138-3 
139-4 
141-2 
141-8 
142-6 
143-6 

144-5 

145-7 
146-3 
146-8 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



34.28 
32.70 
37.23 
41.62 
45.26 
47.60 
52.84 
58.16 

52.24 
57.61 
57.85 
59.05 
58.73 
57.79 
57.26 
57.29 
59.02 
59.84 
60.03 
61.17 

55.63 
61.05 
62.03 
62.10 



Non-Durable Goods 



Average 
Hours 



No. 



43-7 
42-6 
42-3 
42-0 
42-0 
42-2 
41-7 
41-3 

37-9 
41-2 
41-5 
41-8 
41-6 
41-3 
41-2 
41-1 
41-4 
42-0 
42-1 
42-2 

38-2 
41-8 
41-7 
41-8 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



cts. 



60-7 
63.8 
73-4 
84-0 
90-6 
95-2 
107-2 
117-4 

116-8 
115-7 
116-0 
116-9 
117-8 
118-4 
117-9 
117-5 
116-8 
117-0 
118-4 
119-3 



121-8 
120-8 
120-7 
121-4 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



26.53 
27.18 
31.05 
35.28 
38.05 
40.17 
44.70 
48.49 

44.27 
47.67 
48.14 
48.86 
49.00 
48.90 
48.57 
48.29 
48.36 
49.14 
49.85 
50.34 

46.53 
50.49 
50.33 
50.75 



*The averages at these dates were affected by loss of working time at the year-end holidays in the case of January. 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES AND 

CITIES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




Apr. 1, 
1953 


Mar. 1, 
1953 


Apr. 1, 

1952 


Apr. 1, 
1953 


Mar. 1, 
1953 


Apr. 1, 
1952 




41-4 
41-7 
42-1 
43-6 
41-7 
41-0 
41-3 
40-6 
38-1 

42-6 
41-1 
40-8 
43-7 
40-7 
37-7 


41-0 
41-3 
42-7 
43-6 
41-7 
410 
40-8 
40-5 
38-3 

42-6 
41-2 
40-5 
42-5 
40-8 
37-5 


42-2 
43-6 
43-8 
43-7 
41-4 
41-4 
41-8 
41-4 
38-7 

42-8 
40-8 
400 
43-0 
41-0 
38-2 


131-4 
121-1 
120-1 
120-8 
1430 
130 
135-0 
137-7 
164-0 

127-5 

142-8 
156-1 
165-1 
128-7 
160-6 


132-9 
119-9 
118-6 
120-1 
142-5 
129-2 
132-4 
137-8 
163-6 

126-9 
142-3 
155-0 
164-0 
127-9 
160-3 


126-6 




115-8 




112-4 




114-6 




137-2 




122-0 




129-4 


Alberta 


128-6 




158-6 




119-7 




135-5 




148-1 




162-7 




120-8 




155-2 







1068 



TABLE C-6.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Hours 



Apr. 1 Mar.l Apr. I 
1953 1953 1952 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



Apr. 1 Mar. 1 Apr. 1 



1953 



1953 



1952 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



Apr. 1 Mar.l Apr. 1 
1953 1953 1952 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

*Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

*Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

'Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

'Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 
*Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

'Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



152 

154 
131 

168 
152 
147 
166 
145 
135 
116 
143 
104 
126 
102 
140 
123 
143 
94 
91 
107 
110 
102 
108 
95 
93 
101 
95 
120 
129 
108 
103 
149 
160 
118 
157 
151 
159 
157 
136 
132 
149 
144 
168 
142 
157 
157 
169 
156 
157 
145 
149 
138 
140 
161 
142 
158 
133 
124 
128 
178 
135 
112 
155 
109 
146 
121 
143 
156 
108 
132 
77 
76 
75 



cts. 

146 9 

146-2 
129-5 
158-3 
153-4 
150-2 
164-7 
136-6 
129-0 
111-0 
139-5 
96-9 
119-6 
97-1 
135-8 
120-5 
135-5 
89-6 
86-4 
102-5 
100-6 
100-6 
106-2 
91-2 
89-1 
95-3 
92-9 
116-5 
126-7 
103-0 
97-4 
141-6 
150-3 
111-3 
146-3 
144-3 
160-5 
147-6 
129-2 
125-2 
141-6 
135-7 
156-7 
133-7 
146-9 
148-1 
164-4 
150-7 
140-7 
135-3 
144-1 
131-1 
133-9 
157-6 
138-8 
149-3 
126-8 
119-8 
122-5 
168-0 
130-8 
104-8 
151-5 
103-9 
139-6 
116-9 
132-4 
141-1 
106-1 
125-1 
73-0 
72-1 
71-0 



63 79 

68.93 
61.24 
73.81 
54.45 
49.64 
73.05 
61.26 
56.70 
48.57 
59.39 
42.10 
53.76 
45.50 
57.87 
49.60 
60.13 
39.87 
38.67 
45.84 
44.27 
45.13 
49.61 
38.46 
38.08 
38.37 
39.62 
50.56 
53.02 
47.07 
45.58 
65.27 
70.69 
50.13 
63.11 
63.56 
62.01 
65.05 
58.70 
55.48 
64.80 
62.58 
68.66 
58.34 
67.24 
70.25 
75.64 
66.36 
63.15 
62.10 
61.88 
58.59 
59.60 
66.34 
59.51 
66.52 
59.05 
55.95 
59.17 
73.50 
56.81 
45.92 
64.65 
45.81 
62.10 
50.75 
59.86 
63.11 
47.80 
59.89 
32.85 
33.06 
31.50 



64.37 

68.66 
61.43 
72.96 
57.45 
53.26 
75.22 
62.14 
56 58 
47.47 
57.54 
41.09 
53.04 
44.73 
56.72 
47.94 
59.93 
39.61 
38.09 
45.75 
43.99 
45.36 
49.68 
38.33 
37.35 
39.22 
39.35 
50.50 
52.95 
47.28 
45.67 
65.07 
70.45 
50.04 
62.08 
63.74 
63.84 
66.62 
58.65 
55.37 
64.03 
61.96 
69.66 
58.76 
67.15 
72.09 
73.63 
66.16 
62.72 
62.44 
61.86 
59.14 
59.47 
66.70 
59.36 
66.72 
58.65 
54.73 
58.75 
71.96 
56.94 
46.17 
63.96 
45.80 
62.03 
50.33 
61.08 
64.23 
48.64 
60.38 
32.85 
33.53 
30.54 



63 31 

65.94 
60.35 
69.65 
61.05 
57.53 
76.26 
57.92 
54.31 
46.95 
59.43 
37.50 
51.79 
43.40 
56.22 
49.04 
56.50 
37.27 
36.29 
41.62 
36.82 
43.76 
47.05 
36.21 
35.91 
36.40 
36.79 
48.93 
52.20 
44.19 
42.95 
64.29 
70.34 
45.86 
58.23 
61.33 
65.16 
63.91 
55.17 
51.96 
61.31 
59.57 
65.19 
55.22 
62.58 
66.20 
71.19 
62.39 
57.12 
60.34 
60.09 
57.29 
57.04 
64.77 
56.91 
61.51 
55.54 
52.71 
54.64 
72.41 
55.07 
43.70 
63.65 
43.43 
59.05 
48.86 
56.01 
59.26 
44.67 
57.30 
31.17 
31-51 
29.32 



* Durable manufactured goods industries. 



1069 



TABLE C-7.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Hours Worked and Hourly and Weekly Wages, D.B.S. Real Wages computed by the Economics and Research 

Branch, Department of Labour. 



Date 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 

Earnings 
(W.E.) 



Index Numbers (A v. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



Average 

Real 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 



Average 1945. 
Average 1946. 
Average 1947. 
Average 1948. 
Average 1949. 
Average 1950. 
Average 1951. 
Average 1952 . 



Week Preceding: 
April 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

August 1 

September, 1 
October 1 
November 1 
December 1 

January 1 

February 1 

March 1 

April 1 



1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 



1953.... 
1953.... 
1953.... 
1953 (»). 



44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-5 
42-1 
41-7 



42-1 
41-7 



41-3 
41-1 
41-6 
42-1 
42-1 
42-5 



42-2 : 
41-9 
42-1 
42-0 



cts. 
69-4 
70-0 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116.8 
129-2 



129-0 
129-4 
129-7 
128-6 
128-9 
129-5 
129-9 
131-0 
132-1 

134-0 
134-2 
134-4 
135-0 



$ 
30.71 
29 87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
44.03 
49.15 
53.88 



54.31 
53 96 

53 57 
53.11 
52.98 
53.87 

54 69 
55.15 
56.14 

56.55 
56.23 
56.58 
56.70 



73-6 
71-6 
81-8 
92-4 
100-0 
105-6 
117.8 
129-2 



130-2 
129-4 
128-4 
127-3 
127-0 
129-2 
131-1 
132-2 
134-5 

135-6 
134-8 
135-7 
135-9 



75-0 
77-5 
84-8 
97-0 
100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 



116-8 
115-9 
116-0 
1161 
116-0 
116-1 
116-0 
116-1 
115-8 

115-7 
115-5 
114-6 
114-4 



98-1 
92-4 
96-5 
95-3 
100-0 
102-6 
103-6 
110-9 



111-5 
111-6 
110-7 
109-6 
109-5 
111-3 
113-0 
113-9 
116-1 

117-2 
116-7 
118-4 
118-8 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100). 

* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures are: January 1, 1953, 38-3 hours, $51.32. 
0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



1070 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 



Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular 
statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These 
statistics are compiled from two different 
reporting forms, UIC 751: statistical report 
on employment operations by industry, and 
UIC 757: inventory of registrations and 
vacancies by occupation. The data on 
applicants and vacancies in these two 
reporting forms are not identical. 

Form UIC 751 : This form provides a 
cumulative total for each month of all 
vacancies notified by employers, applications 
made by workers, and referrals and place- 
ments made by the National Employment 
Service. Also reported are the number of 
vacancies unfilled and applications on file 
at the beginning and end of each reporting 
period. Because the purpose of these data 
is to give an indication of the volume of 
work performed in various local National 
Employment Service offices, all vacancies 
and applications are counted, even if the 
vacancy is not to be filled until some future 
date (deferred vacancy) or the application 
is from a person who already has a job 
and wants to find a more suitable one. 

Form UIC 757: This form provides a 
count of the number of jobs available and 
applications on file at the end of business 
on a specified day. Excluded from the data 
on unfilled vacancies are orders from 
employers not to be filled until some future 
date. The data on job applications from 
workers exclude those people known to be 
already employed, those known to be regis- 



tered at more than one local office (the 
registration is countedby the "home" office), 
and registrations from workers who will not 
be available until some specified future date. 

From January 24, 1952, to December 24, 
1952, inclusive, unemployment insurance 
claimants on temporary mass lay-offs were 
not registered for employment and thus were 
not included in the statistics reported on 
form UIC 751 and form UIC 757. A 
temporary mass lay-off was defined as a 
lay-off either for a determinate or indeter- 
minate period which affected 50 or more 
workers and where the workers affected, so 
far as was known, were returning to work 
Avith the same employer. Commencing 15 
days after the date of < such a lay-off, 
claimants still on the live insurance register 
were registered for employment on their next 
visit to the office and henceforth were 
counted in both statistical reporting forms. 
This procedure is no longer in effect, as all 
workers on temporary mass lay-offs now are 
registered for employment and so counted in 
the statistical reporting forms. This change 
in procedure should be kept in mind when 
comparing the figures on applications for 
employment during 1952 with data for 
earlier and subsequent periods. 

Persons losing several days' work each 
week and consequently claiming short-time 
unemployment insurance benefits are not 
included in either statistical reporting form 
unless they specifically ask to be registered 
for employment. 



TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form TT.I.C. 757) 





Month 


Unfilled Vacancies* 


Live Applications for 


Employment 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 
June 


1, 1947 


62,770 
40,618 
23,539 
25,038 
48,353 

26,915 
22,772 
23,413 
26,178 
29,058 
23,846 
19,544 
12,051 
12,235 
13,604 
18,545 

24,982 

24,564 


39,870 
24,226 
24,035 
16,375 
17,701 

18,253 
17,679 
17,212 
20,870 
20,685 
18,092 
15,738 
12,143 
13,264 
13,799 
16,368 

19,142 

21,143 


102,640 
64,844 
47,574 
41,413 
66,054 

45,168 
40,451 
40,625 
47,048 
49,743 
41,938 
35,282 
24,194 
25,499 
27,403 
34,913 

44,124 

45,707 


94,170 

88,074 
113,489 
184,335 
101,384 

163,530 
134,394 
118,318 
105,169 
93,699 
99,383 
142,788 
254,660 
317,723 
331,618 
338,500 

241,990 

152,488 


32,311 
37,132 
41,359 
70,062 
49,677 

61,295 
61,866 
57,396 
51,121 
49,140 
49,258 
51,725 
60,901 
73,213 
72,065 
66,702 

57,397 

49,613 


126,481 


June 


1, 1948 


125,206 


June 


1, 1949 


154,848 


June 


1, 1950 


254,397 




1, 1951 


151,061 


June 


1, 1952 


224,825 


July 


1, 1952 


196,260 




1, 1952 


175,714 


September 


1, 1952 


156,290 




1, 1952 


142,839 


November 


1, 1952 


148,641 


December 


1, 1952 


194,513 


January 


1, 1953 


315,561 


February 


1, 1953 


390,936 


March 


1, 1953 


403,683 


April 


1, 1953 


405,202 


May 


1, 1953 (0 


299,387 


June 


1, 1953 (i) 


202,101 









* — Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
( x )— Latest figures subject to revision. 



1071 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 1953 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 





Male 


Female 


Total 




Chang 


e from 




Mar. 


31/53 


May 1/52 


Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 


1,849 
2,263 

834 

566 
137 
55 
21 
55 

6,170 

704 
5 

51 
143 
153 
395 
586 
227 
312 
831 
1,454 
185 
358 
135 

62 
356 
213 

4,057 

3,251 
806 

1,792 

1,640 
82 
70 

258 

3,419 

1,073 
2,346 

1,097 

3,549 

355 

1,261 

229 

433 

1,271 

25,288 


378 

7 

44 

15 
11 
4 


2,227 

2,270 

878 

581 

148 

59 

21 

69 

9,846 

1,030 
7 

85 
359 
392 

2,112 
669 
296 
457 
978 

1,615 
239 
485 
157 
72 
518 
375 

4,152 

3,313 

839 

2,121 

1,769 
102 
250 

301 

6,910 

1,785 
5,125 

2,230 

13,434 

1,639 

1,903 

401 

969 

8,522 

44,372 


+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 


699 
1,809 

240 

225 
5 
9 

28 
9 

121 

128 
10 
6 
74 
24 
20 

178 
48 
75 
32 

144 

131 
79 
10 
53 
19 
78 

1,204 

842 
362 

586 

619 
16 
49 

129 

1,495 

336 
1,159 

369 

3,052 

259 

421 

185 

86 

2,101 

8,724 


— 1,311 


Forestry 


+ 1,177 
— 391 


Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 






Fuels 




Non-Metal Mining 




Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 






14 

3,676 

326 

2 

34 

216 

239 

1,717 

83 

69 

145 

147 

161 

54 

127 

22 

10 

162 

162 

95 

62 
33 

329 

129 
20 
180 

46 

3,491 

712 

2,779 

1,133 

9,885 

1,284 

642 

172 

536 

7,251 

19,084 




Manufacturing 


+ 560 










Rubber Products 








Textile Products (except clothing) 
























Transportation Equipment 
















Products of Petroleum and Coal 












Construction 


- 812 










Transportation, Storage and Communication 










See Foot- 




Note ( 2 ) 


Public Utility Operation 




Trade 


+ 1,805 






Retail 






+ 649 


Service 


+ 258 


















GRAND TOTAL 


+ 2,255 







(') — Preliminary— subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 

( 2 )— Commencing January 2, 1953, the Standard Industrial Classification Manual of the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics replaced the Industrial Classification Manual of the Department of Labour. Since there is a difference in the 
grouping of the two industry divisions — Transportation, Storage and Communication, and Public Utility Operation, 
the change in these divisions can only be recorded in the Grand Total. 



1072 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 1953 0) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Live Applications 
for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Professional and managerial workers 

Clerical workers 

Sales workers 

Personal and domestic service workers. . . 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (inc 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and wood products 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility. . 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

GRAND TOTAL 



2,314 
1,792 
1,635 



9,850 

136 

260 

2,083 

65 

93 

34 

1,303 

267 

60 

185 

1,689 

1,060 

53 

416 

1,963 

78 

105 

4,994 
121 

278 

125 

1,576 

2,894 



24,982 



669 

4,774 

1,895 

8,374 

3 

25 

2,298 

45 

1,573 

4 

16 

145 

2 

26 

41 



16 

2 

279 

124 

7 
18 

104 

187 
5 

15 
1 

896 



19,142 



2,566 
7,088 
3,687 

10,009 

21 

2,507 

12,148 

181 

1,833 

2,087 

81 

238 

36 

1,329 

308 

60 

185 

1,689 

1,076 

55 

695 

2,087 

85 

123 



283 

140 

1,577 

3,790 



44,124 



3,569 

7,702 

3,701 

18,576 

2,217 

2,204 

110,856 

1,309 

2,353 

25.443 

749 

743 

320 

7,735 

1,234 

291 

2,087 

29,885 

19,218 

671 

1,648 

10,986 

3,195 

2,989 

93,165 

2,772 

7,334 

3,266 

22,173 

57,620 



241,990 



853 
13,132 
7,511 
11,470 



379 

12,306 

790 
7,292 
114 
413 
526 

46 
444 
317 

27 



3 

65 

10 

1,029 

966 

203 

61 

11,725 

3,534 

146 

361 

20 

7,664 



57,397 



4,422 

20,834 

11,212 

30,046 

2,238 

2,583 

123,162 

2,099 
9,645 

25,557 
1,162 
1,269 
366 
8,179 
1,551 
318 
2,087 

29,888 

19,283 

681 

2,677 

11,952 
3,398 
3,050 

104,890 

6,306 

7,480 

3,627 

22,193 

65,284 



299,387 



0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1073 



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1078 



TABLE D-5. 



APPLICATIONS RECEIVED AND PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY 
EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 



Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1943—1953) 



Year 


Applications 


Placements 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


1943 


1,681,411 
1,583,010 
1,855,036 
1,464,533 
1,189,646 
1,197,295 
1,295,690 
1,500,763 
1,541,208 
1,781,689 
646,395 


1,008,211 
902,273 
661,948 
494,164 
439,577 
459,332 
494,956 
575,813 
623,467 
664,485 
224,621 


2,689,622 
2,485,283 
2,516,984 
1,958,697 
1,629,223 
1,656,627 
1,790,646 
2,076,576 
2,164,675 
2,446,174 
871,016 


1,239,900 
1,101,854 
1,095,641 
624,052 
549,376 
497,916 
464,363 
559,882 
655,933 
677,777 
174,874 


704,126 
638,063 
397,940 
235,360 
220,473 
214,424 
219,816 
230,920 
262,305 
302,730 
96,279 


1,944,023 


1944. . . 


1,739,917 


1945 


1,493,581 


1946 


859,412 


1947. .. 


769,849 


1948 


712,340 


1949 


684,179 


1950 


790,802 


1951 


918,238 


1952 


980,507 


1953 (4 months) 


271,153 







75802—8 



1079 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-l.— PERSONS RECEIVING BENEFIT, NUMBER OF DAYS BENEFIT PAID, 

AND AMOUNT PAID 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Number 
Receiving 
Benefit 
in Last 
Week of the 
Month* 


Month of April, 1953 


Province 


Number 

Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 


Number 

of Days 

Benefit 

Paid 


Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 


Newfoundland 


7,966 
1,362 
11,436 
10,148 
73,897 
47,648 
8,433 
3,565 
9,154 
22,706 


1,923 
237 

4,456 
4,477 
34,859 
19,905 
2,877 
1,082 
4,325 
9,518 


188,472 

38,805 

270,686 

283,036 

2,029,927 

1,236,062 

251,605 

121,517 

237,419 

568,267 


S 

639,154 
113,576 




842,735 




894,426 


Quebec 

Ontario 


6,353,659 

3,813,621 

757,829 




376,231 


Alberta 


777,971 
1,820,092 






Total, Canada, April, 1953 


196,315 


83,659 


5,225.796 


16,389,294 






Total, Canada, March, 1953 


211,442 


114,683 


6,613,705 


20,796,825 






Total, Canada, April, 1952 


196,973 


79,424 


4,911,979 


13,253,537 



*Week containing last day of the month. 



TABLE E-2.— PERSONS ON THE LIVE UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER BY NUMBER 
OF DAYS, CONTINUOUSLY ON THE REGISTER, AS OF APRIL 30, 1953 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 


Total 


6 days 

and 
under 


7-12 
days 


13-24 
days 


25-48 
days 


49-72 
days 


73 days 
and 
over 




9,859 

9,621 

238 

1,068 
886 
182 

12,521 

11.192 
1,329 

14,989 

13,372 

1,617 

90,719 
81,308 
15,411 

.53,703 
39.972 
13,731 

9,868 
6,676 
3,192 

3,613 

2,901 

712 

12,081 
10,713 
1,368 

25.477 

20,329 

5,148 

239.898 
196.970 

42,928 


1,279 

1,247 

32 

86 
66 
20 

2,080 

1,938 

142 

2,463 

2,177 

286 

16,543 

12,506 
4,037 

11,446 
7,740 
3,706 

1,778 

1,009 

769 

318 
218 
100 

1,942 

1,670 

272 

4,953 

4,107 

846 

42,888 
32,678 
10,210 


357 

344 

13 

37 
26 
11 

1,008 

928 

80 

1,483 

1,348 

135 

8,031 
6,449 
1,582 

4,125 
2,920 
1,205 

580 
357 
223 

208 
160 
48 

960 
864 
96 

2,270 

1,832 

• 438 

19,059 

15,228 
3,831 


1,045 

1,024 

21 

95 
82 
13 

1,766 

1,592 

174 

2,255 

2,063 

192 

14,279 
12,507 
1,772 

6,525 
4,942 
1,583 

940 
628 
312 

357 

300 

57 

2,014 

1,889 

125 

3,042 

2,433 

609 

32,318 

27,460 

4,858 


1,613 

1.567 

46 

195 
170 
25 

2,490 

2,252 

238 

3,066 

2,787 
279 

22,614 
20, IK) 
2,204 

10,488 
8,218 
2,270 

1,494 

1,032 

462 

563 
440 
123 

2,954 

2,697 

257 

4,128 

3.232 
896 

49,605 
42,805 
6,800 


1,940 

1,894 

46 

165 
122 
43 

1,800 

1,579 

221 

2,073 

1,868 

205 

14,566 

12,882 
1.684 

6,611 
4,984 
1,627 

1,360 
862 
498 

568 
449 
119 

1,536 

1 , 334 

202 

3.040 

2.274 

766 

33,659 

28,248 

5,411 


3,625 


Male 


3.545 




80 




490 




420 




70 




3,377 




2,903 




474 




3,649 




3,129 




520 


Quebec 


20,686 
If, 554 




4,132 




14,508 




11.168 




3,340 




3,716 




2,788 




928 




1,599 


Male 


1,334 




265 




2.675 




2,259 




416 




8.044 




6. 151 




1.593 


Total* 


62,369 




50.551 




11.818 







* Includes 4,115 supplementary benefit claimants. 

1080 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCES, 

APRIL, 1953 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Provinc3 


Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims (including claims 
pending from previous months) 


Total 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 

of 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 
to Benefit 


Pending 




4,375 

433 

6,286 

7,621 

45,346 

29,119 

4,383 

1,489 

5,290 

12,829 


3,798 

360 

4,212 

5,366 

32,869 

19,336 

2,932 

1,190 

3,915 

7,957 


579 
73 
2,074 
2,255 
12,477 
9,783 
1,451 

299 
1,375 
4,872 


4,410 

561 

7,244 

8,798 

58,337 

32,597 

4,858 

1,827 

6,512 

13,735 


1,811 

208 

4,958 

5,442 

37,762 

23,265 

2,902 

898 

4,373 

8,805 


2,591 

3J3 
2,286 
3,356 
20,575 
9,332 
1,956 

929 
2,139 
4,930 


1,980 


Prince Edward Island 


68 
1 , 603 




1,892 




11,226 




5,831 




531 




222 




1,194 




3,143 






Total, Canada, April, 1953 


117,1711 


81,933 


35,238 


138, 879 2 * 


90,427 


48,452 


27,690 






Total Canada March 1953 


179,714 


134,334 


45,380 


176,499 


110,514 


65,985 


49 399 






Total Canada, April, 1952 


100,951 


71,286 


29,665 


116,607 


86,716. 


29,891 


25,361 







'In addition, revised claims received numbered 19,339. 2 In addition, 19,611 revised claims were disposed of. Of 
these, 1,522 were special requests not granted, and 1.024 were appeals by claimants. There were 2,498 revised claims 
pending at the end of the month. 



1081 



TABLE E-L— REGULAR AND SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFIT CLAIMS DISALLOWED 
AND CLAIMANTS DISQUALIFIED 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S 



Chief Reasons lor Non-Entitlement 



Claims Disallowed 

Regular 

Supplementary* 

Claimants Disqualifiedt 

Not unemployed 

Disqualification — total 

6 days or less 

7 days or more 

Not capable of and not available for work 

Loss of work due to a labour dispute 

Refused offer of work and neglected opportunity to work 

Discharged for misconduct 

Voluntarily left employment without just cause 

Failure to fulfil additional conditions imposed upon certain married women 
Other reasonsj .* 



Total. 



Month of 
April, 
1953 



36,305 
5,550 



5,670 
3,522 
2,148 
1,833 
47 
1,252 

785 
5,673 

712 
3,466 



61,293 



Month of 

March, 

1953 



51,773 
10,654 



6,734 
4,345 
2,389 
2,224 

149 
1,455 
1,007 
7,108 

999 
3,218 



85,321 



Month of 
April, 
1952 



20,452 
2,771 



1.481 
902 

1,195 
695 

5,185 
717 

2,170 



35,568 



*No comparable data for 1952. 

fClaimants disqualified April, 1953, include 5,757 on revised and 1,534 on supplementary benefit claims. 
t These include: Claims not made in prescribed manner; failure to carry out written directions; claimants being 
inmates of prisons, etc. 



TABLE E-5.— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



At Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants* 


1952— March 


3,096,000 
3,090,240 
3,062,000 
3,068,000 
3,097,000 
3,132,000 
3,151,000 
3,171,000 
3,186,000 
3,241,000 

3,286,000 
3,283,000 
3,280,000 


2,779,600 
2,851,570 
2,843,900 
2,924,500 
2,974,300 
3.019,400 
3,049,000 
3,078,400 
3,074,500 
3,079,100 

3,007,400 
2,928,300 
2,916,800 


316,400t 




238,670 




218,100 




143,500 


July 


122,700 




112,600 




102,000 




92,600 




111,500 




161,900 




278,600t 




354,700f 




363,200t 







* Ordinary claimants on the live unemployment register on the last working day of the preceding month. 
t Includes supplementary benefit claimants. 



1082 



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CO 


w 


(^ 


t^ 


■c 


CO 


CO 


U0 


t- 


r^ 






CD-Q 


os 




OS 


CO 


CO 


» H 


— ' 


t— 


OS 


os 






ffl.S 


•>* 


IO 


co" 


o 


OS 


uo" 


IO* 


>* 


o 


o 






«& CO 


M 






OS 


00 


oc 


o 


CO 


CO 






*"" 


l« 


CO 


16 


•"• 


U0 


U0 


CO 


o 


o 






t^ 


OS 


cm" 


*-!• 


oo 


r-T 


^r 


o" 


co" 


CO 








c 


oo 


CO 




uo 


IO 


■o 


uo 


U0 








•* 


le 


UO 


CO 


*" 


. 


oo 


oo 


oo 


00 












as 


co 


OS 


o 




o 
















co 




r ~ l 


CI 


CM 


CO 


!•- 


>— • 


o 


00 










lO 




CM 


r- 1 


CO 


oo 


IO 


CI 


CO 


o 










o 


IC 


o 






co 


U0' 














, 


IO 




CM 


'O 


o 


CM 


CM 


•^fl 


t~ 


•*»" 








S3 


CO 


CC 




cm" 


■<*" 


,_r 


IO 


CI 


uo" 


co" 








O 


s© oc 


c 


CM 




CO 


CM 


CO 


00 


oo 


o 








^ 


oc 


oo 


o 


"- ' 


00 






CO 


t^ 








!>. 


a 


uo" 


o 


o" 


uo" 


o> 


~r 


cm" 


^£ 














oo 


OS 


CTi 


co 


as 










IS 


CO 




~ 










~ 


U0 






CO 










OS 




CM 




1*-. 




uo 


CO 






E-i 


Si 

o3 






U0 


U0 

OS 


uo 

oo 


oo 

CO 


1^ 


OS 


OS 


uo 




a 








CO 




CO 


CO 


a 


o 


oo 


o 




w 


s 


C 






o 




CO 


o 


OS 


co 


OS 


CM 




§ 


< 

fa 


CU 

£ 






oo" 


o 


»# 


t^r 


CTj 


^h" 


co" 


oo" 




«© 






ec 


o 


o 


IO 


o 


os 


U0 




p 


CU 






oo 




eo 


o • 


co 


00 




co 




(O 


H 


"a 








CO 


^fl 


tc 


~ 


cm" 




cm" 








a 
























Q 


fa 


OQ 




























CC 




U0 


cr 


os 


re 




OS 


OS 












CM 


t^ 


CO 




OS 


CO 


o 


co 










u: 


CN 


CO 


H 


t~ 




^_ 


CM 


U0 


uo 








>> 


C 


U" 


CO 


c 




1-^ 




co 


uo 


CO 










U7 


t~ 




' —l 


CO 




co 


1—1 


t^ 


CM 








o3 
C 




CC 


co" 


cm" 


OS 


V 


uo" 


rS 


oo 


UO* 












CD 


00 


IO 




t~ 


oo 












'•V 




oc 


o 


o 


IO 


00 


t- 


CO 


>— 1 


CO 








Si 

O 


«> 


Os" uo" 


co" 


>o" 


cm" 


os" 


CO 


cm" 


00 








— 


•t 


oo 


oo 


oo 




















i- 












IO 






U0 








CN 


o- 




CO 


>* 


■«f< 


CO 


c^-. 












"" 


CO CM 


UO 


00 


oo 


CO 


co 


"— 1 


oo 








<* 


o r^ 


UO 


o 


^H 


— 


CM 


uo 


1-^ 






■a 8 


-f 


U0 CO 




00 


U0 


N 


re 


CO 








<4 


CN 


t~ 


OS 


09 


o 


1^ 


o 


OS 


Tfl 






fa v 


1— 


t^." uo" 


uo" 


eol 


t~" 


o" 


Cl" 


,_," 


■*" 






e% ? 


03 


CO 




oo 


o 


CI 


~ 




CO 








CC 


OS 


OS 


l~ 




1^ 


CT< 




f- 






























fa 


ut 




oo 




CO 


OS 


o 


t- 


oo 


CO 






CC 


T- 


co 




a 


o 


CI 






U0 
















cq 


o, 


-n 












oc 


CO -1 


CO 


X 




co 


co 


CO 










C 


uo t^ 


c 


oo 


■<* 






CO 


t^ 






rest on 
istments 
Profit 
Sale of 
curities 




t- (^ 


l» 


CO 


t^ 


U0 


Tt* 


•* 


CO 






c 


1- 




<* 


© 




oo 


OS 


OS 










CO Ol 


oo 


■ c 


t^ 


X 


CO 






id 




uo" c- 


- ,_; 


o 


CO 


o" 


(C 


ci 


uo" 


uo" 


CM 




e»& oo .- 


OS 


CO 
CO 


o 


U0 
OS 


CO 


s 


eo 

o 


s 


CO 




cu «t) - cd 


uo" CM~ -«J<~ 


uo" 


OS 


cm" 


OS 


c<r 


cm" 


co" 


U0 0O CM 

co • oo 




CO i- 


,_l 


1-1 


* H 


CM 


3 






CM 




















































cm c3i rr 




a 


O0 CM 


o 


o 




BO 


OS 


8 


CM 


,247,47 
3,369,7 
date % 








O -*f 


UO 


5 


OS 




CI 




05 




o- 


OS r-H 


CO 


-f 


U0 


CO 


CO 


uo 


r^ 


H 






U0 CO 


>o 




oo 


C) 


oo 


CM 


CO 




co 

cu 




CO t>. 


SO 


CO 


o 


ao 




CO 




2 


uo oo" r>~ 


-tji" 


co" 


co" 


uo" 


C) 




oo" 


"2 "- 1 ° 


o 




<&> r- 






co 


co 


CO 


■^1 








&$ ^ "^ 




s 






















Total 

Total 

ly 3, 1950 






OS ^H O 


so 


t^ 


CO 


BO 


o 


CO 


CM 








CC 


t^ CM 




CO 




IO 


IQ 


OS 


o 


^ t^ 2 

CM <^ ^ 






"S 


r- c 


CM 


CO 


"* 


CO 


•"*< 


os 




CO 






I 

c 

Si 

CD 






co 


a 


oo 


co 


1 - 


l~ 


UO 


o 








rfi O co 
oo" ■»*" ■«*" 


2 


CI 
uo" 


CO 
UO 


oo 


OS 

OS 


o 

co" 


OS 
Os" 






e% •>» 


CM OS 






co 












cc"6 


CO (35 o 


IO 


oo 


o 


CO 


as 


CO 


CO 


H«5.M 




fc s 


> 

o 


t^ 


o o 


t>." 


o" 


^~ 


ap 


Cl 


cm" 


co" 




o3 


00 ( 


CM 


CO 


CO 








CM 


uo" 52 99 




B £ 

SS 

















CI 








«^ » cu 
























^ ^ 09 


























■a a s 




co oo tj< 


~f 


cr- 




•«*< 




CM 






g,s 




OS OS OS 


00 


>* 


o 


CJ 


CO 


oo 


■"*! 


m m v 




6-1 »i 


s ^ g 


UO OS IO 


oo 


00 


uo 


■^< 


Cl 


CO 


o 


CC 




<5 CO 


IO MS »H 




IO 


os 




r^ 


os 


o 




O C 


CO "0 ■* 


CM 


oo 


U0 


o 






CO 


3.78 
4.32 
Bene 




°o 


CM" t- 


cm" 


-*" 


t-' 


•*" 


co" 


t^r 


Os" 


o 




t& t^~ 00 CO 




cr 


oo 


o 




CO 


CM 




v -' 


t~- UO •>* 


t^ 


00 


»"• 


CO 


Cl 


CO 


CM 








oo •«*< 


oo" 


co" 


U0 


cf 


CO 


CO* 


os" 


CM CN >, 

CO CM_ t? 

uo co" •? 






-* < 




UO 


uo 


-j: 






o 


















o 


























- 








$1,75 

$1,57 
ment 




































































































Si Si * 


























Mete 

Mete 
Supp 




CO 
























"5 

Si 






















CO 

co 

co co -a 

CO CM c 




'O 






















t^ uo 3 




s 

C 






















!5-« 
























ss-g 




(- 






















CO CO cu 




03 


























cu 
























~o3 
5 


00 OS o 




cm' 




S3 


^ 


>. 


3 


1 6 > 




.22 


"*> -<ti U0 


^o 


IO 


uo 


a 


03 


o 


Cfi 33 U 




fa 


S S 2 


'CTj 


39 


OS 


OS 


< 


s 


H 








o 










o 
















H 










H 











75802—9 



1083 



TABLE E-7.— CLAIMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFIT, APRIL, 1953 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Initial Claims Only 


Persons 
Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 


Number 

of Days 

Benefit 

Paid 




Province 


Claims 
Considered 


Entitled 
to Benefit 


Not 

Entitled 

to Benefit 


Amount 

of Benefit 

Paid 




2,323 

276 

1,661 

2,713 

13,731 

4,995 

1,074 

613 

1,178 

2,254 


1,848 
241 

1,379 

2,238 
10,409 

3,761 
893 
491 
802 

1,755 


475 

35 

282 

475 

3,322 

1,234 

181 

122 

376 

499 


1,875 

348 

1,732 

2,508 

11,990 

5,621 

1,283 

742 

1,070 

2,452 


68,963 

17,631 

86,878 

109,314 

491,739 

254,962 

67,945 

36,702 

43,052 

136,893 


S 
158,005 




34,704 




180,579 




229,061 




1,025,530 




546,496 




144,573 




77,358 




98,472 




306,777 






Total 


30,818* 


23,817 


7,001 


29,621f 


1,314,079 


2,801,555 







* There were in addition, 717 renewal claims, 
t Includes 1,317 renewal claims. 



1084 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— INDEX NUMBERS OF THE COST OF LIVING IN CANADA 

Prices at the beginning of each Month 
(Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



1914. 
1929. 
1933. 
1939. 
1945. 
1946. 
1947. 
1948. 
1949. 



1950. 



January . . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . 

September . 

October 

November. 
December. 



1951 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 
October 
November . 
December. . 



1952 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . 

October 

November*. 
December. . . 



1953 



January . . 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Percent- 
age 

Increase 

since 

August 1, 



18 6 
23-6 
34-4 

53-8 
59-8 



59-7 
60-3 
62-4 
62-7 
62 7 
641 
66-2 
67-2 
68-5 
69-3 
69-3 
69-7 



71 1 

73-8 
78-3 
80-4 
80-6 
82 6 
861 
87-4 
88-3 
88-9 
89-7 
89 6 



90 
89-3 
87-6 

87-2 
85-2 
85-8 
86-5 
861 
850 
83-5 
83-3 
82-7 



82-9 

83-4 
82-7 
82-4 
82-1 
83-3 



On base of average prices in 1935-39 as 100* 



Total 



79-7 
121-7 

94-4 
101-5 
119-5 
123-6 
135-5 
155-0 
160-8 



161-0 
161-6 
163-7 
164-0 
164-0 
165-4 
167-5 
168-5 
169-8 
170-7 
170-7 
171-1 



172 
175 
179 

181' 

182 
184 
187 



19 (J 
191 
191' 



191-5 
190-8 
189-1 
188-7 
186-7 
187-3 
188-0 
187-6 
186-5 
185-0 
184-8 
184-2 



184-4 
184-9 
184-2 
183-9 
183-6 
184-8 



Food 



92-2 
134-7 

84-9 
100-6 
133-0 
140-4 
159-5 
195-5 
203-0 



199-4 
201-3 
204-0 
204-5 
204-6 
209-0 
214-3 
216-7 
218-8 
220-1 
218-6 
218-8 



220-2 
224-4 
233-9 



238> 
235 
239 
249 
251 
251< 
249 • 
250. 
249' 



250-0 
248-1 
241-7 
240-2 
235-3 
237-0 
239-5 
238-0 
234-2 
229-3 
229-0 
226-1 



226-2 
227-4 
225-7 
223-5 
222-8 
225-7 



Rent 



72-1 
119-7 

98-6 
103-8 
112-1 
112-7 
116-7 
120-7 
123-0 



125-0 
125-0 
132-7 
132-7 
132-7 
132-7 
134-9 
134-9 
135-5 
135-5 
136-4 
136-4 



136-4 
136-4 
137-6 
137-6 
137-6 
139-8 
139-8 
139-8 
142-7 
142-7 
144-8 
144-8 



144-8 

144-8 



150-2 
150-5 
150-7 
150-9 
151-0 
152-5 



Fuel 
and 
Light 



75-1 
112-6 
102-5 
101-2 
107-0 
107-4 
115-9 
124-8 
131-1 



135-6 
135-9 
136-3 
138-0 
137-5 
137-1 
137-7 
138-4 
140-8 
141-0 
140-6 
140-7 



141-5 
141-7 
146-5 
146-7 
146-2 



Clothing 



146' 
147- 
148- 
149' 
150- 
150- 
150- 



151-2 
151-3 
152-5 
152-5 
150-6 
149-8 
149-8 
150-1 
150-3 
150-9 
151-1 
152-7 



153-9 
154-3 
154-4 
155-5 
153-2 
152-6 



88-3 
134-8 

93-3 
100-7 
122-1 
126-3 
143-9 
174-4 
183-1 



183-3 
183-0 
181-4 
181-2 
180-8 
180-7 
180-7 
180-9 
182-3 
183-5 
184-5 
184-9 



187-1 
192-4 
196-3 
198-8 
201-5 
302-5 
202-9 
204-6 
206-9 
213-8 
214-6 
215-5 



215-3 
213-0 
211-2 
210-4 
210-1 
209-3 
209-1 
208-6 
207-7 
206-7 
205-5 
205-4 



205' 
205' 
205' 
205- 
206- 
206- 



Home 
Furnish- 
ings and 
Services 



Miscel- 
laneous 



105 



101-4 
119-0 
124-5 
141-6 
162-6 
167-6 



167-0 
166-4 
166-3 
166-4 
166-4 
166-9 
166-9 
168-9 
171-1 
172-7 
174-8 
176-4 



179-8 
185-1 
188-6 
190-7 
194-9 
197-1 
196-4 
199-0 
199-1 
200-1 
199-9 
200-6 



201-1 
200-1 
200-8 
200-5 
198-2 
197-2 
196-7 
196-0 
195-8 
195-9 
195-5 
195-3 



196-0 
191-1 
196-3 
196-8 
196-2 
196-2 



101-4 
109-4 
112-6 
117-0 
123-4 
128-8 



131-6 
132-1 
132-1 
132-3 
132-3 
132-4 
132-5 
132-5 
132-8 
133-3 
133-4 
134-1 



135-8 
137-0 
137-8 
138 

140 

144 

142 

143 

144 

144 

144-9 

144-9 



145-7 
146-5 
146-9 
147-9 
147-4 
147-4 
147-4 
147-8 
147-8 
148-5 
148-8 
148-8 



148-9 
149-0 
147-9 
148-7 
149-0 
149-0 



Retail 
Prices 
Index 
(Com- 
modities 
only)t 



101-0 
126-2 
132-1 
148-8 
177-4 
184-8 



183-8 
184-7 
185-8 
186-2 
186-1 
188-3 
191-0 
192-4 
194-3 
195-5 
195-1 
195-6 



197-3 
201-4 
207-9 
211-2 
211-3 
214-0 
219-6 
221-11 
221-61 
222-4 
233 -ft 
222-? 



223-1 
221-6 
218-3 
217-5 
214-0 
214-5 
215-7 
214-8 
212-7 
210-1 
209-7 
208-4 



208-6 



209' 
208' 
207- 
206' 
207- 



*For the period 1914 to 1934 the former series on the bases 1926 = 100 was converted to the bases 1935-39 = 100. 
t Commodities in the cost-of-living index excluding rents and services. 



75802—91 



1085. 



TABLE F-la.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 
FROM JANUARY 1949 TO APRIL 1953 

(1949 = 100-0) 

Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 













Other 


:>tal 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Household 
Operation 


Commo- 
dities and 
Services ' 


99-8 


100-8 


99-2 


99-7 


99-9 


98-f 


99-7 


99-7 


99-3 


99-7 


100-2 


99-^ 


99-4 


98-7 


99-2 


100-0 


100-1 


99-i 


99-3 


98-1 


99-6 


100-2 


100-1 


99-i 


99-2 


97-9 


99-7 


100-3 


99-8 


99-S 


99-6 


99-2 


99-7 


100-3 


99-7 


99? 


100-0 


100-2 


100-3 


100-3 


99-7 


99-J 


100-4 


101-3 


100-2 


100-1 


99-6 


99-t 


100-4 


101-2 


100-5 


100-2 


99-6 


99-< 


100-6 


100-8 


100-5 


99-8 


100-6 


100-1 


101-0 


101-9 


100-5 


99-7 


100-5 


101-C 


100-5 


100-3 


101-0 


99-7 


100-4 


101 •] 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100 •( 


100-1 


98-1 


101-1 


99-6 


100-6 


102 •( 


100-2 


98-4 


101-1 


99-5 


100-6 


102-2 


100-9 


98-8 


104-7 


98-9 


100-8 


102-5 


101-2 


99-3 


104-9 


99-2 


101-2 


102-2 


101-2 


99-3 


105-1 


99-1 


101-1 


102-2 


101-9 


100-9 


105-9 


99-1 


101-5 


102 v 


102-7 


102-6 


107-4 


99-1 


101-6 


102-^ 


103-3 


103-8 


107-8 


99-3 


102-6 


102 •{ 


104-3 


105-4 


108-7 


99-9 


103-4 


103 •( 


105-9 


107-6 


109-0 


100-6 


104-6 


105-2 


106-4 


108-4 


109-5 


101-0 


105-1 


105-^ 


106-6 


108-4 


109-6 


101-3 


105-5 


105 •' 


102-9 


102-6 


106-2 


99-7 


102-4 


103-1 


107-7 


109-0 


110-0 


102-6 


107-1 


107-4 


109-1 


111-0 


110-4 


105-1 


108-6 


108-1 


110-8 


114-1 


111-5 


106-7 


110-5 


108 -C 


111-7 


115-5 


111-8 


108-5 


111-4 


108 •( 


112-2 


114-3 


112-4 


109-0 


112-7 


110-4 


113-7 


115-8 


115-2 


109-5 


113-8 


111-S 


114-6 


117-9 


115-5 


109-7 


114-3 


112-2 


115-5 


119-0 


115-8 


110-7 


115-1 


113-4 


116-5 


120-5 


117-2 


111-9 


115-5 


113€ 


117-1 


121-3 


117-2 


114-1 


115-8 


H4-: 


117-9 


122-5 


118-2 


114-5 


115-9 


114-? 


118-1 


122-5 


118-2 


115-2 


116-4 


115-S 


113-7 


1170 


114-4 


109-8 


113-1 


111-5 


118-2 


122-4 


118-3 


114-9 


116-4 


115-S 


117-6 


120-8 


118-3 


113-5 


116-3 


115-£ 


116-9 


117-6 


119-1 


112-9 


116-9 


116-< 


116-8 


117-2 


119-4 


112-5 


116-8 


116-6 


115-9 


115-5 


119-6 


112-3 


116-2 


115-6 


116-0 


115-7 


120-4 


111-8 


115-9 


115-7 


116-1 


116-0 


120-6 


111-7 


115-9 


115-6 


116-0 


115-7 


120-6 


111-6 


115-8 


115-8 


116-1 


115-8 


121-2 


110-9 


116-0 


115-8 


116-0 


1151 


121-5 


109-9 


116-2 


116-^ 


116-1 


115-7 


121-4 


109-8 


115-9 


116-6 


115-8 


114-1 


122-2 


109-7 


116-1 


116-6 


115-7 


113-5 


122-3 


109-7 


116-5 


116-7 


115-5 


112-7 


122-5 


109-6 


116-6 


116-7 


114-8 


111-6 


122-5 


109-7 


116-7 


♦ 115-2 


114-6 


110-9 


122-7 


109-7 


116-9 


115-C 


114-4 


110-1 


122-9 


1101 


116-6 


115-1 


114-9 


111-4 


123-6 


110-1 


116-6 


115-1 



1949 — January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1950 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1951 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September. 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1952 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

1953— January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1086 



TABLE F -2.— INDEX NUMBERS OF THE COST OF LIVING FOR NINE CITIES OF 
CANADA AT THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1953 

(Aug. 1939 = 100) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Rent 


Fuel 


Clothing 


Home 
Furnish- 
ings and 
Services 


Miscel- 
laneous 




Mav 1, 
1952 


April 1, 
1953 


May 1, 
1953 


St. John's, Nfld. (i). 

Halifax 

St. John 


103-1 
177-4 
184-2 
191-0 
182-9 
180-5 
181-0 
177-8 
190-6 


101-5 
173-3 
180-5 
188-2 
181-0 
176-9 
182-5 
176-4 
187-2 


101-1 
172-6 
180-2 
188-3 
180-9 
176-4 
182-2 
176-6 
187-5 


98-4 
212-6 
217-1 
237-5 
211-8 
224-8 
232-9 
230-0 
232-6 


107-3 
128-4 
129-7 
152-4 
160-1 
137-0 
135-2 
128-5 
138-4 


106-8 
155-3 
150-6 
143-0 
179-0 
134-4 
162-2 
121-3 
177-7 


101-8 
221-8 
228-7 
194-0 
207-1 
202-5 
217-9 
213-3 
217-1 


100-9 

188-6 
189-2 
203-8 
188-8 
197-1 
202-5 
190-7 
195-0 


99-5 
139-9 
152-0 


Montreal 


144-3 
147-8 




141-1 




133-9 




143-8 


Vancouver 


154-1 



N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in living costs for each city, but should not be used to compare 
actual levels of living costs as between cities. 

C 1 ) St. John's Index on the base: — June 1951 = 100. 



TABLE F-3.— INDEX NUMBERS OF STAPLE FOOD ITEMS 

(Base: August 1939 = 100) 

Dominion Average Retail Price Relatives with Dominion Averages of Actual Retail Prices for Latest Month 

Soxtbci: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 



*Commodities 


Per 


Dec. 

1941 


Dec. 

1945 


Mav 
1950 


May 
1951 


May 
1952 


April 
1953 


Mav 
1953 


Price 
Mav 
1953 




lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 

lb. 
lib. 

lb. 
lb. 
doz. 
qt. 

lb. 
pkg. 
lb. 
lb. 


120-7 
125-7 
132-7 
136-7 
109-9 
125-3 

127-0 
132-3 
151-3 
134-7 
156-4 
111-0 

140-5 
174-6 
106-5 
127-3 
101-1 
129-9 

117-5 
128-3 
108-2 
89-9 
115-8 
104-0 

132-5 
111-3 
101-5 
132-3 
141-6 
145-2 


154-8 
167-9 
162-3 
168-3 
152-8 
143-8 

143-4 

142-5 
159-6 
137-5 
181-3 
95-4 

148-0 
165-4 
106-3 
124-2 
100-0 
137-7 

121-7 
132-7 
126-5 
149-4 
120-2 
108-6 

154-3 
115-1 
106-1 
132-3 
131-7 
131-6 


289-7 
321-7 
348-6 
388-5 
284-3 
215-8 

239-4 
219-0 
189-2 
217-4 
161-8 
166-1 

218-7 
222-2 
165-1 
221-2 
163-0 
174-5 

145-7 
172-8 
167-4 
153-2 
203-4 
131-2 

163-0 
147-9 
140-6 
164-8 
268-6 
179-6 


358-5 

398-7 
451-8 
518-8 
319-3 
247-8 

302-7 
216-0 
286-4 
274-9 
219-2 
178-0 

241-4 
244-6 
183-9 
227-2 
181-4 
220-4 

155-5 
177-5 
132-2 
131-2 
245-9 
159-9 

157-6 
166-0 
152-1 
191-7 
310-0 
185-1 


332-6 

372-8 
414-1 
487-3 
321-8 
218-4 

256-4 

182-7 
149-0 
216-9 
160-3 
191-7 

236-7 
262-5 
191-8 
227-2 
194-3 
294-8 

168-8 
193-8 
300-3 
347-7 
239-9 
173-9 

142-4 
166-0 
154-0 
190-2 
313-8 
187-2 


292-8 
323-8 
350-1 
409-6 
283-0 
243-0 

262-2 
193-6 
168-3 
200-7 
210-8 
191-7 

246-5 
263-3 
191-8 
224-3 
195-4 
254-1 

174-4 
182-6 
215-0 
185-2 
238-9 
166-5 

121-6 
153-5 
147-3 
171-0 
309-4 
176-2 


290-6 
320-4 
342-6 
401-5 
281-6 
261-7 

266-5 
198-5 
172-9 
202-1 
211-2 
191-7 

236-7 
262-5 
193-3 
227-2 
195-4 
249-3 

175-2 
181-7 
205-3 
168-6 
239-8 
166-5 

120-5 
152-9 
146-6 
169-4 
311-2 
175-5 


80-4 


Beef, round steak 


75-2 


Beef, blade 


54-6 


Beef, stewing, boneless 

Lamb, leg roast 


54-3 
80-6 




70-1 




50 1 


Bacon, side, fancy, sliced, rind-off 


36-4 
18-8. 




28-8 


Eggs, Grade "A", large, carton 

Milk 


66-0 
21-1 


Butter, creamery, prints 


64-6 


Cheese, plain, mild, % lb 


34-8 


Bread, plain, white, wrapped, sliced. . . 


12-6 


Corn Flakes, 8 oz 


18-0 


Tomatoes, canned, 2^'s 


tin 

tin 

tin 

lb. 

10 lbs. 

lb. 

lb. 

doz. 

jar 

tin 

lb. 

lb. 

pkg. 


26-3 


Peas, 20 oz 


21-8 


Corn, Cream, choice, 20 oz 


19-4 


Onions, cooking 


10-6 


Potatoes, No. I, table 


38-4 




28-2 


Raisins, seedless, bulk or in bag 

Oranges, California 


24-8 
33-0 




25-7 


Peaches, 15 oz 


21-7 


Sugar, granulated, bulk or in bag 

Coffee, medium quality, in bag 

Tea, black, § lb 


10-6 
106-5 
51-2 







'Descriptions and Units of Sale Apply to May 1953 Prices. 



1087 



TABLE F-4.— RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Sottrci: Dominion 



Locality 







Beef 






Pork 


"IT? J* 

4) a a 
p «>^ 

m 




si 
& 

C— < 


sS 

5 a 

C u 


« ft, r 


i 

*& 

a 
o 

'$% 
$ a 

GO 


3 
bt 

1=2 

as 

=2 a 
H 


a 

gl 

B S3 3 

£ " a 

fa 


5? 

3 O 

•a %~ 

8 o «3 

fa 


M 
u 

a 

m 

a 

§f 
is. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cte. 


cts. 


103-8 
83-8 


73-8 


a 
68-8 

a 
59-5 


a 
52-0 

a 
53-6 


63-0 
51-0 


79-7 
70-8 


72-4 
56-5 


e 
34-7 

33-2 


59-0 


45-4 


86-1 


76-1 


a 
53-1 


53-4 


52-3 


67-8 


c 

49-4 


37-8 


54-3 


83-2 


74-6 


57-3 


57-9 


54-3 


68-6 


54-0 


36-4 


49-6 


83-1 


75-5 


54-0 


50-2 


46-2 


71-8 


52-1 


38-0 


50-0 


83-4 


76-9 


58-5 


55-9 


50-6 


72-7 


50-8 


38-8 


47-7 


95-8 


92-8 


63-0 


51-6 


51-0 


61-2 


53-7 


38-7 


48-2 


73-2 


72-5 


51-3 


50-3 


44-6 


69-6 


47-9 


33-7 


49-8 


91-4 


86-8 


52-4 


54-6 


45-2 


74-0 


49-6 


34-6 


55-3 


92-6 


89-1 


47-7 


48-2 


49-5 


58-2 


46-3 


31-8 


51-5 


84-3 


81-1 


55-5 


56-3 


42-7 


67-9 


50-2 


33-4 


45-0 


91-8 


85-1 


59-0 


49-8 


50-7 


65-2 


49-5 


34-2 


55-6 


93-6 


83-2 


47-5 


46-6 


43-0 


63-8 


47-0 


34-5 


57-1 


73-6 


69-8 


56-3 


52-3 


44-6 


74-3 


44-3 


37-1 


47-8 


72-3 


72-4 


49-1 


53-6 


40-4 


72-1 


48-6 


35-9 


51-6 


77-8 


76-0 


59-2 


59-0 


52-2 


67-4 




36-2 


60-2 


78-7 
74-8 


74-4 
72-3 


53-9 

a 

53-0 


54-9 
51-0 


45-5 
47-2 


73-7 
69-5 


44-7 

d 

53-0 


37-6 
39-2 


50-9 
55-2 


76-1 


73-9 


51-0 


53-2 


45-1 


76-1 


43-6 


37-0 


53-2 


69-3 


69-3 


50-6 


48-4 


45-7 


70-7 


40-3 


36-3 


51-3 


71-7 


73-0 


50-2 


48-7 


45-8 


72-5 


41-6 

d 

48-6 


35-8 


47-0 


77-9 


72-6 


51-8 


53-8 


39-9 


73-6 


35-5 


51-0 


761 

72-7 


75-3 
71-6 


54-2 

a 

52-9 


59-4 
51-3 


51-1 
44-9 


70-5 
66-6 


55-0 

d 

52-4 


36-5 
34-1 


53-2 
49-2 


81-5 
72-3 


77-5 
69-0 


56-1 

a 

50-9 


54-0 
56-9 


44-2 
44-6 


71-8 
70-6 


40-4 

d 

47-5 


36-8 
36-0 


47-5 
54-6 


77-9 


71-7 


53-6 


531 


48-2 


71-1 


d 
54-5 


38-8 


50-0 


77-1 
73-8 


71-2 
71-9 


a 

55-3 
a 
52-7 


56-5 
58-4 


44-8 
47-8 


66-0 
62-0 


51-9 

d 

52-5 


39-5 
38-1 


52-5 
48-9 


80-2 


73-6 


64-4 


58-4 


421 


67-5 


d 
56-2 


37-4 


53-0 


72-2 


68-8 


50-2 


53-8 


46-5 


62-7 


47-2 


37-8 


44-9 


89-0 


84-5 


a 
60-0 


66-5 


560 


73-5 


60-0 


40-0 


63-5 


90-0 


83-8 


66-4 


66-2 




71-1 


64-7 

d 

60-5 

d 

57-2 


41-8 


62-3 


89-8 


80-1 


61-7 


59-8 


54-1 


78-2 


39-1 


53-7 


92-6 


84-9 


62-4 


63-2 


58-9 


75-7 


39-1 


55-4 



Newfoundland— 

1— St. John's 

P.E.I.— 

2— Charlottetown. . 

Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax 

4— Sydney 

New Brunswick— 
5 — Moncton 

6 — Saint John 

Quebec— 

7 — Chicoutimi 

8— Hull 

9— Montreal 

10— Quebec 

11— Sherbrooke 

12— Sorel 

13— Three Rivers... 

Ontario— 

14— Brantford 

16 — Cornwall 

16— Fort William.... 

17— Hamilton 

18— Kirkland Lake. 

19 — London 

20— North Bay 

21 — Oshawa 

22— Ottawa 

23— Sault Ste. Marie 

24— Sudbury 

25— Toronto 

26— Windsor 

Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg 

Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 

29— Saskatoon 

Alberta— 

30— Calgary 

31 — Edmonton 

British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert. . . 

33— Trail 

34 — Vancouver 

36— Victoria 



1088 



FOODS AND COAL BY CITIES, MAY, 1953 

Bureau of Statistics 



Locality 



Newfoundland- 

St. John's 



P.E.I.- 

2 — Charlotte town. 



Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 

4— Sydney. 



New Brunswick 
5 — Moncton 



6— Saint John. 



Quebec— 

7— Chiooutimi. 



8— Hull 

§— Montreal 

10— Quebec 

11 — Sherbrooke. . . 

12— Soret 

13— Three Rivers. 

Ontario— 

14— Brantford 



15 — Cornwall 

16— Fort William 

17— Hamilton 

18— KirklandLake.. 

19— London 

20— North Bay 

21— Omawa 

22— Ottawa 

23— Sault Ste. Marie. 

24— Sudbury 

25— Toronto 

26— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan— 

28— Retina 



29— Saskatoon. 



Alberta- 

30— Calgary. 



31 — Edmonton. 



British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert.. 



33-Trail 

34 — Vancouver. 
35 — Victoria. . . 



73-2 
71-8 



73-8 



101-7 



78-6 
85-4 

77-2 
86-0 



86-5 
84-3 



77-7 



76-4 
85-0 



- Li 

o a> 
:S ft 
A « 

1= 

J2 ft 



80-4 
80-7 
76-4 



83-7 

75-8 

95-0 
94-5 
83-8 
91-3 



cts. 

8-5 

8-4 

8-2 
8-4 

8-2 
8-2 

8-0 
7-4 
7-5 

7-4 
7-7 
7-4 
7-5 



7-7 
7-3 
7-2 
7-9 
8-0 
7-5 
7-8 
7-6 
7-6 
7-9 
8-0 
85-3 7-6 



7-8 
7-1 

7-2 

7-2 

7-2 
7-2 

8-2 
7-6 
7-4 
7-6 



£ - 



HI 





cts. 
12-0 

13-6 

12-8 
14-0 

12-0 
12-7 

15-2 
12-0 
12-0 
12-0 
12-4 
12-0 
11-3 

12-0 
12-0 
13-3 
12-0 
11-3 
12-0 
12-7 
12-0 
12-0 
13-3 
12-7 
12-0 
12-0 

14-0 

13-6 

12-8 

13-6 
12-8 

15-0 
16-0 
14-9 
16-0 



a o 
O 



cts. 
20-9 

19-2 

18-3 
19-4 

18-3 
18-7 

19-3 
17-2 
17-3 
18-3 
17-5 
17-7 
17-4 

17-4 
18-0 
18-8 
17-5 
18-9 
17-4 
19-5 
17-1 
17-5 
19-0 
18-4 
17-3 
17-8 

17-8 

18-8 
17-6 

18-2 
17-8 

18-8 
18-3 
17-8 
17-9 






cts. 
11-7 

10-8 



10-3 
9-9 

10-6 
10-0 
9-5 
9-6 
9-3 
9-7 
10-3 

9-8 
10-1 
11-3 
10-1 

ii -a 

10-2 
11-3 

9-7 
10-2 
10-8 
11-0 

9-8 
10-2 

12-2 

13-0 
14-0 

12-1 
11-8 

11-2 
11-8 
9-8 
10-1 



%°1 



as. 



cts. 
60-8 

52-2 

49-1 
49-7 

49-2 
49-9 

54-4 
46-2 
48-4 
50-2 
48-3 
46-5 
49-6 

44-8 
47-5 
53-1 

45-7 
50-2 
44-5 
50-0 
46-0 
48-6 
48-9 
48-8 
44-8 
47-7 
t 



t 

64-9 
t 
61-1 

t 

59-6 
t 
61-4 

t 

62-3 
t 

64-1 
t 

57-2 
t 
57-7 



qs 
•as 






If 



cts. 

f 

85-5 



63-7 

g 

69-7 
g 
71-6 



g 
70-4 



67-4 
69-4 
68-7 



g 

65-2 
g 

67-6 
g 

64-4 
g 
67-9 

71-0 

g 

63-2 

g 

69-4 

g 

65-6 



67-2 

g 

65-4 



GG • 



g 
62-1 



56-4 

g 

55-7 



g 

56-6 
g 
55-9 

g 

67-1 

g 

65-8 

g 



cts. 

h 
32-0 



17-0 

20-5 
22-0 

20-0 
21-0 

20-0 
22-0 
20-0 
20-0 
20-0 
19-0 
19-0 

21-0 

19-0 

23-0 

22-0 

25-0 

21-0 

22-0 

21-0 , 

21-8 

23-0 

23-0 

22-0 

22-0 

20-0 

19-0 

• 

20-5 

21-0 
20-0 

31-0 
25-0 
21-8 
24-0 



2.S 
1 = 







69-7 

68-7 
72-0 

67-6 
69-1 

62-2 



63-4 
60-4 
61-2 
60-7 

62-9 
63-2 
63-6 

64-0 
64-6 
63-7 
65-0 
62-0 
63-4 
66-5 
64-4 
63-2 
63-6 

62-8 

61-0 
61-0 

62-2 
64-0 

65-9 
64-0 
65-3 
65-4 



1089 



TABLE F-4.— RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Source: Dominion 



Locality 



Newfoundland— 

1 — St. John's. . . 



P.E.I.— 

2— Charlottetown. 



Neva Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 



4— Sydney. 



New Brims wick- 

5 — Moncton 



6— Saint John. 



Quebec— 

7— Chicoutimi. 



8-Hull 

9— Montreal 

10— Quebec 

11— Sherbrooke... 

12-Sorel 

13— Three Rivers. 

Ontario— 

14— Brantford 



15— Cornwall 

16— Fort William.... 

17— Hamilton 

18— KirklandLake.. 

19— London 

20— North Bay 

21 — Oshawa 

22— Ottawa 

23— Sault Ste. Marie. 

24— Sudbury 

25— Toronto 

26— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 



29 — Saskatoon. 

Alberta— 

30 — Calgary... 



31— Edmonton. 



British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert. 



33-Trail 

34 — Vancouver. 
35 — Victoria 



'3-o a 
a 8-2 

OJ O t- 



36-1 

37-3 

35-4 
36-9 

35-1 
36-3 

36-9 
33-1 
34-3 
34-8 
34-8 
32-9 
34-3 

33-8 
34-5 
36-0 
34-4 
35-4 
33-8 
35-4 
33-2 
34-1 
35-8 
33-8 
33-5 
35-4 

35-5 

36-0 
34-8 

33-8 
35-1 

37-4 
35-8 
36-1 
36-2 






cts. 
33-( 



39-5 
37-1 

39-1 
39-2 



39-5 
38-7 
40-3 
39-6 
39-0 
39-0 
38-7 
39-8 
39-5 
38-7 
38-0 
39-6 
39-4 

41-0 

40-7 
40-8 

40-3 
41-7 

40-8 
39-8 
39-9 
39-4 



a 

is 

73*£ 



20-5 

19-8 
19-7 

21-4 
20-6 

19-2 
17-4 
19-5 
20-7 
19-9 
19-8 
18-8 

18-3 
18-9 
19-5 
19-0 
19-5 
19-5 
21-0 
18-8 
18-2 
20-2 
19-8 
19-2 
19-2 

17-5 

17-2 
16-5 

16-4 
16-4 

18-0 
18-0 
17-5 
18-4 



cts. 
33-6 

29-9 

29-0 
28-7 

29-4 
28-9 

34-3 
28-4 
28-5 
28-7 
30-1 
29-2 
28-5 

27-6 
28-1 
28-6 
28-8 
29-4 
27-8 
28-2 
26-0 
28-5 
28-6 
28-8 
27-6 
28-4 

28-1 

30-7 
28-3 

29-6 
30-6 

31-0 
31-8 
27-6 
28-6 



5^ 

°.ft£ 

o 0*7' 



cts. 



28-2 

25-1 
26-3 

25-9 

26-2 

27-2 
25-8 
26-2 
26-6 
24-4 
26-1 
25-4 

24-3 
25-2 
25-1 
24-7 
26-8 
26-1 
31-8 
23-3 
25-4 
26-0 
26-5 
23-6 
25-4 

24-9 

25-0 
24-8 

24-3 
24-2 

27-0 

23-9 

230 



S P 

«1 <o 



18-4 

16-7 
18-0 

16-4 
16-6 

18-8 
16-3 
16-4 
16-9 
17-1 
16-3 
17-6 

16-7 
15-9 
18-2 
16-4 
18-1 
17-0 
16-5 
16-2 
16-2 
17-2 
18-0 
16-5 
17-1 

17-0 

18-2 
18-8 

17-3 
18-0 

19-8 
20-6 
16-9 
16-8 



Canned Vegetables 



g»o 



cts. 

s 
50-1 

20-8 

22-0 
23-4 

22-2 
20-8 



21-0 
20-9 
20-3 
21-3 
22-6 



21-1 
19-4 
21-2 
19-5 
22-6 
19-9 



21-4 



20-0 
21-0 

22-2 

24-3 
23-5 

25-2 
22-6 

23-9 
25-9 
22-4 
21-0 



£J?\ 



cts. 

32-4 

29-0 

27-5 
29-0 

27-8 
25-9 

27-0 
23-3 
22-5 
25-5 
23-4 
25-0 
24-2 

25-1 
24-5 
26-4 
24-7 
25-8 
24-8 
25-8 
25-2 
24-4 
26-0 
23-4 
24-3 
23-3 

26-4 

29-5 

28-7 

31-2 
30-1 

32-8 
32-9 
29-5 
29-7 



cts. 
25-5 

22-4 

23-7 
22-8 

22-9 
23-3 

22-8 
20-1 
21-8 
21-5 
21-8 
18-8 
21 5 

20-4 
19-3 
21-9 
20-7 



20-8 

22-4 

20-5 

21-5 

22-3 

21-8 

20-6 

m 

16-9 

m 

18-4 

22-9 
22-9 

21-9 

22-2 

m 

20-5 

m 

21-0 

m* 

15-6 

m* 

191 



c ° <- 
o « & 
O 



cts. 
24-3 

22-0 

20-0 
21-5 

19-8 
19-4 

20-7 
17-1 
19-3 
18-6 
20-5 
18-2 
20-8 

18-2 
19-3 
19-3 
17-6 
19-2 
17-5 
19-1 
17-2 
17-0 
18-7 
18-5 
16-6 



18-9 

21-6 
21-2 

22-8 

22-0 

m 

20-1 

m 

21-4 

m* 

15-9 

m* 

17-8 



Above food prices are simple averages of prices reported. They are not perfectly comparable in all cases with 
price averages for earlier years. Changes in grading, trade practices, etc. occur from time to time. (a) Including cuts 
with bone-in. (c) Including cuts with hock-on. (d) Including butts. (e) Local. (f) Imported. (g) Mixed 

1090 



FOODS AND COAL BY CITIES, MAY, 1953 

Bureau of Statistics 





1? 

>> 

la 

m 


1! 

Jh 

fe 

PL, 


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o 


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a 

S a 
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Coal 


Locality 


|| 

c a 
< 


i 

at 
n 


Newfoundland— 


cts. 


cts. 
49-0 

25-5 

30-8 

28-2 

30-2 
29-8 

32-7 
31-4 
29-8 
27-3 
29-0 
33-7 
27-1 

38-5 
35-5 
54-1 
36-1 
40-2 
33-6 
38-0 
33-8 
32-6 
44-4 
37-6 
36-8 
37-6 

32-5 

41-8 
50-4 

45-0 
50-5 

61-3 
48-4 
56-1 
51-5 


cts. 
12-5 

10-8 

9-6 
10-7 

10-3 
10-4 

12-7 
10-6 
10-8 
11-0 

11-1 
11-9 
10-9 

9-9 
10-5 
11-0 

9-4 
11-6 
9-2 
9-4 
8-5 
10-0 
9-9 
9-8 
8-5 
9-1 

10-5 

11-1 

12-5 

12-9 
14-2 

11-1 
12-3 
10-2 
11-2 


cts. 
34-2 

27-0 

28-7 
29-8 

28-1 
27-7 

28-3 
26-9 
28-9 
27-9 
28-6 
26-6 
27-2 

29-3 
28-3 
25-9 
29-3 
29-2 
27-8 

27-0 
28-4 
29-2 
26-6 
27-6 
31-1 

28-0 

27-5 
29-3 

27-5 
29-6 

27-6 
28-1 
25-7 
27-0 1 


cts. 

k 

26-3 

n 
27-6 

24-3 

n 

26-0 

n 

25-7 
n 
26-7 

n 

28-0 

n 

25-1 

n 

25-2 

n 

25-8 

n 

24-7 

n 

22-8 

24-7 

n 

22-8 

n 

24-1 

n 

24-9 

23-2 

26-4 

22-7 

n 

23-0 

n 

22-8 

n 

25-0 

23-6 

n 

24-4 

n 

24-1 

n 

25-2 

n 

26-6 

27-4 

27-1 

n 

25-2 
n 
25-3 

26-4 

n 

26-4 

n 

23-6 

24-0 


cts. 

w 

61-5 

46-5 

46-1 
46-6 

46-0 
47-6 

55-5 
51-8 
53-6 
55-1 
54-3 
52-6 
54-2 

51-8 
52-3 
50-8 
53-6 
55-2 
48-7 
53-7 
54-7 
52-4 
54-7 

51-5 
50-5 

47-5 

48-5 
46-5 

48-6 
49-6 

50-6 
50-5 
47-5 
46-5 


cts. 
124-6 

V 

115-5 

113-2 

V 

118-8 
108-3 

V 

113-7 

V 

111-6 
110-7 
107-2 
110-4 
108-6 
109-0 

V 

110-7 

102-3 
107-4 
105-1 
104-7 
100-2 
105-0 
113-6 
102-2 
105-8 
104-4 
101-2 
102-5 
105-6 

100-6 

104-0 
102-9 

101-4 
105-2 

101-0 
98-0 
98-7 

102-3 


29.00 
28.50 
27.09 
28.88 
26.75 
26.25 
27.20 

26.25 
28.45 
26.32 
25.19 
33.38 
26.00 
27.75 
26.65 
28.50 
25.50 
27.65 
24.67 
26.00 


s 

23.04 


P.E.I.— 


23-2 

21-2 
25-6 

21-8 
21-7 

18-5 
18-9 
17-6 
17-8 
17-7 
17-5 
18-3 

18-8 
19-1 
20-2 
19-1 
19-8 
19-0 
20-3 
19-2 
18-9 
19-7 
19-2 
18-9 
19-0 

19-8 

22-4 
22-3 

23-6 
23-2 

25-1 
25-3 
20-3 
21-1 


17.50 


Nora Scotia— 

3— Halifax 


19.44 


4 — Sydney 


13.60 


New Brunswick— 


18.75 


6 — Saint John 


19.44 


Quebec— 

7 — Chicoutimi 




8-Hull 




9 — Montreal 




10 — Quebec 




11 — Sherbrooke 




12— Sorel 




13— Three Rivers 




Ontario— 

14 — Brantford 




15 — Cornwall 




16— Fort William 




17 — Hamilton 




18— Kirkland Lake 




19 — London 




20— North Bay 




21— Oshawa 




22— Ottawa 




23— Sault Ste. Marie 




24— Sudbury 




25— Toronto 




26— Windsor 




Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg 


21 05 


Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 


18 30 


29— Saskatoon 


17 98 


Alberta— 

30— Calgary 




31— Edmonton 




8 25 


British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert 


22 90 


33-Trail 


19 75 


34 — Vancouver 


20 56 


35 — Victoria 


21.68 



carton and loose. (h) Evaporated milk 17-0*5. per 16 
Califorman and Australian. (s) 28 oz. tin. ft) Pure. 



tin. (k) Californian. (m) 15 oz. tin. 
(v) Including tins. (w) Orange Pekoe. 



(n) Mixed — 
Revised price. 

1091 



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1093 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 



TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, JANUARY-MAY, 1952-1953f 



Date 



Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



In 
Existence 



Number of Workers 
Involved 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



-. . In 
Existence 



Time Loss 



In 
Man- 
Working 
Days 



Per Cent 

of 

Estimated 

Working 

Time 



1953* 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative totals 

1952 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative totals 



14J 

11 
13 

14 
17 



2,136} 

2,448 

4,524 

2,790 

2,740 



2,136 
3,757 
5,450 
3,562 

4,748 



14, 




004 
0-03 
0-04 
003 
004 
004 



13} 

12 

16 

22 

30 



5,374} 

12,394 

2,877 

8,418 

14,853 



5,374 
13,048 

5,186 
12,121 
23,360 



71,145 

47,603 

65,272 

178,713 

248,575 



i):5 



43,916 



611,308 



009 
0-06 
0-08 
0-21 
0-30 
015 



* Preliminary figures. 

} Strikes unterminated at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

fThe record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout, or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working day. 
Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not included in the 
published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of such strikes is 
maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The records include 
all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the methods taken to 
obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. Information as to a 
strike involving a small number of employees or for a short period of time is frequently not received 
until some time after its commencement. 



1094 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY 1953 0) 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality- 



Number Involved 



Estab 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May, 1953 



Manufacturing — 
Vegetable Foods, etc. — 
t lour, cereal and feed mill 
workers, 
Peterborough, Ont., and 
Saskatoon, Sask. 



Animal Foods — 
Packinghouse workers, 
Stratford, Ont. 



Textiles, Clothing, etc. — 
Clothing and hosiery 
factory workers. 
Montreal, P.Q. 



Cotton, jute and paper bag 
factory workers, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



Metal Products — 
Jewellery factory workers, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



Aluminum ware factory 
workers, 

Wallaceburg, Ont. 



Household appliances 

factory workers, 

Guelph, Ont. 



Zinc alloy die casting 
factory workers, 
Wallaceburg, Ont. 



Non-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Chemical factory workers, 
Elmira, Ont. 



596 



39 



290 



71 



41 



90 



198 



63 



(«) 



128 



,000 



400 



5,000 



500 



800 



1,800 



1,500 



1,060 



1,120 



Commenced April 22; for new agree- 
ments providing for increased 
wages, reduced hours from 44 to 40 
per week and other changes follow- 
ing reference to conciliation board ; 
unterminated. 

Commenced March 6; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 45 to 
40 per week with guaranteed 36 
hour week following reference to 
conciliation board; terminated May 
12; conciliation; compromise. 

Commenced November 25, 1952; for 
a new agreement providing for 
increased wages and other changes 
following reference to arbitration 
board; partial return of workers; 
unterminated. 

Commenced April 16; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages following reference to con- 
ciliation board; terminated May 
12; negotiations; in favour of 
workers. 



Commenced December 8, 1952; for 
implementation of award of con- 
ciliation board for increased wages, 
pay for nine statutory holidays and 
other changes in new agreement 
under negotiations; unterminated. 



Commenced March 23; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, extension of relief periods 
for moulders and hospital and 
accident insurance plan; unter- 
minated. 



Commenced April 7; for a greater 
increase in wages than recom- 
mended by conciliation board and 
other changes in new agreement 
under negotiations; terminated 
May 12; conciliation; compromise. 



Commenced April 22; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages retroactive to Oct. 30, 1952, 
and other changes following refer- 
ence to conciliation board; unter- 
minated. 



Commenced April 20; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and other changes following 
reference to conciliation board; 
terminated May 12; conciliation; 
compromise. 



1095 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY 1953 (*) 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May, 1953— Concluded 



Transportation and Public 
Utilities — 
Miscellaneous — 

Grain elevator workers, 
New Westminster and 
Vancouver, B.C. 



Trade — 

Variety store clerks, 
Weyburn, Sask. 



Service — 
Business and Personal — 
Garage workers, 
Saint John, N.B. 



Garage workers, 
Fort William and 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



275 



10 



22 



185 



1,100 



200 



500 



3,330 



Commenced February 16; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, premium for dust, job 
classification and pay for eight 
statutory holidays instead of six 
following reference to conciliation 
board; terminated May 6; con- 
ciliation; compromise. 

Commenced April 11; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages; terminated May 27; return 
of workers pending reference to 
conciliation board; indefinite. 



Commenced February 9; for union 
recognition and implementation of 
award of conciliation board pro- 
viding for increased wages in union 
agreement; unterminated. 

Commenced April 27; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages retroactive to March 1 
instead of April 9 and reduced 
hours from 46? per week to 44 
following reference to conciliation 
board; terminated May 23; con- 
ciliation and negotiations; in favour 
of workers. 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May, 1953 



Mining — 

Coal miners, 
Thorburn, N.S. 



Coal miners, 
Canmore, Alta. 



Silver and lead miners, 
Alice Arm, B.C. 



Manufacturing — 
Rubber and Its Products- 
Tire factory workers, 
Hamilton, Ont. 



Boots and Snues (Leather) — 
Shoe factory workers, 
Preston, Ont. 



Textiles /Clothing, etc. — 
Knitting factory workers, 
Plessisville, P.Q. 



267 



265 



100 



( 4 ) 



331 



( 5 ) 



258 



72 



267 



1,060 



1,150 



825 



1,030 



700 



Commenced May 8; protesting lay- 
off of 33 workers during pumping 
operations; terminated May 11; 
return of workers; in favour of 
employer. 

Commenced May 11; dispute re 
allocation of new houses; ter- 
minated May 14; negotiations; 
indefinite. 

Commenced May 16; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and union security following 
reference to conciliation board; 
unterminated. 



Commenced May 20; protesting 
piecework rate on new tire machine; 
terminated May 22; return of 
workers pending settlement; in- 
definite. 

Commenced May 26; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 45 
to 40 per week following reference 
to conciliation board; unterminated 

Commenced May 19; for a new 
agreement incorporating cost-of- 
living bonus in basic rate, seniority, 
etc., following reference to arbi- 
tration board; unterminated. 



1096 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY 1953 0) 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number Involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May, 1953— Concluded 

Pulp, Paper and Paper 
Products — 
Building board factory 
workers, 
South Nelson, N.B 



Miscellaneous Wood Products- 
Lumber mill workers, 
South Nelson, N.B. 



Metal Products — 
Skate factory workers, 
Kitchener, Ont. 



Non-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Monument cutters, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Construction — 
Buildings and Structures — 
Building trades workers, 
Sarnia, Ont. 



Transportation and Public 

Utilities — 

Other Local and Highway — 

Truck drivers, warehouse 

men and helpers, 

Windsor, Ont. 



Trade— 
Grocery and snack bar clerks, 
Duncan, B.C. 



Wholesale drug warehouse 
workers, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



Hardware warehouse 
workers, 
Vancouver, B.C. 

Service — 
Public Administration- 
Civic employees, 
Saanich, B.C. 



Business and Personal- 
Garage workers, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



1 


40 


' 


65 


1 


68 


9 


65 




700 


1 


30 


1 


4 


1 


70 


1 


160 


1 


180 


1 


65 



170 



745 



390 



175 



175 



60 



490 



800 



360 



450 



Commenced May 2; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 54 to 
48 per week following reference to 
conciliation board; unterminated. 



Commenced May 9; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and alleged discrimination 
in dismissal of two workers; termi- 
nated May 30; negotiations; in 
favour of workers. 

Commenced May 14; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, union shop, check-off, etc., 
following reference to conciliation 
board; unterminated. 



Commenced May 22; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, pay for eight statutory holi- 
days and health and welfare plan 
following reference to conciliation 
board; unterminated. 



Commenced May 11; protest against 
employment of non-union labour; 
terminated May 11; negotiations; 
indefinite, result not reported. 



Commenced May 3; protesting dis- 
missal of two drivers for cause; 
terminated May 11; return of 
workers pending reference to arbi- 
tration ;[indefinite. 

Commenced May 10; for increased 
wages and overtime rates >• for 
work on statutory holidays; termi- 
nated May 28; replacement; in 
favour of employer. 

Commenced May 11; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages following reference to con- 
ciliation board; terminated May 
20; negotiations; compromise. 

Commenced May 25; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages following reference to con- 
ciliation board; unterminated. 



Commenced May 28; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages following reference to con- 
ciliation board; unterminated. 

Commenced May 22; for implement- 
ation of award of conciliation board 
in union agreement under negoti- 
ations providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours; untermi- 
nated. 



( x ) Preliminary data based where possible on reports from parties concerned, in some cases incom- 
plete; subject to revision for the annual review. 

( 2 ) In this table the date of commencement is that on which time loss first occurred and the date 
of termination is the last day on which time was lost to an appreciable extent. 

( 3 ) 60 indirectly affected; ( 4 ) 419 indirectly affected; ( 5 ) 121 indirectly affected. 

1097 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 



Reprints from The Labour Gazette — 

Price: 10 cents. 

Annual Vacations with Pay in Canadian Manu- 
facturing Industries (Aug., 1952.) 

The Normal Work Week in Canadian Manu- 
facturing Industries, 1951 (June, 1952). 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions in the 
Primary Textile Industry (May, 1952.) 

Cost of Living Escalator Clauses in Collective 
Agreements (Dec, 1951). 

Numbers of Workers Affected by Collective 
Agreements in Canada, by Industry (Dec, 
1951). 



Annual Report of the Department of Labour 

(for fiscal year ended March 31, 1952). 
Price: 25 cents. 



Labour Organization in Canada 

1952 Report. Price: 25 cents. 



Apprenticeship in Canada 

Price: 15 cents. 



Vocational Education in Canada 

Price: 15 cents. ' 



Bulletins of Industrial Relations Series— 

Price: 10 cents. 

No. 1 — Joint Councils in Industry. 

No. 3 — Joint Conference of the Building and 
Construction Industries in Canada, Ottawa, 
1921. 

No. 5 — Canada and the International Labour 
Conference. 

No. 8 — National Conference regarding Winter 
Employment in Canada. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 

Nos. 9-18 — Reports of Proceedings of the 
Board covering three-year periods from 
1923 to 1951. 



Strikes and Lockouts in Canada and Other 
Countries, 1952 Price: 15 cents. 



Annual Report on Wage Rates and Hours of 
Labour in Canada Price: 25 cents. 



Labour-Management 
Publications- 



Co-operation Service 



Teamwork in Industry (monthly). 
Industrial Democracy at Work. 
The Story of Five LMPCs. 
Partners in Production No. 2. 
Teamwork in Action. 
A Stitch in Time. 
Co-operation Works Here. 
Meters. Motors and Men. 

Joint Consultation in the E. B. Eddy Com- 
pany. 
Joint Consultation in Service Industries. 
Making the Most of Your LMPC. 
The Foreman and the LMPC. 
Labour-Management Co-operation Service. 
The Labour Representative on an LMPC. 
Duties of an LMPC Chairman. 
What Management Men Say about LMPCs. 



Provincial Labour Standards 

(concerning child labour, holidays, hours of 
work, minimum wages, weekly rest-day and 
workmen's compensation) Price: 10 cents. 



2 Minutes of Employment Facts- 

(semi-monthly) Free. 



Labour Legislation in Canada as Existing on 
December 31, 1948 

Price: $2.00. 

First Supplement (1949-50) Price: 25 cents. 



Workmen's Compensation in Canada 

(a comparison of provincial laws) 
Price. 10 cents. 



Occupational Monographs— 

Free. 

Bricklayers and Stone Masons. 

Careers in Natural Science and Engineering. 

Carpenter. 

Electrician. 

Forge Shop Occupations. 

Foundry Workers. 

Lawyer. 

Machinist and Machine Operator (Metal). . 

Mining Occupations. 

Motor Vehicle Mechanics and Repairmen. 

Optometrist. 

Painter. 

Plasterer. 

Plumber, Pipe Fitter and Steam Fitter. 

Printing Trades. 

Sheet Metal Worker. 

Social Worker. 

Technical Occupations in Radio and Elect- 
ronics. 

Tool and Die Maker. 



CURRENT 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Branch, Canadian Department of Labour 

Current Manpower Situation 

EXPANSION of outdoor activities continued unabated during July. 
Seasonal activities such as berry picking, fruit and tobacco 
harvesting and haying were either begun or completed and in many 
parts of the country, grain harvesting was in progress. This, together 
with peak activities in construction and the tourist trade put consider- 
able pressure on labour supplies. 

In addition, it was estimated that a quarter of a million workers 
were on vacation during July. About one out of every two manufacturing 
plants closes down for one or two weeks during the summer months but 
otherwise vacationing workers are replaced largely by students and 
women who enter the labour force temporarily. As a result, although 
the number of persons working full time dropped slightly, Canada's 
civilian labour force reached a record size of five and a half million 
workers in July. More local labour markets came into balance and by 
August 1, labour demand and supply were in balance in 87 of the 111 
main employment areas (four previously separate areas have now been 
combined with adjoining ones.) Labour surpluses existed in 16 and 
shortages in the remaining eight. 

while labour requirements have continued to increase year by year 
since the most recent employment expansion began in the early summer 
1952, over-all labour supplies have also increased steadily through 
the natural growth of the population and through immigration. No serious 
manpower problems either in terms of shortages or surpluses have de- 
veloped. By August 1, about 80 per cent of Canada's paid workers 
were employed in areas where labour demand and supply were in approxi- 
mate balance. While the statistical picture was much the same as that 
of a year ago, one-third of the areas in balance this year are verging 
on shortages, whereas last year they were closer to having slight sur- 
pluses. The areas with shortages or surpluses are too far apart, however, 
to balance demand and supply through the transfer of workers from one 
to the other. 

During the first seven months of 1953, only an insignificant part 
of Canada's manpower potential was lost through strikes and lockouts. 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 

1099 



CURRENT 



" ■■■•« 



INDEX 




TRENDS 



THOUSANDS 




H I APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

■AveragesI " n Hl< - al *•*■$• office, 

1 ■ ■ ' ■ I ■ i i * *— i. — i «■«.-. * 



CENTS PER HOUR 



140 
130 

120 

110 
100 
90 



1953 



1952 



;| Averages! 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 



>■■■■■» < > i ' 



HOURS PER WEEK 




120 



1952 




CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

1949-100 



■* i i ,,. ;j ..,.i tv ,, „ t, , i 



REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 

— 1953 



^^ — „ 
11952 1 



120 



110 



100 



MILLIONS 



1100 
1000 
900 



700 
600 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 



1953; 



I fAveragesf 



1952 



S S ' FMAMJJASONDJ 




S S J FMAMJJASONDJ 



The 99 strikes that occurred this year amounted to only 14 per cent 
of the man-working days lost in the 150 strikes in same period in 1952. 

The rising level of employment on the one hand and increasing 
average weekly earnings on the other raised labour income, which in 
turn is permitting high and rising sales levels. By early summer, labour 
income was more than 10 per cent higher than a year ago. With consumer 
prices either firm or rising only slightly, real incomes are continuing 
to rise. 

Consumers' increasing willingness to use credit, a trend that 
started a year ago, is continuing although, the rate of increase appears 
to have slowed down. While consumers have saved relatively as much 
as before, they have at least doubled their instalment indebtedness 
during the past year. Cash loans and charge accounts increased 25 
and 18 per cent respectively in the first quarter in 1953 over the same 
period in 1952. 

Reflecting this high level of consumer income and expenditures, 
department stores and retail sales levels continued to exceed those 
of a year earlier. However, the margins over last year are declining, 
reflecting the marked pick-up after mid-1952 and the smaller rate of 
increase in credit sales. 

While defence expenditures are no longer raising employment levels, 
they are sustaining them. Electrical, electronic, aircraft, shipbuilding 
and transportation industries are benefiting most. Soft goods industries, 
however, now have to depend largely on civilian markets. 

Levels of residential and commercial construction this year far 
exceed those of 1952. Total starts and completions for the first six 
months of the year are about 30 and 40 per cent respectively above 
those for the same period in 1952. Engineering and industrial invest- 
ment, on the other hand, is about 25 per cent below last year's level. 
Residential and commercial construction usually requires more labour 
per dollar invested and it also involves greater dispersion of employ- 
ment both geographically and in terms of the large number of industries 
supplying materials. 

Several manufacturing industries have shown considerable expansion 
over the year. Employment in the motor vehicle industry was 18 per 
cent higher in June this year than last; in the electrical goods industry, 
18 per cent higher; and in shipbuilding, and the leather products in- 
dustries, about 10 per cent higher. Employment in the agricultural 
implements industry, on the other hand, decreased by about 20 per 
cent. Coal-mining employment is also declining, partly as a result of 
the past mild winter but also because of the substitution of oil for coal. 

- Regionally, labour supply and demand are generally in balance. 
In Ontario, 95 per cent of the paid workers are in balanced areas; in 
Quebec, more than 80 per cent are in balanced and about 15 per cent 
in surplus areas; in the Atlantic region, about 75 per cent are in balanced 
and 20 per cent in surplus areas; in the Prairie region about 70 per cent 
are in balanced areas and the remainder in shortage areas. In the Pacific 
region, only 35 per cent of the paid workers are in balanced areas but 
this is largely because Vancouver — New Westminster, by far the largest 
area in the region, lias a slight labour surplus. 

1101 



Labour— Management Relations 

AT the middle of August, collective bargaining was in progress in 
many important Canadian industries. The predominant bargaining 
issue was wage rates, although considerable emphasis was being placed 
on such matters as vacations, paid holidays and welfare benefits. Wage 
settlements readied during July and the early part of August, continuing 
the earlier trend, were mainly for increases in the range of 5 to 10 cents 
an hour. Strike activity during the first seven months of 1953 was con- 
siderably less than for the same period in 1952. By the end of July, 
99 strikes had occurred, accounting for .83,900 man-working days 
lost, compared with 150 strikes and 2,217,400 man-working days during 
the same period last year. 

Current Bargaining. Among major Canadian industries in. which 
collective bargaining is in preliminary stages and in which developments 
can be expected in the near future ^re meat packing, primary iron and 
steel, men's clothing and rubber products. 

Talks have begun between the three leading meat-packing firms, 
Canada Packers Limited, Swift Canadian Company Limited and Burns 
Company Limited, and the I nited Packinghouse Workers of America 
(CIO-CCL) over revisions in their contracts. Specific demands of the 
union have not been released but it is understood that a general wage 
increase and adjustments in the rates for skilled workers are to be 
considered. Lach of the three firms usually negotiates an agreement 
with the union covering all its Canadian plants and these influence 
bargaining in the remainder of the industry. 

Negotiations between the United Steelworkers of America (CIO- 
CCL) and the Steel Company of Canada Limited at Lamilton and the 
Algoma Steel Corporation at Sault Ste. IViarie were at a more advanced 
stage. The union is seeking an SVrcent-an-hour increase under a wage- 
reopening clause, the same amount as was agreed upon in the I nited 
States primary iron and steel industry. 

Likewise under a contract re-opening clause, the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America (CIO-CCL) will seek a wage increase and 
changes in holiday arrangements for workers in the men's garment in- 
dustry in eastern Canada, chiefly in Toronto, Montreal and Hamilton. 

Wage rates, holiday allowances and welfare benefits are the main 
items in bargaining scheduled between major Canadian rubber companies 
and the United Rubber Workers of America (CIO-CCL). 

In other industries, including west-coast logging and lumbering, sec- 
tions of the metal-mining, coal-mining, pulp and paper and electrical 
products industries, bargaining has been in progress for some time. 

hollowing a membership vote, the International Woodworkers of 
America (CIO-CCL) accepted a conciliation board report recommending 
a wage increase of five cents an hour plus incorporation of a nine-cent 
cost-of-living bonus into basic rates for approximately 30,000 west 
coast loggers and lumber workers. More than 100 of the operators re- 
presented by Forest Industrial Relations Limited also indicated ac- 
ceptance of the report but 33 others requested further bargaining. 

1102 



A referendum among employees of the Consolidated Mining and 
Smelting Company Limited in British Columbia represented by tie Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (independent) favoured 
the acceptance of a conciliation board report recommending continuance 
of the previous wage scale and three weeks' vacation after IS rather 
than 20 years of service. The company and the union will give further 
consideration to the pension plan, which has been the cause of some 
difficulties. 

Meanwhile, in sections of the metal-mining industry in Northern 
Ontario and Quebec, little progress was made in negotiations between 
the United Steelworkers of America (CIO-CCL) and several mine manage- 
ments. The largest firms involved are Noranda Mines Limited in (Quebec 
and Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited in the Timmins area of Ontario. 
The report of a conciliation board dealing with the Noranda dispute 
is expected shortly. In the Mclntyre dispute a conciliation board re- 
ported some time ago. 

In Nova Scotia coal mining, members of the United Mine Workers of 
America (CCL) have, for the second time, voted to reject the report of a 
conciliation board recommending extension of the present agreement. It 
has not been indicated what union action will be taken as a result of 
the two votes. 

Agreements had not been reached in sections of the pulp and paper 
industry where negotiations were resumed in June after being held over 
from spring (L.G. May, p. 644). Ontario newsprint and pulp mills and 
units of the Canadian International Paper Company in Quebec, New- 
Brunswick and Ontario were the two major groups of mills concerned. 
The principal unions are the International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite 
and Paper Mill Workers (AFL-TLC) and the International Brotherhood of 
of Paper Makers (AFL-TLC), who had originally demanded a five-per- 
cent increase in wage rates. A conciliation officer was requested for the 
Ontario group of newsprint and pulp mills. 

A conciliation board was established to deal with differences 
between the Canadian Westinghouse Company at i amikon and Local 
504 of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers (independent), 
who have been negotiating for the past several months. 1 hearings before 
the board were expected to get under way during August. 

Recent Agreements. Among the agreements signed during the past 
few weeks, two covering hotels and one covering certain classes of 
employees of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation are of consider- 
able interest. 

In July, an agreement was reached between the 1 otel and Ilestau- 
rant Employees' and Bartenders' International Union (AFL-TLC) and 
31 Vancouver hotels under which the work week was reduced to 40 
hours (L.G., July, p. 972). During the same period the Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway Employees and other Transport Workers (CCL) negoti- 
ated an agreement with the Uotel Vancouver, also providing a 40-hour 
week without reduction in take-1 ome pay. In addition, the sane union 
and six large Canadian Pacific hotels across the country reached an 
agreement which includes a reduction in hours of work without loss 
of take-home pay. In five of the hotels, hours were reduced to 40 per 

1103 



week. At the Chateau Frontenac Hotel in Quebec, the reduction was 
from 48 to 44. Negotiations between the CBRE and several Canadian 
National hotels were scheduled to follow. 

On July 31, a collective agreement was signed by the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation and the National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (CCL). This agreement, covering 500 
technical employees, is the first involving employees of the Corpo- 
ration. It provides a general wage adjustment, a reduction in hours 
from 42 to 40 per week and a modified Rand Formula. 

An arbitration award applying to the railways and arising out of 
bargaining last year was released this month. Last January, the Brother- 
hood of Railroad Trainmen (independent) and the railway companies 
reached an agreement which provided a 12-per-cent wage increase, 
retroactive to February, 1952, and reduction from a 48-hour week to a 
five-day 40-hour week for yard service employees, effective October 1, 
1953. The method of calculating the wage adjustment when the five-day 
week becomes effective was left to a referee. Mr. Justice Kellock, the 
referee, ruled that, as of October 1, rates are to be increased by 20 
per cent of those which existed immediately prior to the 12-per-cent 
wage increase. 

Work stoppages. Two important strikes began during July and at the 
time of writing were continuing without signs of an early settlement. 

One, involving 800 gold miners employed in three northern Ontario 
mines, Broulan Reef Mines Limited, Preston East Dome Mines Limited 
and Hallnor Mines Limited, began July 11 after prolonged negotiations 
and conciliation. The union, the United Steelworkers of America (CIO- 
CCL) demanded increased wages, a reduction in the 48-hour work week, 
six paid statutory holidays and an improved vacation plan. The as- 
sistance of the Minister of Labour for Ontario and the chief conciliation 
officer for his Department were invoked in an endeavour to settle the 
strike. By mid-August, violence *which accompanied the early days of 
the strike had apparently subsided. 

A strike of 1,500 truck drivers, warehousemen and helpers employed 
by motor transport firms in south-western Ontario and represented by the 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America (AFL-TLC) began July 20 over failure to reach 
agreement on wages. As in the gold mining strikes, the violence which 
occurred in the first week of the strike has apparently abated. 

Certifications. Of many certifications over the past few weeks, two 
aroused particular interest. A contest for bargaining rights between the 
United Mine Workers of America (CCL) and the Seafarers International 
Union (AFL-TLC) over the right to represent unlicensed seamen on 
Great Lakes ships of the Hall Corporation was settled in favour of the 
latter union after a vote taken among the employees by the Canada 
Labour Relations Board. In Saskatchewan's uranium mining area, the 
International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (independent) 
was certified by the provincial Labour Relations Board at Rix Athabasca 
Mines, the third mine in the area in which the union has obtained bar- 
gaining rights. The union reports that it is seeking to represent employ- 
ees of other mines in the area. 

1104 



CANADA 

Proportion of poid workers within each 
of the four labour market groups, 
P* Cent Per Cent 




90 
80 
70 
1*0 
50 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 

THE expansion of construction, 
transportation, farming and 
fishing operations absorbed ad- 
ditional workers during July and 
caused further changes in labour 
market classifications. Hy August 
1, only 16 of 111 areas covered in 
the monthly survey still had slight 
labour surpluses, a decrease of 
six from July l 1 . Areas with 
balanced labour supply and demand 
showed a corresponding increase 
from 81 to 87, while labour short- 
ages continued in eight areas. Of 
the latter, six were in the Prairie, 
one in the Ontario and one in 
the Atlantic region. 

Comparison with last year, as illustrated by the chart and table on 
this page, shows that six more areas were in balance this year than 
last but that the proportion of wage and salary workers in this category 
was the same. One important difference from last year is that Edmonton, 
in balance a year ago, is now classified as a shortage area because of 
the large volume of construction and growing industrial employment. 
Another notable difference is the Vancouver— New YVestminster area, 
where the labour surplus last year was large, as the result of strikes 
in the lumbering and construction industries, whereas at the beginning 
of August this year the labour surplus was much smaller and was being 
steadily reduced. 

In evaluating the significance of the number of labour market areas 
in the various categories of the table below, it is necessary to keep 
in mind the marked seasonal variations in labour requirements through 
the year in Canada. Each year, from December to March, labour surpluses 
decline sharply during the spring months and shortages often occur 
during the summer and early fall. 



1 The number of areas covered has been changed from 115 to 111: see inside back 
cover, Labour Gazette. 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus* 


Approximate 
Balance* 


Labour 
Shortage* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aug. 1 
1952 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aug. 1 
1952 . 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aug. 1 

1952 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aug. 1 
1952 


Metropolitan 


- 


1 


1 




8 


9 


1 


- 


Major Industrial 


- 


- 


8 


7 


21 


20 


1 


3 


Major Agricultural 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


8 


4 


6 


Minor 


- 


— 


7 


8 


48 


44 


2 


5 


Total 


- 


1 


16 


15 


87 


81 


8 


14 



•See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 



1105 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, AUGUST 1, 1953 





APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


EALANCE 


SHORTAGE 


Group 1 Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 






Vancouver - New 


Calgary 


Edmonton 






Westminster 


Hamilton 
Montreal 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 






Ottawa -Hull 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 






Quebec - Levis 
St. John's 
Toronto 

Winnipeg 








Drantford 


Corner Brook 


Kitchener 






Farnham - Granby 


Cornwall 








Lac St. Jean 


Fort William - 








Saint John 


Fort Arthur 








Shawinigan Foils 


Guelph 








Sydney 


Halifax 








Trois Rivieres 


Joliette 








Valleyfield- 


Kingston 








[eauhornois 


London 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 
(labour force 25,000-75,000: 






Moncton 
New Glasgow 
Niagara Feninsula 




60 per cent or more in 






Cshawa 




non-agricultural activity) 






Peterborough 
Rouyn -Vol d'Cr 
Sarnia 
Sherbrooke 
St. Hyacinthe 
Sudbury 
Tirrmins - 

Kirkland Lake 
Victoria 
Windsor 










barrie 


Lrondon 








Charlottetown 


Red Deer 








Chatharr 


Regina 








Lethbridge 


Yorkton 


MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 






Moose Jaw 




(labour force 25,000-75,000: 






North Cattleford 




40 per cent or more in agriculture) 






Prince Albert 
Riviere du Loup 
Saskatoon 

TKctford - Megontic - 
St. Georges 








Luckingham 


Eothurst 


Grand Falls 






Central Vancouver 


[.elleville -Trenton 


Swift Current 






Island 


Lracebridge 








Orummondville 


Brampton 








Fredericton 


Lridgewater 








Gaspe 


Campbellton 








Newcostle 


Chilliwack 








Sorel 


Cronbrook 

Dauphin 

Dawson Creek 

Drurrheller 

Edmundston 

Gait 

Goderich 

Ingersoll 

Kamloops 

Kentville 

Lachute - 

Ste. Therese 
Leamington 
Lindsay 
Listowel 
Medicine Kat 
Montmagny 




MINOR AREAS 






North Eay 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 




• 


Okanogan Valley 

Owen Sound 

Pembroke 

Portage lo Froirie 

Prince George 

Prince Rupert 

Ouebec - North Shore 

Rimouski 

Soulf Ste. Marie 

Simcoe 

Ste. Agathe- 


















St. Jerome 










St. Jean 










Strotford 










St. Stephen 










St. Thomas 










Summerside 










Trail -Nelson 










Truro 










Victoriaville 










Wolkerton 










Weyburn 










Woodstock, Ont. 










Woodstock, N.B. 











Yormouth 





ATLANTIC 



ATLANTIC 

Proportion of paid workers within oach 

of tho four labour market groups, 1953. 

Por C«nt P»r Cont 



















\ A,p Q . 1 






_ ' 




■ 




. Pk 




pi 




,, , !:: 


, 1 4 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



DURING July, employment con- 
tinued to increase in the Atlantic 
region as outdoor activities, par- 
ticularity farming, approached a 
summer peak. By the week ending 
July 18, full-time workers numbered 
471,000, an increase of 3,000 
from the previous month. At the 
same time the agricultural labour 
force increased by 14,000. Part 
of this increase resulted from 
seasonal additions to the labour 
force and part from shifts out of 
logging and sawmilling into agri- 
culture. 



In addition to the general 
increase in agricultural activity, manufacturing and construction employ- 
ment rose moderately, though the gains were unevenly distributed among 
the Maritime Provinces. Pulp and paper and saw and planing mills in 
New Brunswick accounted for most of the increase in manufacturing 
employment while the only appreciable gain in construction occurred 
in Nova Scotia. At the beginning of June, construction employment 
showed a year-to-year increase of 10 per cent in Nova Scotia compared 
with a decrease of 30 per cent in New Brunswick. Labour requirements 
were particularly strong in Halifax during July as work on a multi-million 
dollar apartment housing project got under way. The influx of workers 
from other areas, however, provided an adequate supply of labour. 

During July, labour markets in the Atlantic region continued to 
move towards a balanced situation. Five areas moved from surplus to 
balance and a shortage of labour developed in one. By the beginning 
of August, 16 areas had approximately balanced labour markets, four 
had some labour surplus and one some labour shortage. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas. In St. John's, Nfld., season- 
al increases in employment were sufficient to bring labour demand and 
supply into balance, though a temporary lay-off involving 550 workers 
occurred at one of the iron ore mines at Bell Island, following the break- 
down of the main hoist. In addition, the employment outlook in this 
area was clouded by uncertain prospects in the construction industry, 
where the volume of work planned was lower this year than last. More- 
over, intermittent reductions of crews were to begin shortly at some of 
the large defence projects as they near completion. 

Employment in Sydney, with the exception of coal mining, con- 
tinued to increase during the month. At one colliery, however, 1,200 men 
were laid off during the past two months, increasing the labour supply 
sufficiently to bring the area into the moderate surplus category. Al- 
though most of these men were still idle at the end of July, many of 
them will be rehired as new mining machinery is installed. Labour 
surpluses disappeared in Moncton and New Glasgow with the increased 



1108 



demand for workers in construction, trucking, service and metalworking 
occupations. The construction industry was particularly active in 
Moncton and it is expected that shortages of certain skills will develop 
in the months ahead as employment in the industry reaches its season- 
al peak. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. The increase in construction 
and other seasonal activities brought Grand Falls into the labour short- 
age category. Almost all of the remaining areas had balanced labour 
markets as hay harvesting accelerated the demand for farm help. 

QUEBEC 



QUEBEC 

Proportion of paid workers within each 

of the four labour market groups, 1953. 

Per Cent Per Cent 





rmrr- 






















July 1 

v Aug. 1 










V __/ 






iii 




,. , In 


i i i — 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



EXPANSION in outdoor activities 
in the Quebec region, which en- 
abled thousands of students to 
find summer employment, largely 
accounted for the increase of about 
47,000 in the number of persons 
with jobs during the month ending 
July 18. This was the largest 
monthly employment increase in 
Quebec this year. 

Although employment in tex- 
tiles has been declining for several 
months and heavy industry in 
Montreal is not as active as in 
the early post-Korean expansion 
period, over-all employment levels 

continued above those of last year. Much of the year-to-year expansion 
occurred in defence-connected and consumer semi-durable industries. 
Non-agricultural employment at the beginning of June was three per 
cent higher than a year earlier. 

Labour surpluses were eliminated in three areas during the month 
but the textile center of Farnham — Granby reverted to the slight surplus 
category after being in balance for two months. At the beginning of 
August, 83 per cent of the wage and salary workers in Quebec were 
in the 15 balanced labour market areas. Moderate surpluses persisted 
in the other nine. There were no labour shortage areas. 

Metropolitan Areas. Many high school students and workers released 
from the aircraft industry have been seeking employment in Montreal 
during the past two months. The practice of closing plants for the va- 
cation period has tended to reduce hiring activity in some manufac- 
turing plants during July. Thus, despite heavy outdoor activity, the 
number of workers registered at the Montreal NES office remained rela- 
tively stable. 

A shortage of waitresses, dish washers and laundry help developed 
in Quebec city as local help left the city for employment in tourist 
resorts in various parts of the province. In general, however, labour 
supplies were ample and the area remained in balance. 

1109 



Major Industrial Areas. Extended vacations were granted to many 
textile workers in the Farnham — Granby area during July so that there 
was a surplus of workers again at the month-end. Rouyn — Val d'Or 
came into the balanced group during July. By August 1, five of the 
major industrial areas still had moderate surpluses while four remained 
in balance. 

Except for the Lac St. Jean district, the employment situation in 
the industrial areas did not differ greatly from a year ago. Here, how- 
ever, a sharp reduction in construction work as well as a smaller logging 
cut created a surplus almost double the size of that reported a year 
earlier. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. Labour requirements were 
approximately equal to the available supply of workers in the agricul- 
tural and minor areas of Quebec, except in Buckingham, Drummondville, 
Gaspe and Sorel. Moderate surpluses persisted in these four areas. 
The construction program in Sorel and Buckingham was reduced this 
year. Last year at this time, both these areas were in the balanced 
category. 



ONTARIO 



ONTARIO 

Proportion of paid workers within »ach 

of the four labour market groups, 1953. 

P«c C«nt Por C«nt 



















w 


July 1 


Aug. 1 


8U 


\ 


/ 


/O 






M) 






t>0 












30 






111 






IU 


i i • BBEZ3 


H- 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



THE movement of temporary and 
immigrant workers into Ontario 
labour markets during July in- 
creased the labour force in the 
region to 1,968,000 by July 18 
from 1,946,000 the previous month. 
Although the total number of per- 
sons with jobs increased by 
23,000, the total at work dropped 
by 47,000 as July is the peak 
vacation month. 



The agriculture, food-pro- 
cessing, construction, and tourist 
industries were chiefly responsi- 
ble for the employment increases 
in Ontario during July. Manufac- 
turing activity was sustained at about the same level as in June but 
hirings were slow since many industrial plants closed for a vacation 
period during the month. Heavy demand for farm help was almost com- 
pletely met by students, local industrial workers on vacation, German 
immigrants and harvesters from the Maritimes (about 400) and the Prairies 
(130). Although both hay and grain harvests were nearing completion 
in most areas, the demand for fruit pickers and tobacco workers in- 
creased by the middle of August in some areas in southern Ontario. 

At the end of July, the labour supply in Ontario was sufficient to 
meet demand and 34 of the 36 local areas. were in the balanced category. 
Kitchener remained in the labour shortage category and Brantford re- 
tained a slight labour surplus. During the month, two more areas came 
into balance, Cornwall from the surplus category and Brampton from 
shortage. 



1110 



Metropolitan Areas. The labour supply in Hamilton was still ample, 
although by the end of the month a spurt in construction activity reduced 
the supply of carpenters, painters and other construction workers. 
Further lay-offs occurred in the textile industry in Hamilton but some 
plants which had been shut down temporarily at the beginning of July 
re-opened during the month. Labour markets in both Toronto and Cttawa — 
Hull were still in approximate balance at the end of July, although 
almost all suitable workers were employed. Industrial hirings in Toronto 
eased somewhat during the month as many manufacturing plants were 
closed for vacations. The only apparent labour shortages in Ottawa 
were for engineers and qualified stenographers, while both of these 
in addition to automobile mechanics were in short supply in Toronto. 

Major Industrial Areas. In several major industrial areas, particu- 
larly London, Kitchener, Windsor and the Niagara Peninsula, vacation- 
ing workers temporarily increased the supply of farm labour. However, 
11 of the 13 areas were still in balance and the surplus continued to 
shrink in Brantford, the only area with a labour surplus. Moreover, most 
workers on vacation were back on their regular jobs early in August. 
Kitchener remained in the shortage category, clerical workers, skilled 
construction workers and auto mechanics being in short supply. The 
demand for farm hands in the area is slackening as haying and harvesting 
near completion. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. By the end of July, the demand 
for harvest help had been largely filled by students or harvesters from 
the Maritimes or Prairies and all 20 of these areas had approximately 
balanced labour markets. A shortage of service workers for the tourist 
industry continued in Bracebridge and farm workers were still somewhat 
scarce in Brampton, Barrie, Ingersoll, St. Thomas and Woodstock. 

PRAIRIE 



ALTHOUGH outdoor activities con- 
tinued to expand in the Prairie 
region during July, the labour 
supply expanded somewhat as 
students and women entered the 
working force. The number of 
persons with jobs increased by 
35,000 during the month ending 
July 18, a subtantially greater 
gain than in earlier months. Those 
working less than a full week 
decreased by 9,000 to 47,000 and 
those working full time increased 
by 3,000 to 880,000. The number 
of persons with jobs but not at 
work because of vacations or for 
other reasons increased by 41,000. 



p« 


PRAIRIE 

Proportion of paid workers within oach 
of the four labour market group*, 1953. 
Cent Per Cent 


90 

80 

70 
60 
SO 
40 






90 

B0 
70 
60 

50 
40 
30 

20 

10 




Ann 1 




\ 


/ 




N 




/ 
















; 





JO 




. : 


A 




10 












SURPLUS*SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



Crops developed rapidly in most parts of the region during July 
following the prolonged spell of cool wet weather. Hail damage was 



1111 



severe in some areas, however, and rust infection was reported in a 
number of localities. Farm labour requirements were generally small 
during the month. On the other hand, the demand for construction labour 
was substantial since the number of housing units being built at the 
beginning of July was 46 per cent greater than a year earlier. As a 
result, there were shortages of unskilled as well as skilled labour. 

There was no significant change in the employment situation during 
July. As in June, labour generally was in tight supply throughout the 
region. Two-thirds of the wage and salary workers were in balanced 
areas, while the remaining one-third was in labour shortage areas. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas, Little change occurred 
in the shortage situation in Edmonton during July. Industrial employment 
was about 20 per cent higher than last year and further expansion, 
particularly in the construction industry, absorbed both the local labour 
supply and workers entering the area from other localities. Shortages 
of carpenters, bricklayers, automobile mechanics, stenographers and 
waitresses were general by August 1. 

The labour market situation in Winnipeg remained in approximate 
balance although heavy rainstorms delayed building activity. The demand 
for carpenters, bricklayers and plasterers increased further by the end 
of July. The construction program was considerably greater this year 
than last — 25 per cent more housing units were being built in the metro- 
politan area this year. 

The construction season was also reaching its peak in FortWilliam — 
Port Arthur and almost all available labour had been absorbed at the 
beginning of July. Local supplies were adequate, except in a few skilled 
trades. The Calgary area remained in balance. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. The agricultural labour force 
was augmented slightly during the school vacation period as students 
were employed on farms. During July, however, demands were relatively 
light and will not reach a peak until later this month. General labour 
shortages continued in Regina, Brandon, Red Deer, Swift Current and 
Yorkton. The most pressing requirements were for building tradesmen, 
waitresses and household workers but automobile mechanics and steno- 
graphers were also in strong demand. 

PACIFIC 

FURTHER seasonal expansion of activity occurred in the Pacific region 
during July. In the month ending July 18, full-time employment decreased 
from 389,000 to 384,000, largely as a result of vacations, but the number 
of workers employed less than full time increased from 39,000 to 53,000. 
The net increase, therefore, in the number of persons with jobs was 
9,000. A comparison with last year's employment situation is distorted 
by the strikes in progress at that time. The most recent comparable 
figures, however, show a slight decrease in industrial employment this 
year. 

Heavy production earlier in the year increased log inventories to 
the point where the usual scale of logging operations during July had 

1112 



PACIFIC 

Proportion of paid worker* within each 
of the four Jabour market groups, 1953. 
Per Cent Per Cent 





90 


Aug. 1 — 
/ 




ec 

, i July 1 - 






70 y 

« ^ 


rf"l 


/ 




5C 
40 
30 

2< ! 

10 






* 





SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



to be curtailed. Additional employ- 
ment reductions were caused by 
the closure of several Vancouver 
Island logging areas endangered 
by fire. These temporary lay-offs, 
together with the holiday shut-down 
of sawmills, accounted for most 
of the increase in the number of 
workers employed less than full 
time. 

Construction activity con- 
tinued to rise to a peak that will 
probably be reached this month. 
Shortages of construction workers 
occurred at various points, the 
strongest demand being for heavy 
construction carpenters, trowel tradesmen ana pipefitters. The demand 
for welders eased during the period, although all qualified welders could 
still be placed easily. 

Additional manpower requirements came from fishing and agriculture. 
The salmon season opened at the beginning of July and catches were 
reported as exceptionally large. The harvesting of strawberries, rasp- 
berries and soft fruits required large numbers of temporary help, the 
supply of which was adequate in all areas. 

Labour supplies in most local areas showed further decreases 
during the month. There was, however, no change in the number of 
areas in each classification. At August 1, slight labour surpluses ex- 
isted in two areas, including Vancouver — New Westminster. The labour 
market was in balance in the remaining eight areas. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas, In the Vancouver — New 
Westminster area, demand for construction tradesmen, largely from 
Kitimat and other out-of-town projects, continued to increase. Metal 
manufacturing firms and sawmills showed little change in activity but 
labour requirements increased in the food-processing, furniture and 
clothing industries. As a result, available labour supplies were reduced 
during July, although some surpluses still remained by the first of 
August. 

The labour market situation in Victoria remained virtually unchanged 
from the previous month. Increasing job vacancies in construction were 
offset by the month-long closure of several large logging camps as 
well as by the destruction by fire of a lumber mill that terminated the 
employment of several hundred workers. 

Minor Areas. The rising level of summer operations absorbed pro- 
gressively the available supply of idle workers in all minor areas except 
Central Vancouver Island. In this area, intermittent closures of various 
logging operations released over 1,000 loggers, bringing the area into 
the moderate surplus category. The effect of this on the region as a 
whole was offset by the increasing level of lumbering activity in Prince 
George, which brought the area from the surplus into the balanced category. 



1113 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of August 10, 1953) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons at work 35 hours or more 

Persons at work less than 35 hours 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

On short time 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons with jobs not at work 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs & seeking work .. 
Persons not in the labour force 



Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Ordinary claims for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments .... 



Index of employment (1939 = 100). 
Immigration 



Industrial Relations 

Strikes and lockouts — days lost. 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Cost-of-living index (av. 1935-39 = 100) ... 

Consumer price index (av. 1949=100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949=100) 
Total labour income $000,000 



Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 



July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 



July 1 
June 

June 1 

June 



July 
July 
July 



June 1 

June 1 

June 1 

June 1 

July 1 

July 1 

June 1 
May 



May 
May 
May 
May 



5,515,000 

4,807,000 

275,000 

91,000 

23,000 

184,000 

343,000 

332,000 

11,000 

90,000 

4,522,000 



22,684 
58,623 
46,958 
20,096 
22,254 
170,615 



119,830 

$8,408,071 



188.1 
18,376 



73,486 

7,396 

30 



$57.70 

$L36 

4L7 

$56.67 

186.0 

115.4 

117.8 

969 



257.8 
272.7 
336.5 
23L9 



+ 2.4 

- L7 

- 3.2 
+ 2.2 
+ 4.5 

- 5.7 
+ 174.4 
+ 176.7 



2.4 



12.3 
7.0 
2.5 
5.4 
3.8 
4.8 



- 16.3 
-31.1 



+ 2.2 
- 12.1 



0.3 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 
2.1 



1.4 
0.8 
0.4 
1.9 



5.4 

5.2 
12.0 

5.0 
32.4 

7.6 



2.3 

25.0 



+ 3.1 
- 20.1(c) 



87.2(c) 
75.3(c) 
34.0(c) 



6.7 
4.8 
L0 
5.8 
1.1 
0.6 
6.4 
10.7 



+ 9.9 

+ 10.5 

+ 12.9 

+ 8.4 



(a), (b): See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 



1114 



Notes 01 
Current 
Interest 



Former Labour Secretary 
Maurice Tobin Dies 

Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary of Labour in 
President Truman's Cabinet from 1948 and 
former Governor of Massachusetts, died 
July 20 of a heart attack at the age of 52 
years. Mr. Tobin was the sixth Secretary 
of Labour in the United States, his appoint- 
ment by President Truman culminating a 
series of political positions he had held. 

During his political career, Mr. Tobin 
had served as a member of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives, twice as 
mayor of Boston — in 1937 and in 1941 — 
and as Governor of the state from 1944 to 
1946. While Governor, the former Labour 
Secretary headed an administration which 
adopted a fair employment practices act 
and which increased workmen's compensa- 
tion and unemployment insurance benefits. 
As Secretary of Labour, Mr. Tobin headed 
attempts to have the Taft-Hartley law 
repealed and to have the Wagner Labour 
Relations Act re-enacted. 

One of three sons of Irish immigrants, 
he was born in Boston. He had to leave 
the Boston High School of Commerce in 
his second year to earn a living; he began 
work in a leather factory. When he was 
25 he won election to the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives, where he served 
for two years. Later he served as Boston's 
mayor and Governor of Massachusetts. 



AFL Men Fill Top Jobs 
In U.S. Labour Dept. 

With the appointment as Assistant 
Secretaries of Labour of Harrison C. 
Hobart, Assistant Grand Chief of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and 
Spencer Miller, Jr., Director of the AFL 
Workers Education Bureau, all top posts 
in the United States Department of Labour 
are now filled by AFL officials. 

Lloyd A. Mashburn, named Under- 
Secretary of Labour last January, was an 
AFL official in California, and Martin P. 
Durkin, the Secretary of Labour, was 
formerly President of the AFL Plumbers. 



W'alter Reuther, President of the CIO, 
had asked that a CIO member be given 
one of the top Labour Department posi- 
tions but the Senate proved reluctant to 
approve Mr. Reuther's nominees. 



Extend Compensation to 
B.C. Civil Defence Staff 

Cost of extending full benefits of the 
provincial Workmen's Compensation Act to 
British Columbia's civil defence workers 
who may be injured on training or exer- 
cises is to be shared equally by the federal 
and provincial Governments. This was 
disclosed in a joint statement by Hon. 
Paul Martin, federal Minister in charge 
of civil defence, and Hon. W. D. Black, 
British Columbia's Provincial Secretary. 

The agreement is similar to one made in 
Ontario, arising from Ottawa's offer to share 
costs of compensation which the provinces 
might agree to pay to anyone killed or 
injured while serving in official civil defence 
organizations. 

The British Columbia agreement covers 
persons training for, as well as actually 
engaged in, civil defence work. This is 
defined as "all measures, other than 
military, carried out under the direction of 
the provincial director of civil defence or 
any local civil defence authority, designed 
or intended to protect and preserve life, 
property and public services against any 
form of enemy attack and to minimize 
damage therefrom, and includes training". 



Equal WorU, Equal Pay 
Recommended in Sweden 

The principle of equal pay for tasks 
of equal value should be followed in the 
Swedish Civil Service, it has been recom- 
mended by a state committee of enquiry 
appointed in 1947. The committee's report 
has just been submitted. 

The scale of wages should be fixed 
according to the work to be performed, 
irrespective of whether it is performed by 
a male or female, the committee stated. 

Rejecting the principle of payment 
according to need, the committee said that 
state salaries should be fixed irrespective 
of family commitments or responsibilities. 
The necessary adjustments to family 
burdens are a matter for taxation and 
social policy, the report said. 

Any minimum wage for males should 
apply also to females, the committee 
declared. 



76944—2 



1115 



Unemployment Insurance Benefit Now Continues 
During Illness. Injury or Quarantine 



Extended unemployment insurance cover- 
age for Canadian workers went into effect 
August 3. 

The enlarged benefits — covering persons 
who become incapacitated after losing their 
jobs — were authorized at the last session of 
Parliament but proclamation of the measure 
was delayed until July 18 while details of 
the plan were worked out. 

Formerly, persons thrown out of work 
received insurance benefits only so long as 
they were available to take on other jobs. 
If sickness or other disability made them 
unavailable for work, they did not collect. 

Under the new amendment to the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act, those becoming 
incapacitated — through illness, injury or 
quarantine— after unemployment starts will 
continue to receive benefits for as long as 
they would be qualified to get them if 
they were capable of working. 

The amendment makes no change in the 
rate of benefit nor in the method by which 
the duration of benefit is established, nor 
is there any increase in the rate of 
contributions. 

It has been felt for some years by UIC 
officials that some compensation should be 
provided for loss of earnings during periods 
of incapacity. Prior to the introduction of 
this amendment, the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission made an intensive study 
of the practice of other countries that 
operate plans of cash sickness benefits, 
particularly Britain, the United States and 
Australia. 

Under the plans of national insurance 
operated in Britain and Australia, benefit 
is paid at the same rates and to the same 
class of insured persons for any interrup- 
tion of employment caused either by lack 
of work or by sickness. In the United 
States similar plans are in operation in 
four of the States, in addition to a federal 
plan of the same type applicable to railway 
workers. 

The concept underlying all these plans 
is that a layoff due either to shortage of 
work or to sickness is involuntary unem- 
ployment and the same basic contribution 
should provide the insured person with 
compensation for loss of wages in either 
case, excluding any periods for which he 
is already entitled to such benefit under 
workmen's compensation legislation. 

The plan being introduced in Canada 
does not go so far at present as most of 
those schemes. It does not extend to the 
insured worker who loses his emploj^ment 



because of sickness or accident, although 
benefit can be paid to such a worker after 
he has recovered from the illness, if no 
suitable work is then available for him. 

It is realized by the UIC that this 
limitation will cause some anomalies. 
Under the amendment, benefit is payable 
only for days of sickness if the claimant 
has already proved entitlement to unem- 
ployment insurance benefit, has served the 
required waiting period, and is actually in 
receipt of benefit. This means that a man 
who loses his job because of shortage of 
work, files a claim, and is taken sick on 
the third day, before completing the wait- 
ing period, will not qualify for benefit, 
while another man who is laid off at the 
same time and is taken sick on the eighth 
day, after completing the waiting period 
and drawing benefit for a couple of days, 
will continue to receive benefit despite his 
incapacity. 

A similar anomaly will arise when one 
person has been laid off because of sickness 
and another has been laid off at the same 
time because of shortage of work but 
becomes sick after starting to receive 
unemployment benefit. The second man 
will continue to receive it but the first 
man cannot begin to receive benefit until 
he has recovered and can prove that he is 
capable and available. 

However, at present it is considered that 
workmen's compensation takes care of most 
persons whose loss of wages results from 
injury or illness arising out of their employ- 
ment and that, as regards unemployment 
which is the result of illness of any other 
kind, extension of insurance should be 
deferred until experience has been gained 
in operating the limited scheme now 
introduced. 

Six or seven states in the United States 
which have not yet adopted a full plan 
of sickness insurance have extended their 
unemployment insurance provisions along 
the same lines as Canada is now doing. 



Marine Federation Ashs 
Subsidies for Coal Mines 

Meeting in Saint John. X.B.. the Mari- 
time Marine Workers' Federation (CCL) 
late last month adopted a resolution asking 
for federal government subsidies for 
Canada's coal mining industry. Such 
subsidies are necessary, the delegates said. 
to avert the closing of Maritime collieries. 



1116 



Upswing in Housing 
Continued in May 

The upswing in new residential construc- 
tion continued in May, when the number 
of dwelling units started jumped 39 per 
cent and the number of new units com- 
pleted 38 per cent over the figures for the 
same month last year. Starts this May 
numbered 13,606, compared with 9,801 in 
May last year, and completions totalled 
8,099, compared with 5,868 a year earlier. 

For the first five months this year, starts 
were running 46 per cent ahead of 1952 at 
35,438 compared with 24,196, while comple- 
tions were up 35 per cent at 32,816 
compared with 24,259. 

Housing Starts in U.S. 
Down 4 Per Cent in June 

Non-farm housing starts in the United 
States totalled 103,000 during June, a 
seasonal decline of about 4 per cent from 
May, and nearly the same number as were 
started in June 1952, according to prelim- 
inary estimates of the U.S. Labor Depart- 
ment's Bureau of Labor Statistics. Despite 
declines in the past two months, June 
marked the fourth consecutive month this 
year that total housing starts exceeded the 
100,000-unit level. 

The total number of new permanent 
non-farm dwelling units begun during the 
first half of 1953 (577,100) is about the same 
as the final figure for January-June 1952. 



Govt, of India Extends 
Subsidized Housing Plan 

The Government of India has extended 
a subsidized housing scheme for industrial 
workers up to March 31, 1956, in order to 
cover the rest of the Five-Year Plan period. 

For 1953-54 the scheme envisages con- 
struction of 22,000 tenements. The 1952-53 
scheme set a target at 28,500 tenements. 

Of the 22,000 tenements provided for in 
1953-54, about 14,000, it is expected, will be 
built by State Governments and Housing 
Boards, 3,500 by Co-operative Societies and 
4,500 by employers. 



Few? U.S. Firms Have Plan 
For Utilizing Old Workers 

Few firms have yet developed definite 
policies for making use of their older 
workers, a recent survey by the American 
Management Association has found. 

In its study of the practice of various 
companies to utilize older workers no longer 



able to perform their customary jobs after 
the age of 65, the Association reported that 
so far the process appears to be largely 
informal. Re-assignment of the employee 
to another job with or without a cut in 
pay is the most usual procedure. 

Other devices used by companies include 
decreasing hours of work, allowing the 
employee to continue in his usual job but 
with less pay for lowered production, 
transfer to a part-time job or to a physi- 
cally less demanding job, and creation of 
special sections in which older employees 
are grouped as casual labour pools or 
homogeneous work crews. 

Four elements are needed in any program 
for effective utilization of the older worker, 
according to the companies surveyed by the 
Association. These are: (1) an objective 
criterion of job performance; (2) knowl- 
edge of the characteristics and demands of 
each job in the plant or firm; (3) knowl- 
edge of the employee's characteristics, and 
(4) matching the job characteristics with 
those of the worker. 

According to the companies, job descrip- 
tions are often inadequate for purposes of 
re-assigning older workers. Also, psycho- 
logical measures for assessing older 
employees are still inadequate. 

242 U.S. Railroads Sign 
Union Shop Agreement 

All but four of the major carriers in the 
United States have signed union shop agree- 
ments with the 17 non-operating railroad 
unions. 

One of the largest railroads in the 
Western United States, the Union Pacific, 
recently added its 40,000 employees to the 
number covered by the union shop. 

In making the announcement. G. E. 
Leighty, President of the Railroad Teleg- 
raphers and head of the negotiating 
committee of the non-operating organiza- 
tions, reported that more than 85 per cent 
of all non-operating employees were now 
under the protection of the union shop. 

He said there were some 800,000 
employees of 242 railroads covered by 
union shop agreements. Together with the 
estimated 125,000 employees in operating 
brotherhoods which have negotiated union 
shop agreements, the total is almost one 
million. 

The negotiating committee of the non- 
operating brotherhoods is continuing its 
drive to include all railroad employees in 
union shop agreements which are now 
permitted under the terms of the United 
States Railway Act passed in 1951 (L.G., 
June 1952, p. 688). 



76944—21 



1117 



II I> Teamsters Dismiss 
Two Canadian Officials 

Two Canadian officials of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters have been 
removed from office during a reorganization 
of the Brotherhood's affairs in its eastern 
Canadian district. They are A. F. 
MacArthur, the international's organizer in 
Canada, who has been President of the 
Ontario Provincial Federation of Labour 
(AFL-TLC) for five years, and Neil 
MacDonald, the union's business agent in 
Montreal. 

The Montreal local of the Teamsters has 
been placed in receivership. 

Frank J. Tobin, son of the former 
president of the Brotherhood has been 
placed in charge of the union's affairs in 
eastern Canada. 

While the Toronto District Trades and 
Labour Council has criticized the replace- 
ment of Canadian officials by a representa- 
tive from the United States, President 
Percy R. Bengough of the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada has issued a 
statement reiterating Congress policy never 
to interfere in the operations of an affiliate 
and describing as "nothing unusual" the 
appointment of "other than a Canadian" 
to administer the union's affairs in Canada. 

In Montreal, Mr. MacDonald has organ- 
ized the Quebec Transport Drivers Union 
and has appealed to Teamsters in Ontario 
and Quebec to leave the Brotherhood and 
join the new organization. 

TLC President Bengough, in his state- 
ment on the developments in the Teamsters, 
cautions the union's members in Montreal 
that they "would do well to remain mem- 
bers in good standing and iron out their 
problems within their own organization". 

Mr. MacArthur, although himself dis- 
missed, condemned the secessionist move in 
Montreal. Efforts to split the union would 
only jeopardize the wages and working 
conditions won by the organization, he said. 



Boilermakers, Blacksmiths 
Complete Amalgamation 

In an amalgamation convention held in 
Minneapolis during July, representatives of 
the boilermakers' and the blacksmiths' 
unions in Canada and the United States 
agreed to form one organization known as 
the International Brotherhood of Boiler- 
makers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, 
Forgers and Helpers. The merger was 
approved by approximately 900 delegates 
from the boilermakers and 300 from the 
blacksmiths. 



The union of the two labour bodies had 
been tentatively entered into in 1950 and 
was ratified by the blacksmiths in 1951. 
Confirmation by the boilermakers in the 
convention made the union complete. The 
ratification was carried through without a 
dissenting vote. 

Addressing the delegates, Charles G. 
MacGowan, President of the Boilermakers 
and now head of the new organization, 
stated that "size, bigness and power" were 
not the objectives of the amalgamation but 
rather the major motive "was one of pro- 
tection to the wage earners in both crafts". 

Speaking on behalf of the Blacksmiths, 
President John Pelkofer declared: "We of 
the Blacksmiths will co-operate earnestly 
and honestly with President MacGowan and 
his associate officers as they have co- 
operated with us." 

Mr. Pelkofer went on to note that "we 
have already made great progress since our 
tentative amalgamation in 1950. Now it's 
in full swing. We have a great future as 
an amalgamated organization. Working 
together, we should be able to accomplish 
what we were not able to achieve 
separately." 

Both the Boilermakers and the Black- 
smiths are labour unions with more than 
60 years of organizing experience in their 
respective trades. 



Chief of Train Engineers, 
James P. Shields Dies 

The death June 29, in Cleveland, of 
James P. Shields removed from the leader- 
ship of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers its leader for the past three years. 
Mr. Shields, who was 64 years of age, died 
a week before the opening of the triennial 
convention of the 80-year-old organization 
which includes approximately 80,000 mem- 
bers in Canada and the United States. 

The BLE head was elected Grand Chief 
Engineer of the labour organization . in 
1950, succeeding Alvanley Johnston, who 
had headed the Brotherhood for more than 
a quarter of a century. During his service 
with the BLE, Mr. Shields served as a 
local chairman, assistant grand chief, first 
assistant and finally grand chief in 1950. 

The Hon. Milton F. Gregg sent a 
message of sympathy to the brotherhood 
stating that "the Canadian Department of 
Labour mourns with the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers the death of Grand 
Chief Engineer J. P. Shields." Mr. Gregg 
added that "the passing of Mr. Shields 
will be a loss to your 80,000 members, 
many of them Canadians, who honour and 
respect his memory." - 



1118 



Locomotive Engineers 
Reject Unity Bid 

A proposal by the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen that 
there be a merger between it and the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers was 
rejected by the latter body at its triennial 
convention in Cleveland, July 20. The 
BLFE, meeting at its convention in 
Boston, had requested the Locomotive 
Engineers to support a merger of the two 
organizations "in the interests of all engine 
service employees in the United States and 
Canada". 

Speaking at the Engineers' convention, 
Grand Chief Guy L. Brown replied to the 
unity proposal by noting that the repre- 
sentatives of his Brotherhood were not in 
accord with the suggestion that steps be 
taken to amalgamate the two labour bodies. 
Mr. Brown added that a referendum held 
in 1948 had "resulted in rejection by the 
BLE membership" and stated that "our 
present convention is bound by that 
democratically-expressed mandate". 

In urging the union of the two railway 
bodies, President D. B. Robertson of the 
BLFE stated that the "combined strength, 
economically, financially and politically, 
would represent a powerful force to help 
railmen in their continuing struggle to 
improve their general welfare". Though 
expressing "keen disappointment" at the 
rejection of the merger proposal, Mr. 
Robertson added that he was "thoroughly 
satisfied the time will soon come when all 
men on the deck of a locomotive will 
belong to one combined organization". 

At the BLFE convention, both Mr. 
Robertson and Carl J. Goff, Assistant 
President of the organization, tendered 
their resignations. Both men had served 
in official capacities for a considerable 
period. As the Labour Gazette went to 
press, there had been no announcement as 
to who would replace Messrs. Robertson 
and Goff. 



AFL, CIO Packing Unions 
To Bargain Together 

Joint action in wage negotiations and 
organizing campaigns by the Amalgamated 
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen 
(AFL) and the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America (CIO) was recently 
agreed upon in a pact between the two 
unions. Under the agreement, machinery 
was established for the two labour organiza- 
tions to work together in the wage nego- 



tiations that opened in July and that affect 
approximately 250,000 workers in the United 
States. 

The new pact provides that every effort 
will be made to conduct joint wage 
negotiations with those companies whose 
employees are represented by both unions, 
that neither union will reach a settlement 
with such companies without first securing 
the other's approval, that joint "economic 
action" will be taken against employers 
wherever necessary and that "all lawful 
support and assistance" will be rendered by 
one union to the other where one has 
established authorized picket lines or is 
engaged in strike action. In addition, both 
unions agreed not to raid each other's 
membership. 

The packinghouse agreement follows a 
similar agreement concluded between the 
United Auto Workers of America (CIO) 
and the International Association of 
Machinists (AFL). The latter pact also 
contained provisions concerning joint bar- 
gaining sessions and the prohibition of 
raiding either union's membership (L.G., 
July, p. 989). 



AFL Completes Revision 
Of Organizing Staff 

A revision of the machinery under which 
the American Federation of Labor con- 
ducts its organizing activities was carried 
out recently in Washington at a two-day 
conference presided over by President 
George Meany and Secretary-Treasurer 
William Schnitzler. Under the new system 
there will be 14 organizing areas in the 
United States and one in Canada, each 
under the control of a regional director. 

Regional directors will now be required 
to submit all applications for new charters 
to AFL headquarters. Formerly the appli- 
cations were sent in by individual organ- 
izers. The directors will also have to 
submit progress reports every four months 
to headquarters noting the paid-up mem- 
bership in each region. 

President Meany observed that the 
primary aim of the AFL is to organize the 
unorganized and that its organizers will be 
required to aid national and international 
unions in their membership drives as well 
as organizing and servicing federal labour 
unions. The Canadian region will be under 
the direction of Russell Harvey, Canadian 
Director of Organization of the AFL. 

The CIO recently completed a similar 
re-organization of its field staff, reducing 
from 50 to 13 the number of regional offices 
in the United States (L.G., July, p. 989). 



1119 



19,000 Brewery Workers 
Switch to Teamsters 

Seven locals of the United Brewery 
Workers of America in New York City 
and three others elsewhere in New York 
State have left the Congress of Industrial 
Organizations and have joined the brewery 
division of the International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters (AFL). The move is reported 
to have involved some 19,000 workers. 

The legal counsellor for the New York 
locals announced July 6 that units of the 
CIO union in Toronto and in six other 
cities in the United States were also due 
to hold votes on disaffiliation. These units, 
he said, have a combined membership of 
9,000 brewery workers. 

The lawyer said that David Beck, 
President of the AFL teamsters, had agreed 
to certain terms laid down by the former 
CIO affiliates in New York City as a con- 
dition for joining the AFL group. These 
were: full autonomy for each local; each 
local to maintain its present jurisdiction; 
all assets to remain in local units; contract 
negotiations to be conducted by locals and 
the Brewery Workers Joint Board in New 
York; and no recriminations against any 
member of the Brewery Workers who might 
have been expelled previously from the 
Teamsters. Mr. Beck had previously said 
his union would accept any brewery locals 
that wanted to join his organization. 

The following week, Walter Reuther, 
President of the CIO, issued a statement 
accusing the AFL teamsters' union of con- 
ducting a series of raiding excursions 
against the CIO Brewery Workers. He 
declared that such action threatened to 
destroy the move toward labour unity and 
that it violated the spirit of a tentative 
no-raiding agreement drawn up recently by 
the two labour organizations (L.G., July, 
p. 990). 

Earlier, an invitation to the Brewery 
Workers union to merge with the Teamsters 
was rejected by Karl F. Feller, President 
of the Brewery Workers. 



TWUA Urges Slowdown 
Of Textile Imports 

The imposition of a quota system to slow 
down the "growing importation" of textiles 
into Canada was demanded recently by 
Edward C. Cluney, Assistant Canadian 
Director of the Textile Workers Union of 
America (CIO-CCL). 

The union official said that in the first 
quarter of 1953, imports of cotton, rayon 
and other fabrics from the United States 
reached new records. Imports from the 



United Kingdom were also up. At the 
same time, he said, the industry in Canada 
was operating at 70 per cent of capacity 
and direct employment has fallen from 
101,234 in January 1951, to 93,120 in 
January of this year. In addition, many 
textile workers are on part-time shifts and 
face further reductions in pay because many 
mills plan unpaid summer layoffs. 

Mr. Cluney said that while the imposi- 
tion of quotas is the most direct and 
practical method of dealing with the 
emergency, his union believes the anti- 
dumping laws should be tightened to 
prevent foreign textiles being sold in 
Canada below their cost of production. 

Inflation or Depression? 
U.S. Economists Disagree 

Two opposing views have been given 
recently regarding the future economic 
situation in the United States. 

Dr. Edwin C. Nourse, ex-chairman of 
former president Harry Truman's Council 
of Economic Advisers, told a teachers' 
meeting in Los Angeles that at present 
the United States faces a depression. 

Dr. Arthur F. Burns, economic adviser 
to President Eisenhower, appearing before 
the House Appropriations Committee, sug- 
gested that "new and upward price 
pressures" may develop in the United 
States economy. 

Mr. Truman's erstwhile adviser said: "We 
have passed from the time when adjust- 
ment to a free market basis would have 
been relatively easy to one when it will be 
extremely difficult. The problem we are 
wrestling with now is whether we will act 
with enough intelligence and have technical 
knowledge to prevent any breakdown in 
the flow of goods and services." 

Dr. Burns, of President Eisenhower's 
staff, granted that an examination of price 
movements alone might easily lead to the 
conclusion that the country had entered a 
deflationary period. But, he pointed out, 
"if you look to the industrial sphere of 
the economy, and find, as you do, produc- 
tion going up, employment rising, unem- 
ployment shrinking, the question is bound 
to come up whether the decline in prices 
can well continue, and whether, in view of 
the continued growth of output and employ- 
ment, and virtual disappearance of unem- 
ployment, new and upward price pressures 
will not develop in our economy." 

Dr. Burns called attention to the fact 
that the price declines have been concen- 
trated in farming, and that in certain 
industries prices have been rising steadily 
for the past six to nine months. 



1120 



Ont. Public Employees 
Hold 7th Convention 

The seventh annual convention of the 
Ontario Federation of Public Employees 
drew 113 delegates to Toronto recently. 

The delegates voted unanimously to con- 
tinue to give full support to the National 
Federation of Public Employees. They 
also passed a resolution requesting the 
Ontario Government to enact special legis- 
lation covering civic and other public 
employees similar to that contained in the 
Fire and Police Department Acts. 

Officers elected were: W. H. Hilts, 
President; William Buss, First Vice-presi- 
dent; J. F. Raysbrook, Second Vice- 
president; and Irene Sinclair, Secretary- 
Treasurer. Executive officers are : J. 
Rutherford, E. J. Priestly, T. H. Doyle, 
G. A. Gorman and George Downing. 



Hospital Beds, Nurses 
Revenue, Costs Increase 

I The number of public hospital beds per 

100,000 Canadians rose to 490 in 1951 from 
479 in 1950, the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics has reported. Official bed capa- 
city of Canada's public hospitals in 1951 
was 68,674, exclusive of nursery bassinets. 

In Excess of Capacity 

Despite the increase in bed space, how- 
ever, the hospitals still operated at 3-7 
I per cent in excess of capacity in 1951, 



The number of nurses in public hospitals 
also rose during 1951, the number of 
graduate nurses by 6-2 per cent to 16,143 
and the number of student nurses and 
probationers by 3 per cent to 15,107. 

Graduate nurses outnumbered student 
nurses for the first time in 1950, the ratio 
being 104 to 100. In 1951 this ratio in- 
creased to 107 to 100. 

Hospitals submitting financial data 
reported a 16-4-per-cent increase in oper- 
ating revenue and a 14-8-per-cent increase 
in total revenue but a 16-9-per-cent rise in 
expenditures. 

Higher Income Groups 
Spend More on Health 

Out of an estimated 1,322,000 family 
units in Canada with incomes of less than 
$1,500, about one-fifth spent nothing for 
medical, hospital, dental or any other kind 
of health care during the year from the 
autumn of 1950 to the autumn of 1951, 
according to a release by the Bureau of 
Statistics on the subject of family expen- 
ditures for health services. 



The release, based on the results of a 
nation-wide sickness survey carried out 
jointly by the federal and provincial 
Governments, is the' second in a series 
which will make public estimated figures of 
the volume and nature of illnesses and 
accidents of ail kinds, the amount of 
medical, nursing and other health care 
received, and the money spent by Canadian 
families for various health services (L.G., 
June, p. 811). 

While 19-7 per cent of family units with 
incomes under $1,500 made no expenditures, 
the corresponding proportion in the next 
income group ($1,500-12,999) was 7-7 per 
cent. In the highest income group recorded 
($5,000 and over) only 3-3 per cent had no 
expenditure for any health service. 

Average Payments 

The proportionately smaller number of 
low-income family units who spent money 
for these services also spent less per family 
than their wealthier neighbours. Average 
for the under-$l,500 group was $46.60 com- 
pared with $88.50 for those in the next 
highest (and numerically largest) group 
between $1,500 and $2,999. Average for the 
group $5,000 and over was $158.70, and for 
all family units regardless of income $82.10. 

Expenditures in the lowest income group, 
under $1,500, totalled $61,600,000, of which 
$9,500,000 or 15-4 per cent went for 
prepayment plans, to which about 28-6 per 
cent in this group subscribed. The highest 
proportion of families subscribing to pre- 
paid plans was in the income group $3,000- 
$4,999, where 67-0 per cent of the family 
units in the group paid out a total of 
$27,200,000 in prepayment plan premiums, 
representing 28-0 per cent of their total 
health expenditures. 

How Money Spent 

Twenty-seven cents of the low income 
health dollar was spent for medicine, in- 
cluding nearly 11 cents for self-prescribed 
medicine. In contrast, the higher income 
family unit with $5,000 and over spent 10 
cents of its health dollar on prescribed 
medicines and less than 5 cents on self- 
prescribed medicines. On the other hand 
all groups spent about the same propor- 
tion of their health expenditures on direct 
payments for medical, hospital, nursing and 
similar services, ranging from 52-9 per cent 
for the $3,000-$4,999 group to 60-2 per cent 
for those in the group $5,000 and over. 
For all groups taken together this propor- 
tion was 54-4 per cent. 



1121 



Australia Sets Up New 
Medical Benefits Plan 

A new medical benefits program in 
Australia provides joint payments from the 
Government and private insurance organ- 
izations to cover a considerable part of the 
cost of doctors' services. Contributions are 
as low as 25 cents weekly. 

The new program, which came into 
operation July 1, complements a similar 
plan providing insurance against hospital 
bills which has been in operation for 18 
months. 

Everyone in the country may qualify for 
contributions towards payment of medical 
bills for himself and his family by joining 
any non-profit medical insurance organiza- 
tion approved and registered by the 
Government. 

The Government benefits are divided into 
two schedules. The first covers basic 
medical services obtainable from a general 
practitioner but includes also consultations 
with specialists and some surgical opera- 
tions often performed by specialists. 

It provides for professional attendances 
in doctors' rooms or at patients' homes, 
administration of anaesthetics, 89 types of 
surgical operations, midwifery and treat- 
ment of dislocations and fractures. 

The second schedule covers services 
usually tendered by specialists — tests, 
X-rays and more than 200 types of surgical 
operations. 

Before being registered by the Govern- 
ment, insurance organizations must agree to 
pay benefits at least equal to those paid 
by the Government for the services listed 
in the first schedule. 

Together the two schedules cover all 
known varieties of medical services except 
payment for spectacles. 

Weekly premiums to his own insurance 
organization by the subscriber for himself 
and his family range from about 25 cents 
upwards. The proportion of medical 
expenses the program will return to any 
one family varies from about 80 per cent 
to less than 50 per cent, depending on the 
nature of the medical services, the doctor's 
scale of charges and the scale of benefits 
paid by the insurance organization. 

There is no age limit for government 
benefits, but some organizations in the 
scheme refuse membership to persons over 
65 years of age. 



did not forfeit her right to unemployment 
insurance benefit, it was ruled by the New 
York State Division of Employment. 

The woman involved had been operating 
a lathe at 25 cents less per hour than the 
rate paid to the men. When her employer 
refused to pay her the same rate or to 
transfer her to another machine she quit 
her job and filed claim for unemployment 
benefit. 

The insurance officer disqualified her for 
a period of six weeks on the ground that 
she had "voluntarily left her job without 
good cause". The woman appealed the 
ruling, claiming that she had been discrim- 
inated against because of her sex. 

Citing a section of the state labour law, 
which provides that no employee because 
of sex shall be subjected to discrimination 
in rate of pay, the referee upheld her 
appeal, deciding that she was "well within 
her rights in insisting that she receive equal 
pay for equal work". 



Sponsor of Taft-Hartley, 
Senator Taft Dies 

United States Senator Robert A. Taft, 
sponsor of the Taft-Hartley Act, died 
July 31 in New York. 

The Taft-Hartley Act, denounced by 
American labour unions from the time of 
its enactment in 1947, was drafted by the 
Senate Labour Committee while Senator 
Taft was its chairman. It replaced the 
Wagner (National Labour Relations) Act. 

Son of a former President and Chief 
Justice of the United States, Senator Taft 
had been a member of the United States 
Senate since 1938. On three occasions — in 
1940, 1948 and 1952— he stood for nomina- 
tion as Republican candidate for the 
presidency of the United States. Each time 
he failed in the attempt. 



Woman Given Less Pan 
Quits; Can Draw Benefit 

A woman who quit her job because she 
was not receiving equal pay for equal work 



How to Increase Productivity 

The report of an International Labour 
Organization committee of experts on 
productivity has now been published. The 
committee met last December in Geneva 
under the chairmanship of Dr. George V. 
Haythorne, Director of the Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of Labour 
(L.G., Jan., p. 50). 

The report, Practical Methods of Increas- 
ing Productivity in Manufacturing Indus- 
tries, may be obtained from the Canada 
Branch of the ILO, 95 Rideau Street, 
Ottawa 4. 



1122 



Closer Ties among Free Labour Organizations 
Urged at ICFTIPs Third World Congress 



Economic progress in under-developed 
countries, full employment, and closer ties 
among free labour organizations were 
among the topics debated at the third 
World Congress of the International Con- 
federation of Free Trade Unions in 
Stockholm, Sweden, July 4 to 11. 

Policies were also advocated for the 
advancement of world peace without 
appeasement, freedom for colonial peoples, 
improvement of living and working condi- 
tions of workers in all nations, and a 
solution to the problems of migration. 

J. H. Oldenbroek, General Secretary of 
the ICFTU, reported at the opening of the 
congress that the Confederation, estab- 
lished in 1949, was composed of 97 national 
organizations in 73 countries, with a mem- 
bership of 53,200,000 workers. 

Plea for Co-operation 

The General Secretary called for effective 
international co-operation among free trade 
unions to defeat attacks on free labour not 
only in totalitarian nations but also in 
democratic countries. He said the world 
was faced with a "wave of reaction" whose 
advocates often tried to restrict trade union 
rights and to limit or prevent trade union 
participation in the formulation of economic 
and social policies. 

Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of Sweden 
and one of the members of the Swedish 
delegation, said in a speech to the congress 
that trade unions could play a part in 
preventing Communists from exploiting 
unrest in Asia and Africa. The move- 
ments for national freedom in Asia and 
Africa are, he said, a symptom of the fact 
that these countries cannot be kept any 
longer in a state of political and economic 
dependence. 

Mr. Erlander mentioned the support 
given by the ICFTU to the trade union 
movement in economically under-developed 
countries. In this manner, he declared, the 
ICFTU was fulfilling its chief aim of 
creating solidarity among working people 
the world over. 

Canadian Labour 

Donald MacDonald, Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Canadian Congress of Labour and 
a member of the Canadian delegation to 
the congress, said that the trade union 
movement in Canada attached great 
importance to immigration problems and 
was making great efforts to solve them in 
the way best for all concerned. He urged 
intimate collaboration between governments 



and workers' organizations, not only in the 
countries which receive immigrants, but in 
those from which the emigrations take 
place. 

Mr. MacDonald also urged larger grants 
to the Confederation's fund for under- 
developed countries. He said the Fund's 
three-year program, due to be completed 
in July 1954, would have to be continued. 

Mr. MacDonald is a member of the 
ICFTU executive board. 

George Meany, President of the American 
Federation of Labor, told the congress 
that fear of widespread unemployment was 
still one of the nightmares of the world's 
workers. This fear, he said, has increased 
during the past few months as a result of 
the slackening rate of armament. There- 
fore, it was necessary for the free trade 
union movement to take effective steps on 
domestic and international levels to insure 
full employment. 

Mr. Meany also referred to the necessity 
of offering the economically under- 
developed countries an alternative to 
communism, and called for the establish- 
ment of free trade unions in those 
countries, independent of all government 
control. 

In a debate on economic problems, 
Walter Reuther, President of the Congress 
of Industrial Organizations, said that free 
labour must meet its historic responsi- 
bilities by advancing broad economic, 
social and political programs and policies 
which reflect the needs of the whole 
community. Labour, acting alone as a 
narrow economic pressure group, can no 
more solve its problems than one nation, 
acting alone, can solve the world's 
problems, he said. 

Compelling Problem 

"The most compelling and challenging 
problem faced by the free world is the 
achievement and maintenance of full 
employment and full production in peace 
time. The world has demonstrated time 
and again the ability to achieve full 
employment and full production in turning 
out the weapons of war. 

"We must show equal courage and 
determination to achieve and maintain full 
employment and full production for the 
positive ends of peace, making the good 
things of life for people," he declared. 

During the congress a telegram was sent 
to President Eisenhower of the United 
States asking for action aimed at the 
release of German workers imprisoned 



76944—3 



1123 



(luring the revolt of June 17, and for a 
formal protest before the United Nations 
against Soviet "violation of human rights 
and freedom of association" in the occupied 
zones. The telegram was signed by Mr. 
Meany and Mr. Reuther and was unani- 
mously supported by all 400 delegates to 
the congress. 

The congress adopted a resolution 
declaring that labour organizations in 
Yugoslavia "do not come up to the prin- 
ciples of free trade unions expressed in 
the constitution and declaration of the 
ICFTU". 

Other resolutions condemned the racial 
policies of the Malan Government in South 
Africa and the policies of the French 
Government in Tunisia; urged self-govern- 
ment for various colonial territories; 
demanded political, economic and social 
reforms in Kenya; and expressed opposi- 
tion to the establishment of a Central 
African Federation without the consent of 
the African population. 

Other Resolutions 

The congress also adopted resolutions 
dealing with aid to under-developed coun- 
tries; trade union education in Latin 
America, the West Indies, the Near and 
Far East and in Africa; the establishment 
of an International Trade Union College; 
firmer action by the ILO; full employment; 
peace and democracy; human rights; inter- 
national migration; minimum wages; equal 
pay for equal work; and improvement of 
wages and working conditions in low-wage 
areas of the world. 

Canada was represented at the congress 
by officials of the Trades and Labour 
Congress and the Canadian Congress of 
Labour. Representing the TLC were 
Claude Jodoin and Carl Berg, both Vice- 
presidents of that organization, and Frank 
Hall, Vice-President of the Brotherhood of 
Railway and Steamship Clerks. 

CCL Delegation 

Mr. MacDonald headed the CCL dele- 
gation, which included Harry Chappell, 
President of the Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees and Other Transport 
Workers; William Mahoney, Assistant 
Canadian Director of the United Steel- 
workers of America; and Harold Daoust, 
Canadian Director of the Textile Workers 
Union of America. Martin Levinson, 
director of the CCL's Department of Inter- 
national Affairs, accompanied the delegation 
as an adviser. 

The delegation from the United States 
included officials of the AFL. the CIO and 
the United Mine Workers of America. 



The AFL group, headed by Mr. Meany, 
included James C. Petrillo, President of the 
American Federation of Musicians of the 
United States and Canada; Elmer Walker, 
Vice-president of the International Associa- 
tion of Machinists; Harry C. Bates, 
President of the Bricklayers' International 
Union of America; A. Shoemake, Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Brotherhood of Main- 
tenance of Way Employees; William C. 
Doherty, President of the National Asso- 
ciation of Letter Carriers; William J. 
McSorley, President of the International 
Union of Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers; 
George Delane3^, AFL international repre- 
sentative; Harry Rutz, AFL representative 
in Germany and Austria; Irving Brown, 
AFL representative in Europe; and Jay 
Lovestone, secretary of the AFL Free 
Trade Union Committee. 

The CIO delegation was headed by Mr. 
Reuther and included James B. Carey, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the CIO and 
President of the International Union of 
Electrical Workers; David J. McDonald, 
President of the United Steelworkers of 
America ; Jacob S. Potofsky, Chairman of 
the CIO International Committee and Presi- 
dent of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America; L. S. Buckmaster, President 
of the United Rubber Workers of America; 
Michael Quill, President of the Trans- 
port Workers Union of America; Joseph 
Curran, President of the National Mari- 
time Union of America; James Thimmes, 
Vice-president of the United Steelworkers; 
O. A. Knight, President of the Oil Workers' 
International Union; and Michael Ross, 
Director of the CIO's Department for 
International Affairs. Victor Reuther, 
alternate member of the ICFTU Executive 
Board and CIO European Representative, 
and G. T. Nunn of the United Automobile 
Workers accompanied the delegation. 

Representatives of the United Mine 
Workers of America with the United 
States delegation were Fred Gullick, 
Secretary-Treasurer of UMW's District 5 
and August Lippi, President of District 1. 

Reorganization Move 

In a reorganization move, the congress 
voted to increase the number of members 
of the ICFTU Executive Board from 19 
to 25. 

Omar Been of Belgium. General Secretary 
of the International Transport Workers 
Federation, was elected President of the 
ICFTU, to succeed Sir Ernest Tewson. 
General Secretary of Britain's Trades 
Union Congress. 



1124 



Labour Day Messages 




Hon. Milton F. Gregg 
Federal Minister of Labour 



Although Organized Labour down through the years has championed a 
great variety of worthy causes in every field of human endeavour, all these 
efforts have had in common one basic objective— equality of opportunity for 
all. Thus it is appropriate, I think, that on Labour Day we consider those 
areas of intolerance which deny the right of any of our people to share in the 
benefits which are offered by the great social and economic advances of recent 
years. 

Discrimination in employment because of race, colour or religion is an 
ugly thing which Canadians as a democratic people cannot condone, and legis- 
lation, outlawing discrimination in employment in industries within federal 
jurisdiction, was passed this year by Parliament without a dissenting voice. 
But such legislation, to have real and lasting effect, must have the moral 
support of the Canadian community — of employers, of trade unions, and of 
every individual who truly believes we all have equal rights before man as 
before God. 



76944— 3J 



1125 



Further, discrimination in employment is not always of a nature which 
would suggest solution by legislation. Older workers and physically- 
handicapped workers too often find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain 
employment even though they are ready and able to work. Fortunately, a 
great many employers in all parts of Canada, fully supported by trade unions, 
in recent years have modified their employment policies and opened their 
doors to older workers and the handicapped, and by their example and fruitful 
experience have greatly widened the employment horizon for workers in these 
categories. But much still remains to be done. 

In the final analysis, the solution to the problems of discrimination lies 
in education. Here each one of us can help. Not only through the organiza- 
tions to which we belong but in our daily associations with others we can do 
much to encourage tolerance if we do no more than remind our friends and 
fellow workers now and then that the practice of the Golden Rule — to do unto 
others as we would be done by — will make our country a better place to live 
for all. 

Percy R. Bengough 
President, Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 

I am very pleased to extend, through the 
medium of your publication, Labour Day Greetings to 
your readers and to the officers and members of 
affiliated unions. Labour Day this year is a particu- 
larly important date in the history of The Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada. We are celebrating our 
80th birthday. 

Eighty years is a long time. It is worth looking 
back over the years of effort which were put in by 
our predecessors in this movement and appreciating 
how they made good use of this national Congress of 
affiliated organizations which was created by them for 
the purpose of promoting legislation in the interests 
of organized labour and to assist in the raising and 
safeguarding of social and economic standards of work- 
ing people through organization. 
These have been 80 years of real progress. We in the labour movement can very 
justifiably celebrate on this Labour Day, having in mind the very great measure of 
success which has crowned the efforts of our brothers and sisters of earlier generations 
and of the present generation. Nationally and provincially we today enjoy very many 
of the labour and social laws which our predecessors visualized when they established this 
Congress in 1873. 

One thing we should not forget on this Labour Day is that it took real effort and 
sustained effort to get the changes in laws and administrative practices which we now take 
almost for granted. None of the new laws and improvements which have been achieved 
during the last 80 years was a gift to the workers from benevolent governments; none fell 
out of a tree. The first convention of the Congress in 1873 asked for the establishment 
of a Bureau of Labour and Statistics. Nearly 30 years later the Federal Department of 
Labour was created. The same founding convention requested a conciliation law which 
would serve to settle industrial disputes and reduce industrial discord to a minimum. The 
first federal conciliation act was passed 30 years later, in 1903. Thirty years is a very 
extended period in which to maintain enthusiasm, interest and effort in a campaign for new 
legislation; but the officers and members of our affiliated organizations who went before 
us were able because of their courage, far-sightedness and perseverance to bring their long 
campaigns to successful conclusions; and we are the direct beneficiaries. 

One of the early successes of our movement was the proclamation of Labour Day as 
a statutory public holiday. The law was passed in 1894. Next year we will be celebrating 
our 60th Labour Day in Canada. 

The foundations and principles laid down for this Congress 80 years ago have proved 
beyond any doubt to have been sound and enduring. Our affiliated membership has 

1126 




grown steadily throughout the period. There weren't very many trade unions or trade 
union members in this country in the 1870's. There were a few more in the 1880's. The 
numbers grew more rapidly as we reached the end of the nineteenth century and entered 
the twentieth. Each succeeding decade of the present century showed increases. Today 
we are over five hundred and fifty thousand strong, the Greatest Canadian Family of 
producers and consumers wielding extensive influence upon public opinion and govern- 
mental attitudes. 

The growth of affiliated membership really means the growth of the memberships of 
affiliated organizations. The increased influence of the Congress has paralleled the 
economic strength of our affiliates. They have been able in all parts of Canada to gain 
higher wages and salaries, shorter working days and working weeks, and improved 
working conditions; and these are written down in legal, binding collective agreements 
between the individual unions and the employers. The laws under which these agree- 
ments are reached and administered were obtained through the efforts of The Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada. The Congress spearheaded the campaigns for these laws 
federally; the Congress's provincial federations of labour and provincial executive com- 
mittees did the parallel job in the provinces. 

A further growth within the Congress which has shown the same forward expansion 
in all parts of Canada during this 80-year period are our trades and labour councils. 
The first of these councils was formed in Toronto in 1871. Now there are nearly 70 
throughout Canada. These are the pivotal organizations of our movement, for they 
provide the local meeting ground for the affiliated local organizations in the area where 
they can discuss and decide upon questions of immediate common concern and bring their 
full collective weight into the successful solution of their problems. 

No law is ever wholly satisfactory; but once the principle has been established it is 
always possible through further influence and the best use of the experience gained in its 
application and administration to bring about further amendments. Viewed in this light 
we now have a substantial body of good labour and social legislation in Canada. On the 
social side, perhaps, the most important single items are Unemployment Insurance and 
Old Age Pensions. The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada is pressing to have both 
of these extended and improved; but we should remember at this time that, in both, the 
rights of the worker are well entrenched and the benefits of both are not provided to us 
as gifts but as well-earned payments to which we have contributed while we were gain- 
fully employed. 

Not all of the gains we have made through our movement have taken 30 years, as in 
the past, but we have one great job on our hands today which has taken 30 years of 
continuous effort already. I refer to the need for national health insurance. The Trades 
and Labour Congress of Canada has been pressing for such a plan for at least 30 years. 
It will continue to do so until a national scheme is in effect in Canada. 

In all of the efforts put forth by our membership and their officers throughout these 
last 80 years they discovered that their need was for more and more organization. 
Gradually our organized strength grew and as it grew we became more successful in our 
quest for new and improved legislation and in our efforts to improve and maintain higher 
economic and social standards. Measured in these terms the struggle of our movement 
was against the entrenched forces of the employers and of those with vested privilege 
within our society. Today, however, we have a third force to contend with. 

Today, as we enter upon the second 80 years of the life of our Congress, we must not 
only continue to wield our maximum influence upon public opinion and the attitude of 
government in order to gain the desired and wholly justifiable goals of organized labour, 
we must also grapple with enemies who seek to dominate and destroy our organizations 
from within. I refer in particular to International Communism which has for its goal the 
utter destruction of the free trade union movement in our country and throughout the 
free world wherever free unions exist. 

We have much to celebrate on Labour Day in 1953. Our movement has made real 
progress. With the strength of our present and growing membership we can expect to 
make further gains in the direction desired by our affiliates. Let us remind ourselves 
when we are celebrating this year that one of the basic jobs we must all do well, now and 
in the future, is to keep our unions strong, well-organized and continually able and ready 
to serve the best interests of their membership. 

1127 




A. It. Mosher 

President, Canadian Congress of Labour 

During the past year, considerable progress has 
been made in Canada, both in the field of labour 
organization and in labour relationships. Workers in 
increasing numbers are becoming organized in unions 
of their choice, and the right to organize and bargain 
collectively is being respected more widely than ever 
by industry. 

From the standpoint of continued productivity, 
Canada's record has been highly satisfactory. The 
loss of time because of strikes or lockouts has been 
very considerably decreased, representing notable 
addition to the national income, as well as enabling 
Canadians generally to improve their standards of 
living. 

The industrial expansion of Canada has been 

maintained at a high level, with new industries being 

established across the nation, and the confidence of 

the investing public, both at home and abroad, has been shown by their willingness to 

participate in many new developments, tapping our natural resources and making new 

wealth available to our people. 

It is very gratifying to me to note that legislation was adopted by the federal Govern- 
ment since last Labour Day outlawing discrimination on grounds of race, colour, creed or 
religion in all employment under federal jurisdiction, and that a House of Commons 
Committee has approved the principle of the voluntary check-off of union dues. The 
adoption by the Canadian railways of the check-off plan, following the settlement nego- 
tiated last year, has made this form of union security more generally acceptable than i/> 
the past. In short, unions are being recognized as important elements in the industrial 
system, and instead of opposing them, enlightened employers are finding that the unions 
perform a service which is reflected in production figures and harmonious relationships. 

The outlook for employment in Canada appears to be favourable, in spite of the fact 
that certain industries are finding it difficult to carry on under present conditions. There 
is some difference of opinion as to the effect which cutbacks in defence production will 
have on Canadian industry, but this appears to have been largely discounted in advance, 
and there are good reasons for believing that our economic and industrial progress will 
continue. 

In our present circumstances, there is no justification for any lack of employment at 
good incomes for Canadian citizens. We have probably a higher percentage per capita of 
skilled workers than any country in the world. We have abundant natural resources and 
technical and managerial ability. We also have a growing population, with increasing 
demands for goods and services. Obviously, nothing but our own failure to use our 
collective intelligence in handling our affairs would permit our nation to suffer a serious 
economic setback. 

In any event, we have a whole structure of social security measures which were not 
in existence in the depression years and which would undoubtedly help to ward off a 
depression or cushion its effects. Unemployment insurance, family allowances, old age 
pensions, savings plans, minimum wages, and similar schemes, all help to maintain pur- 
chasing power and keep up demand for industrial products. The improvements in wages 
which labour unions have been able to obtain for their members are also an important 
factor in stabilizing the economic system of the nation. What has been achieved in this 
respect represents an important contribution toward the public welfare. 

Canada is rapidly gaining an enviable status among the nations of the world, not only 
because of her productive capacity and her resources, which, if not unlimited, are much 
greater than could have been originally anticipated, but also because the Canadian people 
have shown a willingness to assume the burden of defence necessary for the preservation 
of freedom, and a generous attitude towards other countries in need of what Canada can 
supply. We are therefore justified in hoping and expecting that the world is becoming a 
better place in which to live, and that the evils of injustice, poverty and distress which 
have plagued the human race almost from the beginning of time are being abolished. 

1128 



Gerard Picard, General President 
Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 

If the world sets aside one day each year for the 
glorification of labour, thanks are due to the happy 
initiative of the pioneers of labour organization. 
Labour Day is thus, mainly, the day of the organ- 
ized workers, of all those who in order to obtain 
better living conditions for their fellow-workers have 
sometimes made great sacrifices. 

Therefore, may Labour Day be, for the officers 
and members of our syndicates and for their families, 
a day of quiet happiness and of well-deserved rest 
during which they will not forget to give a few 
moments of thought to the deserving cause of the 
improvement of labour conditions. 

It is good on this day to look back on the 
already long road which the workers have travelled 
since the first days of labour organization. 

It is good to give thought also to the steps further to be taken in order that 
workers may occupy in the community the place that is rightfully theirs. 

These moments of thought will furnish everyone with new reasons to carry on 
task with renewed energy and enthusiasm. 




the 
the 



J. L. D. Ives 

Chairman, Railway Transportation Brotherhoods 




The six international railway transportation 

brotherhoods — the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 

Enginemen, the Order of Railway Conductors, the 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, the Order of 

Railroad Telegraphers and the Brotherhood of 

Maintenance of Way Employees — represented by the 

Dominion Joint Legislative Committee, Railway 

Transportation Brotherhoods, approach Labour Day 

1953 with a spirit of thankfulness and a fervent hope 

that the Armistice recently signed at Panmunjom will 

result in a real and lasting peace and the restoration 

of labour in Communistic-dominated countries to its 

proper sphere in the economic life of those countries. 
We are inclined to think of Labour Day in 

terms of labour unions because the day was founded 

by labour unions long before the unions or Labour 

Day received official or public recognition. The significance of Labour Day is that honest 
work is honourable and dignified. Labour Day is symbolic of thousands of little advances, 
the accumulation of hundreds of concrete gains hammered out in legislative halls, law 
courts and at conference tables. 

It has been truly said that Labour is everything that contributes to the progress of 
mankind; that workers have been responsible for all progress and will carry that respon- 
sibility until the end of time. 

The failure of the individual worker to meet his responsibilities can lead to the 
weakening of a labour organization and eventually to the deterioration of working condi- 
tions and rates of pay. It is therefore most essential that each individual worker take an 
active interest in his labour organization. 

Prior to the turn of the century labour had not achieved too much to celebrate. 
Workers were still struggling to win an effective place in industrial society. The struggle 
for recognition and for improvements in living standards produced virile unions and 
capable and aggressive leaders. Labour is free today because its pioneers had the courage 
and tenacity to make it free. 



1129 



The six international railway transportation organizations have been continually in 
the vanguard in obtaining improvements in working conditions and wage rates as well as 
in promoting legislation beneficial, not only to members of those organizations, but to 
citizens as a whole. They will continue to co-operate in efforts to raise the living 
standards of workers and to improve the lot of our older citizens. 



Accident Claims Increase 
In Federal Service 

The number of claims for compensation 
for accidents occurring among federal 
employees during the fiscal year 1952-53 
was higher than in the preceding year. 
The Department of Labour is now helping 
to conduct a safety campaign throughout 
the government services. 

During the fiscal year 1952-53, there were 
13,507 claims made to the provincial 
Workmen's Compensation Boards who, by 
arrangement, handle all such claims made 
under the Government Employees' Com- 
pensation Act, 1947, as amended. Total 
disbursements in compensation, medical aid 
and pensions amounted to $1,438,824. In 
the previous fiscal year, there were 12,857 
claims and disbursements of $1,208,514. 

Federal employees covered include classi- 
fied civil servants and those employed on 
a prevailing rate basis, employees of most 
Federal Crown Corporations, boards and 
commissions. 

Included among the accidents reported 
in the federal service during 1952-53 were: 
2,526 caused while handling objects; 1,561 
caused by flying objects or matter; 2,541 
caused by stepping on or falling against 
objects; and 1,372 that were the result of 
employees falling down. 

The commonest injuries occurring from 
accidents in the federal service were bruises, 
contusions and abrasions, 3,279 cases; 
sprains, strains, twistings or wrenchings, 
2,739 cases; cuts, lacerations or punctures, 
2,851 cases; and eye injuries, 1,535 cases. 

The percentage of reported accidents 
among the government employees resulting 
in permanent disability or death was small. 
Only 54 of the accidents reported in 1952-53 
resulted in death or permanent disability. 

Greatest number of accident claims under 
The Government Employees Compensation 
Act came from the Department of National 
Defence, civilian side, amounting to 5,098, 
with the Post Office Department next 
having 2,397. 



Annual Report on Strihes 
Ready for Distribution 

Although the number of work stoppages 
resulting from industrial disputes in 1952 



was less than the number occurring in 1951, 
time loss was more than three times as 
great, according to the annual report, 
Strikes and Lockouts in Canada, prepared 
by the Economics and Research Branch of 
the Department of Labour. Formerly 
issued as a supplement to the Labour 
Gazette, the report is published this year 
as a separate publication and is available 
from the Circulation Manager, Department 
of Labour, at a price of 15 cents. 

In addition to containing material on 
strikes and lockouts in Canada, the report 
also contains information for certain other 
countries. 

Industrial disputes in Canada that 
resulted in work stoppages declined from 
259 in 1951 to 222 in 1952. The number of 
workers involved increased from 102,870 in 
1951 to 120,818 in 1952. Strike idleness 
increased sharply from a loss of 901,739 days 
in 1951 to 2,879,955 days in 1952. 

Many of the stoppages caused relatively 
little time loss, while comparatively few, 
of long duration and involving large 
numbers of workers, caused a very large 
proportion of the idleness. About 87 per 
cent of the total loss was caused by 36 
stoppages involving more than 500 workers 
in each case. 

During the period since the end of the 
Second World War, the demand for in- 
creased wages and related questions has 
been the central issue in the majority of 
stoppages. In 1952, this issue was respon- 
sible for 64 per cent of the stoppages, 
involved 86 per cent of the workers and 
caused 94 per cent of the total idleness, 
compared with an average for the six-year 
period, 1946-1951, of 57 per cent of the 
stoppages, 69 per cent of the workers and 
86 per cent of the total loss. 

The time loss in 1952 was distributed in 
the following industries: manufacturing, 63 
per cent; mining, about three per cent (coal 
mining causing less than one per cent) ; 
logging, almost 13 per cent; fishing and 
trapping, four per cent; construction, 12 
per cent; and transportation, less than three 
per cent. 



1130 



Two Systems of Forced Labour 

Found to Exist in the World 



United Nations-International Labour Organization committee releases 
report on forced labour based on enquiry that extended over 20 months 



The existence in the world of two 
principal systems of forced labour has 
been disclosed by an enquiry, extending 
over a 20-month period, made by a special 
United Nations-International Labour Office 
committee. The committee's final report 
was released last month. 

The first system is employed, the report 
states, "as a means of political coercion or 
punishment for holding or expressing 
political views, the second being employed 
for important economic purposes." 

After a preliminary discussion of the 
committee's report, the ILO Governing 
Body threw its support behind a sugges- 
tion made in the report that an appeal be 
addressed to governments that maintain or 
might maintain systems of forced labour 
for political purposes "to re-examine their 
laws and administrative practices in the 
light of present conditions and the increas- 
ing desire of the peoples of the world to 
reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights 
and in the dignity and worth of the human 
person". 

The ad hoc Committee on Forced 
Labour was established in 1951 by the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations 
and the Director-General of the ILO in 
accordance with decisions taken by the 
U.N. Economic and Social Council and the 
ILO Governing Body. Committee mem- 
bers were Sir Ramaswami Mudaliar, 
chairman; Paal Berg, former President of 
the Norwegian Supreme Court; and 
Enrique Garcia Sayan, former Foreign 
Minister of Peru. 

The Committee said it had found "facts 
relating to systems of forced labour of so 
grave a nature that they seriously threaten 
fundamental human rights and jeopardize 
the freedom and status of workers in con- 
travention of the obligations and provi- 
sions of the Charter of the United Nations." 

These systems of forced labour, the 
Committee feels, "should be abolished to 
ensure universal respect for, and obser- 
vance of, human rights and fundamental 
freedoms." 

The report said that "a system of forced 
labour as a means of political coercion 
was found by the Committee to be estab- 



lished in certain countries, to be probably 
in existence in several other countries, and 
to be possible of establishment in others." 

Systems for Economic Ends 

Systems of forced labour for economic 
purposes, the report declared, were "still 
found to exist in some countries or terri- 
tories where a large indigenous population 
lives side by side with a population of 
another origin." 

The Committee said that, while these 
systems jeopardized human rights less 
seriously, they were "no less a violation" 
of the United Nations Charter and the 
Declaration of Human Rights. Although 
such systems "may be found in different 
parts of the world," the report observed, 
"their nature and scope are not every- 
where the same. 

"These systems," it said, " — still found 
to exist in some countries or territories 
where a large indigenous population lives 
side by side with a population of another 
origin — most often result from a com- 
bination of various practices or institutions 
affecting only the indigenous populations, 
and involving direct or indirect compulsion 
to work, such as compulsory labour 
properly so-called, various coercive 
measures of recruiting, the infliction of 
heavy penalties for breaches of contracts 
of employment, the abusive use of vagrancy 
legislation, restrictions on freedom of move- 
ment, restrictions on the possession and 
use of land, and other similar measures." 

For nearly 25 years, the report pointed 
out, the ILO has been striving to bring 
about the abolition of such practices and 
to improve the situation of indigenous 
workers. Conventions and Recommenda- 
tions adopted by the ILO had "shown the 
way of advance". The Committee's in- 
vestigation had revealed that many of the 
countries concerned had ratified these Con- 
ventions and accepted the Recommenda- 
tions, and in several of these countries or 
territories progress was commendable inas- 
much as many of these practices had either 
been eliminated or were gradually declining. 
But progress had not been as rapid 
elsewhere. 



1131 



24 Countries Examined 

The report disclosed that the Committee 
had studied allegations of forced labour 
and documentary material relating to 24 
countries. The report examined the case 
of each of these countries in detail and 
summarized the Committee's findings in 
regard to each. 

The Committee reached the conclusion, 
the report showed, that forced labour for 
political purposes existed in Bulgaria, 
Czechoslovakia, Romania and the Soviet 
Union. It found that forced labour was 
also employed in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia 
and the Soviet Union for economic pur- 
purposes. In the case of Romania, the 
report said that there was legislation which 
"might provide the basis for a system of 
forced labour for economic purposes". 

The report said that certain powers 
enjoyed by the Government of Hungary 
"might constitute the basis of a system of 
forced labour for the purpose of political 
coercion," and that "the restrictions placed 
on freedom of employment, if rigorously 
enforced, might constitute the basis of a 
system of forced and compulsory labour 
imposed with a view to carrying out the 
economic plans of the State." 

Certain "elements" in the situation in 
Poland, the report declared, suggested that 
legislation in that country "could be 
applied as a means of political coercion". 
It found also that there existed in Poland 
"a basis for a system of forced labour for 
economic purposes". 

In regard to Spain, the Committee con- 
cluded that certain legal provisions in 
force "could be applied as a system of 
forced labour for political coercion or 
punishment for holding or expressing 
political views". 

Allegations Unsubstantiated 

The report said there was no evidence 
to substantiate allegations of forced labour 
in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, 
Ecuador, France, Paraguay, Peru, the 
United Kingdom, the United States, and 
Venezuela, or in any of the territories 
administered by these States. 

Portuguese legislation, the Committee 
said, prohibited forced or compulsory 
labour in principle, "but there are certain 
restrictions and exceptions in this legisla- 
tion which permit the exaction of forced 
or compulsory labour." It found that "the 
labour of workers in San Tome is of 
considerable economic importance to the 
territory and their situation appears to 
be similar to that of workers under a 
system of forced labour for economic 
purposes." 



The report said that the native popula- 
tion of the Union of South Africa was 
compelled "to contribute by their labour 
to the implementation of the economic 
policies of the country, but the com- 
pulsory and involuntary nature of this 
contribution results from the particular 
status and situation created by special 
legislation applicable to the indigenous 
populations alone, rather than from direct 
coercive measures designed to compel them 
to work, although such measures, which 
are the inevitable consequence of this 
status, were also found to exist." It was 
"in this indirect sense, therefore." the 
report said, "that in the Committee's view 
a system of forced labour of significance 
to the national economy appears to exist 
in the Union of South Africa." 

In the Territory of Nauru, under 
Australian administration, the report found, 
"breaches of labour contracts by Chinese 
and other non-European workers are 
punished as a criminal offence, and that 
such legislation, if abused or vigorously 
implemented, might lead to a system of 
forced labour for economic purposes." 

The Committee said that in territories 
administered by Belgium, "indigenous mine 
workers are not forcibly recruited, but they 
are liable to penal sanctions for breach 
of contract, which might lead to a system 
of forced labour for economic purposes." 
Certain forms of compulsory labour, the 
report added, "might have some economic 
significance for the territory and might 
therefore lead to a system of forced labour 
for economic purposes." 

Unable to Verify Allegations 

The legislation of the Democratic 
Republic of Germany, according to the 
report, contains provisions referring to 
punitive and corrective labour. The Com- 
mittee said, however, that it had been 
"unable to verify whether or to what extent 
this legislation is applied as a means of 
political coercion, as alleged." It said also 
that it had found that there were indi- 
cations that certain laws were used "for 
the compulsory assignment of workers to 
enterprises important for the execution of 
state economic plans and, in particular, for 
the compulsory assignment of persons to 
work as miners." The report added that 
"if such legislation were widely applied it 
would lead to a system of forced labour 
for economic purposes." 

The report said the enquiry had not 
revealed the existence in Latin America 
of a system of forced labour within the 
meaning of the Committee's terms of 
reference. It commented, however, that "if 



1132 



the legislation concerning compulsory 
labour in Bolivia were extensively used 
it could result in a system of forced labour 
of some importance to the economy of 
that country." 

The Committee's examination of allega- 
tions concerning territories administered 
by or associated with France disclosed no 
evidence of the existence of a system of 
forced labour within the meaning of the 
Committee's terms of reference, the report 
said. 

The Committee came to the same con- 
clusion in regard to the United Kingdom 
and the 12 territories under its adminis- 
tration. The report said, however, that 
the Committee had "observed that the 
Emergency Regulations in Malaya, if 
broadly interpreted and extensively applied 
(though there is no evidence that they have 
been so interpreted or applied), could lead 
to a system of forced labour as a means 
of political coercion, and that the Voluntary 
Unemployed Persons Ordinance in Kenya 
could be applied (although it appears that 
it is not at present so applied) in such a 
way as to result in a system of forced 
labour of some importance to the economy 
of Kenya." 

Allegations Not Relevant 

From its examination of the allegations 
concerning the United States, the Com- 
mittee said, it appeared that most of the 
specific allegations "are not relevant to 
the Committee's terms of reference, or 
where they appear to be relevant, they are 
not substantiated by the evidence avail- 
able to the Committee. 

"In the two cases where there appears, 
prima facie, to be evidence of the exist- 
ence of practices resembling forced labour, 
namely in connection with illegal Mexican 
immigrants ('wet-backs') and with certain 
instances of peonage, the Committee finds 
on further examination that these practices 
are directly outlawed, and it has no 
evidence to suggest that, when offences are 
brought to the knowledge of the United 
States Government, the laws are not 
enforced. For this reason the Committee 
concludes that these practices do not con- 
stitute forced labour within the meaning 
of its terms of reference. 

"As regards vagrancy laws, however, the 
Committee noted that in some States the 
term 'vagrancy' is denned so broadly and 
the punishment for the offence* is so severe 
that, if extensively interpreted and applied, 
it could lead to a system of forced labour 
for economic purposes in the States 
concerned." 



Conclusions Concerning USSR 

In summarizing its conclusions in regard 
to the Soviet Union, the Committee 
declared: — 

"Given the general aims of Soviet penal 
legislation, its definitions of crime in 
general and of political offences in par- 
ticular, the restrictions it imposes on the 
rights of the defence in cases involving 
political offences, the extensive powers of 
punishment it accords to purely adminis- 
trative authorities in respect of persons 
considered to constitute a danger to society, 
and the purpose of political re-education 
it assigns to penalties of corrective labour 
served in camps, in colonies, in exile and 
even at the normal place of work, this 
legislation constitutes the basis of a system 
of forced labour employed as a means of 
political coercion or punishment for hold- 
ing or expressing political views and it is 
evident from the many testimonies exam- 
ined by the Committee that this legisla- 
tion is in fact employed in such a way. 

"Persons sentenced to deprivation of 
liberty by a court of law or by an admin- 
istrative authority, particularly political 
offenders, are for the most part employed 
in corrective labour camps or colonies on 
large-scale projects, on the development of 
mining areas or previously uncultivated 
regions, or on other activities of benefit 
to the community, and the system there- 
fore seems to play a part of some signifi- 
cance in the national economy. 

"The Committee has not been able to 
arrive at any definite conclusions as to 
the number or location of the corrective 
labour camps and colonies; much less has 
it been able to assess how many persons 
are detained in them. 

"The Committee refrained from drawing 
any conclusions in connection with the 
mass deportations referred to in the 
allegations, in some cases because they 
were stated to have taken place in a 
relatively distant past, in others because 
it was not established that they were 
accompanied by forced labour, and in 
others again because the Committee did 
not have sufficient information to come to 
the conclusion that they actually occurred. 

"Soviet legislation makes provision for 
various measures which involve a com- 
pulsion to work or place restrictions on 
the freedom of employment; these 
measures seem to be applied on a large 
scale in the interests of the national 
economy and, considered as a whole, they 
lead, in the Committee's view, to a system 
of forced or compulsory labour constituting 
an important element in the economy of 
the country." 



1133 



In its conclusions concerning Bulgaria, 
the Committee found: — 

"That Bulgarian penal legislation could 
constitute the basis of a system of forced 
labour aiming at the political correction 
and re-education of those opposed to the 
political ideology of the Government. 

"That, furthermore, Bulgarian adminis- 
trative law makes provision for a system 
of detention with compulsory labour 
imposed by the administrative authorities; 
that the law is expressly aimed at the 
opponents of the established political order 
and that the application of this law results 
in a system of forced or corrective labour 
employed as a means of political coer- 
cion 

"That, in the interests of the national 
economy and to ensure the fulfillment of 
the country's economic plans, provision is 
made under Bulgarian legislation for 
recourse to be had, when necessary, to 
various methods of constraint in order to 
obtain and allocate a labour force 
(mobilization of labour and industry, com- 
pulsory transfer of workers, creation of 
labour reserves, restrictions on freedom of 
employment) and that this constitutes the 
basis of a system of forced labour of 
appreciable economic importance." 

Findings in Czechoslovakia 

In summarizing its conclusions concern- 
ing Czechoslovakia, the Committee 
reported: — 

"That Czechoslovak penal and admin- 
istrative law is expressly directed against 
'class enemies' and against 'a hostile 
attitude' towards the Government or its 
ideology; that offences are broadly and 
'flexibly' denned; that persons who mani- 
fest or 'intend' to manifest their opposition 
to the regime by committing offences, 
however insignificant, are subjected to 
penalties accompanied bj^ forced labour 
and, more particularly, to detention in 
forced labour camps; that the purpose of 
these institutions is the political re-educa- 
tion and correction of such persons; and 
that this constitutes a system of forced 
or corrective labour employed as a means 
of political coercion and punishment for 
holding or expressing political views. . . . 

"That, to implement the economic plans 
and policy of the Government, Czecho- 
slovak legislation makes provision for a 
number of measures to be taken in con- 
nection with the mobilization and assign- 
ment of labour, that these measures appear 
to be accompanied, where necessary, by 
coercion, and that they therefore con- 
stitute a system of forced labour for 
economic purposes; 



"That it has not been possible to 
establish whether Czechoslovak citizens are 
deported to the Soviet Union for com- 
pulsory labour." 

In its findings concerning Romania, the 
Committee said: — 

"That Romanian penal and administra- 
tive laws — in particular Decree No. 187 
of 1949 — provide the basis for a system of 
forced labour as a means of political 
coercion or 're-education' of those opposed 
to the Government; 

"That to fulfill the country's economic 
plans, Romanian legislation of a non- 
penal character empowers the administra- 
tive authorities to call up any able-bodied 
person to remedy a shortage of manpower 
required to carry out important State tasks, 
and to recruit large numbers of young 
persons for vocational training and there- 
after for a minimum of four years' work 
in the factories or plants to which they 
are assigned, and that this legislation might 
provide the basis for a system of forced 
labour for economic purposes." 

General Conclusions 

In a series of "general observations" in 
regard to its findings, the Committee said 
that a system of forced labour as a means 
of political coercion "was found to exist 
in its fullest form and in the form which 
most endangers human rights where it is 
expressly directed against people of a par- 
ticular 'class' (or social origin) and even 
against political 'ideas' or 'attitudes' in 
men's minds; where a person may be 
sentenced to forced labour for the offence 
of having in some way expressed his 
ideological opposition to the established 
political order, or even because he is only 
suspected of such hostility; when he may 
be sentenced by procedures which do not 
afford him full rights of defence, often 
by a purely administrative order; and 
when, in addition, the penalty of forced 
labour to which he is condemned is in- 
tended for his political 'correction' or 
're-education', that is, to alter his political 
convictions to the satisfaction of the 
government in power. 

"Such a system," the Committee declared, 
"is, by its very nature and attributes, a 
violation of the fundamental rights of the 
human person as guaranteed by the 
Charter of the United Nations and pro- 
claimed in the Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights. Apart from the physical 
suffering and hardship involved, what makes 
the system most dangerous to human 
freedom and dignity is that it trespasses 
on the inner convictions and ideas of 
persons to the extent of forcing them to 



1134 



change their opinions, convictions and even 
mental attitudes to the satisfaction of the 
State. 

"The Committee has also found that the 
systems of forced labour as a means of 
political coercion are applied with varying 
degrees of intensity in a number of coun- 
tries, but it has observed in the trend of 
the laws and the aims and purposes of 
legislative enactments and administrative 
practices a tendency for countries which 
have less severe systems to approximate 
them to the more severe described above. 
The possibility of the extension of this 
system of forced labour as a means of 
political coercion to other countries or 
territories where unsettled conditions may 
prevail cannot be ignored. 

"The Committee feels that an earnest 
appeal should be addressed to all Govern- 
ments concerned to re-examine their laws 
and administrative practices in the light 
of present conditions and the increasing 
desire of the peoples of the world 'to 
reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights 
(and) in the dignity and worth of the 
human person'." 

The enquiry had revealed, the report 
continued, that while the forms of forced 
labour contemplated in the ILO Conven- 
tions were virtually in relation to 'indi- 
genous' inhabitants of dependent territories, 
the systems of forced labour for economic 
purposes found to exist in some fully self- 
governing countries (where there was no 
'indigenous' population) raised new prob- 
lems and called for action either by the 
countries concerned or at the international 
level. 

"Such systems of forced labour affecting 
the working population of fully self- 
governing countries," the Committee noted, 
"result from various general measures in- 
volving compulsion in the recruitment, 
mobilization or direction of labour 

"The Committee has come to the con- 
clusion that, however attractive the idea 
of using such methods with a view to 
promoting the economic progress of a 
country may be, the result is a system 
of forced labour which not only subjects 
a section of the population to conditions 
of serious hardship and indignity, but which 
must gradually lower the status and dignity 
of even the free workers in such countries. 
The Committee suggests that, wherever 
necessary, international action be taken, 
either by framing new Conventions or by 
amending existing Conventions, so that 
they may be applicable to the position 
regarding forced labour conditions found 
to exist among the workers of fully self- 
governing countries." 



Methods of Procedure 

In carrying out its survey, the Committee 
endeavoured to obtain information by 
three principal means — the transmission of 
a questionnaire to all governments, the 
assembling of documents and evidence 
which had been brought to the knowledge 
of the Economic and Social Council, and 
by inviting non-governmental organizations 
and individuals to submit relevant infor- 
mation and documentation. A large group 
of witnesses was heard. 

'Replies to the questionnaire were received 
from 48 Governments. Thirty-three Gov- 
ernments did not reply. 

After making a preliminary survey of 
the material which it had collected, the 
Committee decided to confine its detailed 
study to those countries or territories con- 
cerning which allegations regarding the 
existence of forced labour had been made, 
either in the Economic and Social Council, 
or subsequently by organizations or 
individuals. 

The report said the Committee was well 
aware that, in adopting this limitation of 
the scope of its enquiry, the results it 
would achieve would be incomplete. 

In consequence, the Committee studied 
the allegations and documentary material 
relating to 28 countries. The report 
explained, however, that the Committee 
was not able to complete its study of the 
allegations relating to Albania and the 
People's Republic of China because docu- 
mentary material relating to them had not 
been cited or submitted and could not be 
obtained by the Committee. The Com- 
mittee also decided, the report said, not 
to pursue further its study of the allega- 
tions regarding the British Occupation Zone 
of Germany or Japan "since these allega- 
tions were either imprecise or referred to 
conditions of military occupation which no 
longer existed." 

The Committee's study was therefore 
confined to 24 countries. 

To each of these countries the Com- 
mittee sent a letter transmitting a 
summary of the allegations that had been 
made concerning it, and requesting the 
comments of the Governments concerned. 
By May 20, replies had been received from 
the Governments of Australia, Belgium, 
Bolivia, France, Peru, Portugal, Spain, the 
Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States. No comments or 
observations had been received on that date 
from Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, 
Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, the 
Democratic Republic of Germany, Hungary, 
Paraguay, Poland, Romania, the Soviet 
Union and Venezuela. 



1135 



Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria Pass New Forced Labour Laws 



Almost at the same time as a special 
United Nations - International Labour 
Organization was making public a report 
on forced labour (see above), in which 
Czechoslovakia was named as one country 
in which forced labour exists, that country 
issued a new decree providing stiff penal- 
ties for unjustified absenteeism and ordered 
4.000 officials and members of the Czecho- 
slovak Trade Union Federation into the 
country's coal mines. 

Under the decree on industrial absen- 
teeism, a worker who stays away from his 
job one day without justification will be 
reprimanded by his employer and by union 
leaders. If he staj^s away two days the 
reprimand will be made publicly before his 
fellow workers. Absence for three days will 
result in demotion to lower-paid work and 
four days' absence will be punishable by a 
special trade union court. This could mean 
dismissal, a fine or an even stiffer penalty. 



One week after publication of the Czecho- 
slovakian decree, it was learned that 
Bulgaria, also named in the report on forced 
labour, has enacted a law whereby workers 
who leave their jobs without permission 
or an apprentice who quits his professional 
school face imprisonment and heavy fines. 

The law stipulates that a worker in state, 
co-operative or public enterprises may not 
leave his job without permission of the 
manager and provides that if he does so 
he will be punished with two to four 
months' imprisonment or term in a labour 
camp. An apprentice who "arbitrarily 
leaves his professional school will be 
excluded from all Bulgarian schools, will 
be sentenced to either one year of forced 
labour in the state labour camps or will 
be fined to repay all the costs to the state 
for his education." 



Poland's Miners Told: You're in the Army 



Coal miners in Poland have been told 
that they should consider themselves as 
members of the army. 

"The miners are a great army, and the 
administration is the non-commissioned, 
junior and senior officers of that army," 
said Polish Prime Minister Boleslaw 
Bierut in a recent address to party and 
economic activists of the country's coal 
industry. 

"There must be discipline in an army," 
the premier continued. "Without discipline 
the armies lose their fighting strength. In 
mining there must be discipline — an honest, 
conscious, hard mining discipline. With- 
out it the mining industry will not fulfil 
the great tasks facing it. 

"In an army there must be respect for 
the commander ... In the mining indus- 
try there must be respect for the adminis- 
tration, which constitutes the commanding 
cadre of the mining industry . . . 

"In an army there must be obedience to 
the commander's orders ... In the mining 
industry there must be obedience to the 
instructions and orders of the lower, middle 
and higher administrations . . ." 

The speech, published in the Polish 
newspaper Trybuna Ludu, reviewed past 
and present coal production and laid down 



future objectives. The Premier said the 
coal produced in 1952 amounted to 84-5 
million tons, an increase of 25 million tons 
ever the amount produced in 1947. How- 
ever, in 1952 the industry failed to reach 
its goal. Actual production was only 98-2 
per cent of the year's target set by the 
country's Six Year Plan. 

The greatest enemy of the fulfilment of 
the plan was the bad status of work 
discipline, said the Premier. 

"It is a fact that we still have many 
cases of unjustified absence from work. It 
is a fact that this absence increases, for 
example, after the payment of premiums 
in accordance with the Miners' Charter. 
Therefore it must be clearly stated that 
the State granted privileges to the miners, 
contained in the Miners' Charter, not for 
the purpose of increasing absenteeism of 
miners after payment of premiums. On 
the contrary, the State granted the Miners' 
Charter in order to obviate absenteeism 
from work. Everyone should understand 
and know that the high wages, the 
privileges of the Miners' Charter, the allo- 
cated lodgings, and longer leaves are 
available only to conscientious and honest 
workers. Loafers, idlers, and brawlers will 
be deprived of these privileges." the 
premier said. 



1136 



"It is a fact that the working hours are 
not sufficiently utilized and that there are 
many cases of leaving work too early, 
before the shift ends. This state of affairs 
cannot be tolerated. Iron control over the 
use of working hours must be instituted. 
Leaving work before closing time must 
definitelv cease. 



"Everyone should understand that a 
liberal, tolerant attitude toward those who 
are breaking work discipline is a trans- 
gression against the State, against the 
working class, against the interests of the 
miners, and against the needs of the 
nation." 



Job Counselling for Older Workers 



Canada's National Employment Service first state employment agency 
to recognize plight of older unemployed and offer special intensive 
counselling to such persons, states Dr. W. G. Scott, adviser to NES 



Canada's National Employment Service 
of the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion was the first state employment service 
to recognize the plight of the older unem- 
ployed and to seek to remedy it through 
special intensive counselling, stated Dr. 
W. G. Scott, Adviser to the NES, in a 
speech to the Canadian Dietetic Associa- 
tion in Ottawa. This counselling was 
begun over five years ago, he said. 

The aims of the project were to better 
understand the older workers who were 
jobless and to re-classify them, where 
necessary, into their most promising field 
of employment, explained Dr. Scott, who 
described the older worker without a job 
as part of a "frustrated, confused, defeated 
segment of society". In dealing with this 
group, courtesy was emphasized and the 
employment and academic successes and 
failures, the leisure time activities and the 
ambitions of the older workers were given 
every consideration, he stated. Dr. Scott 
pointed out that NES counselling was 
designed to help such workers evaluate 
themselves and to decide for themselves 
what jobs they preferred and were capable 
of doing. 

Referring specifically to older workers 
who have been counselled, Dr. Scott stated 
that the large majority were "most stable" 
in their employment record; five years of 
continuous employment with one employer 
being the criterion used. He pointed out 
that the major problem of the older 
worker was economic; they needed 
employment to supplement their incomes. 
Dr. Scott added that the group as a whole 
was for the most part "disgustingly 
healthy". 

To date, approximately 6,000 applicants 
have been counselled and some 4,000 have 
found permanent employment after coun- 
selling, the NES official added. He noted 
that a sample check of 20 per cent of 
those obtaining employment after coun- 



selling, taken 18 months later, showed that 
90 per cent were still employed at the 
same jobs. 

In one case referred to by the speaker, 
a female applicant of 57 years who had 
been a competent stenographer up to the 
time of her marriage 30 years previously 
and who was accustomed to driving a car 
was encouraged by her counsellor to seek 
a position as a secretary-companion- 
chauffeur to a woman interested in travel. 
Within two days she had obtained such a 
position. 

Another applicant noted by Dr. Scott 
was 67 years of age and was handicapped 
by deafness. During his counselling he 
revealed that he had at one time in his 
employment career been a skilled wood 
worker in the period when wooden railway 
coaches were constructed. Through NES, 
the applicant was able to obtain employ- 
ment with a company building wooden 
partitions and proved to be most satis- 
factory to his employer. 

Dr. Scott referred to still another case 
history in which the applicant, who was 
69, had had 35 years experience with a 
national firm at a high salary. Upon being 
advised that his record fitted him for 
a position in which he could serve "as 
a resurrector of failing businesses", he 
obtained just such employment with a firm 
requiring assistance. Within three months 
of his appointment, the applicant had 
become vice-president of the firm in ques- 
tion, Dr. Scott noted. The speaker 
referred to several case histories of 
workers ranging in age from 48 to 80, all of 
whom were satisfactorily placed following 
counselling. 

In 1952, the NES counselling services 
were extended to the West Coast, having 
originally been commenced in Toronto, 
December 1, 1947. The service was 
extended to Ottawa, Hamilton, London and 
Windsor in July 1949. 



1137 



Causes of Industrial Peace — 70 



Study Finds Scanlon Plan Helps 

Maintain Harmonious Relationship 



National Planning Association's tenth case study into the causes of 
industrial peace under collective bargaining describes stable union- 
management relationship in "highly volatile" machine tool industry 



How management and the union, during 
eight years marked by periods of sharp 
contraction and rapid expansion in the 
industry, have progressed from an unsatis- 
factory start, followed by a long and costly 
strike, to a high quality of industrial peace 
which shows promise of continuing to 
benefit the company, the workers, and the 
public is unfolded in a case study of The 
Lapointe Machine Tool Company, of 
Hudson, Mass. The study is the tenth* 
in the series "Causes of Industrial Peace 
under Collective Bargaining" prepared for 
the National Planning Association, 
Washington. 

The Company 

The Lapointe Machine Tool Company 
produces a wide variety of broaches and 
broaching machines — precision machine 
tools for cutting interior metal surfaces. 
It does a complete job from the necessary 
machine design and engineering work to 
installing and testing the instruments. 

To provide this complete service, which 
according to the report is unique in the 
industry, the company employs people for 
a variety of technical jobs as well as for 
factory work. Slightly more than 1,000 
persons are on the payroll, 80 per cent of 
whom are factory workers. 

While it is not necessary for everyone 
to be highly skilled in his occupation, 
virtually every worker must be able to 
read blueprints, use craftsmen's tools such 
as micrometers, set up and operate his 
machine, and have the capacity to take 
responsibility and show individual judg- 
ment in his work. As a result, the work 
tends to attract and develop an inquisitive 



*Case studies Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 
published in the June 1949, issue of the 
Labour Gazette. Studies 6, 7 and 8 
appeared in the March, April and Decem- 
ber 1950, issues respectively, and No. 9 in 
the January 1952, issue. 



and self-reliant type of worker and the 
company has the reputation of being a 
good place to learn the trade. 

The Union 

Local 3536 of the United Steelworkers of 
America (CIO) won exclusive bargaining 
rights by a close vote after a vigorous but 
not bitter campaign. The union's govern- 
mental processes, it is stated, are democratic 
in nature. There is ample opportunity for 
the expression of majority will and deep 
respect for the rights and opinions of the 
critical individual. Members vote heavily 
on important issues and in elections for 
union office and many of them take a 
willing and active part in administering the 
union's day-to-day business. 

Environment 

Unlike several situations reported in 
previous case studies, the environment for 
peace in this company and its industry is 
not favourable, the special NPA Committee 
says in a statement on the case. Boom 
times or emergencies create sudden 
demands for a tremendous expansion of 
machine-tool capacity and for a great in- 
crease in skilled employees, followed 
usually by a sharp drop, even when high 
employment is continuing elsewhere. 

The situation is made more difficult by 
the company's location in an area in which 
there is not a large reservoir of skilled 
machine-tool workers and there are few 
other machine-tool companies which could 
use the skills of laid-off workers. 

Despite these unfavourable factors there 
is a high quality of industrial peace at 
Lapointe. The causes of this peace, states 
the committee, appear to be internal ones: 
"the attitudes and approach which have 
been developed as the parties to bargaining 
have faced problems and worked out solu- 
tions together." 



1138 



Development of Relationship 

Well-defined periods mark the evolution 
of the present relationship, beginning with 
the organization at the end of 1944 of the 
local union, followed by the industry-wide 
steel strike in 1946. This led to agree- 
ment by union and management to a 
co-operative approach to production 
problems, resulting in the adoption of the 
"Scanlon Plan", and finally the testing of 
the plan. 

A period of probing and unrest followed 
the certification of Local 3536 as sole 
bargaining agent. There were many formal 
grievances, two going to arbitration and 
one erupting into a "quickie" strike. Con- 
sidering the newness of the union-manage- 
ment relationship, however, relations were 
not unusually bad. 

Matters were brought to a head with 
the general steel dispute in 1946. Workers 
at Lapointe went out on strike and 
remained on strike for 11 weeks — long after 
''Big Steel" had arrived at a settlement. 
The strike was an important factor in the 
development of future labour relations. 
Both parties learned at first hand the cost 
of a strike, and they have not forgotten it. 
Each was made aware of the other party's 
strength and a balance of power was estab- 
lished, which still exists. The strike drove 
home the fact that there were mutually 
unsatisfactory conditions which could not 
be corrected by domination or force. Both 
realized that it was necessary to have a 
different method of solving problems. 

Relationship under Scanlon Plan 

Change in union-management relation- 
ship came about in 1947 when both parties 
agreed to co-operate in working out pro- 
duction problems and to allocate gains 
created by the group effort on a share- 
and-share-alike basis. Assisted by Joseph 
N. Scanlon, a former union official now on 
the staff of the Industrial Relations Sec- 
tion of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, a program of joint approach, 
known as the "Scanlon Plan", was embarked 
upon. 

Crises tested and re-tested the relation- 
ship. At first all went well; then in 1948 
one problem after another arose. The 
piecework system, which had caused a 
great many grievances — it did not provide 
the production wanted by management but 
did provide a basis for differential treat- 
ment — had been dropped and a bonus 
system put into effect. Productivity in- 
creased. Then business fell off. Manage- 
ment re-doubled its efforts to build up 



sales and the union agreed that it was 
better to maintain a trained work force 
with no bonuses than for some workers 
to have bonuses while others were laid off. 

Experience proved that production could 
be increased significantly under this plan 
but management was not entirely satisfied 
with the financial results. Bonuses were 
paid in good months but in bad ones 
management absorbed the full deficit. 
After full discussion by both parties the 
union agreed, despite a recently-signed 
contract, that a reserve should be set aside 
in good months to take care of the bad 
ones. If money remained in the reserve 
at the end of the year it would be paid 
out as a bonus at that time. 

Both parties displayed an attitude of 
fairness and good faith. Production and 
earnings increased. Success in solving 
tough problems brought new confidence. 

The committee states that by the end of 
1948, "the new relationship — based on a 
balance of power, a common purpose of 
high output with fair sharing of the dollar 
results and a sense of fairness — was firmly 
established." 

Benefits Gained 

Since the first year of collective bargain- 
ing under the Scanlon Plan, employees at 
Lapointe have continued to gain benefits. 
Their regular base rates are higher than 
in any other firm in the Hudson labour 
market and have almost doubled since the 
union won bargaining rights in 1944. Their 
present average hourly earnings, including 
productivity bonuses, are higher than those 
paid by most New England firms and 
compare favourably with firms throughout 
the machine tool industry. 

Suggestions and grievances are listened 
to and acted upon by management and 
by the union. Management gives infor- 
mation freely. Any issue can be brought 
up for discussion and criticism made in 
good faith is accepted as a constructive 
contribution towards improved produc- 
tivity. The importance of the workers' 
efforts and ideas in solving production 
problems and in helping to train new 
workers is recognized throughout the 
organization. 

Management is satisfied with the financial 
results; productivity and profit stability 
have increased. Operations in the plant 
are smoother as a result of the workers' 
understanding of the profit motive and 
their active and informal consideration of 
production problems. The possibility of 
costly strikes has been reduced. 

The public, too, has gained from the 
stable, co-operative relationship through 



1139 



the company's ability to expand production 
quickly. Following the outbreak of the 
Korean war, the company, operating in a 
labour market in which there was no large 
quantity of skilled labour to draw upon, 
expanded production in the period May 
1950, to February 1951, by 100 per cent, 
in contrast to a 50-per-cent increase 
throughout the machine tool industry. A 
remarkable training job with "green" 
workers was made possible, it is stated, 
because management and the union "had 
learned to recognize, communicate, and do 
something about their common problems". 

Stability ot Relationship 

Both the committee and the authors of 
the report agree that the relationship is 
likely to remain stable because it operates 
in the self-interests of all concerned — the 
company, the union and its members. Even 
if a strike should occur, although at present 
the possibility seems remote, the co- 
operative approach of the parties to their 
day-to-day problems has worked out so 
satisfactorily that they would, in all prob- 
ability, return to that approach as soon 
as their collective bargaining differences 
were settled. 

Parallels in Case Studies 

While the relationship that is the subject 
of this study differs from some of those 
studied earlier, in that it has survived bad 
times as well as boom times and also in 
the more formal approach by management 
and union in a co-operative plan for the 
solution of production problems, the com- 
mittee finds certain "significant" parallels 
common to all: — 

1. There is full acceptance by manage- 
ment of the collective bargaining process 



and of unionism as an institution. The 
company considers a strong union an 
asset to management. 

2. The union fully accepts private owner- 
ship and operation of the industry; it 
recognizes that the welfare of its members 
depends upon the successful operation of 
the business. 

3. The union is strong, responsible and 
democratic. 

4. The company stays out of the union's 
internal affairs; it does not seek to alienate 
the workers' allegiance to the union. 

5. Mutual trust and confidence exist 
between the parties. There have been no 
serious ideological incompatabilities. 

6. Neither party to bargaining has 
adopted a legalistic approach to the solu- 
tion of problems. 

7. Negotiations are "problem-centred" — 
more time is spent on day-to-day problems 
than on defining abstract principles. 

8. There is widespread union-manage- 
ment consultation and highly developed 
information-sharing. 

The National Planning Association 
describes itself as "an independent, non- 
political, non-profit organization, where 
leaders of agriculture, business, labour and 
the professions join in programs to main- 
tain and strengthen private initiative and 
enterprise". 

Case study No. 10 was prepared for the 
NPA Committee on the Causes of Indus- 
trial Peace under Collective Bargaining by 
George P. Shultz and Robert P. Crisara of 
the Industrial Relations Section, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 



Precedent-Setting Pact Signed 
by CCCL, Department Store 

A Montreal department store, Dupuis 
Freres, scene of a widely-publicized strike 
last year, has signed a collective agree- 
ment with the National Syndicate of Trade 
Employees (CCCL) which sets several 
precedents. 

The company has agreed to pay family 
allowances for employees' children still 
attending school at 16 years of age, when 
government payment of the allowances 
stops. 



The contract provides for a $25 bonus 
to regular holiday cheques for employees 
with five years' service. 

The company also agreed to a cumulative 
sick leave plan. When an employee 
retires, the company will pay him full time 
for unused sick leave, up to six months. 

The contract also provides for the Rand 
formula for employees with three months' 
service, an adjustment in wage rates for 
employees with less than two years' ser- 
vice, general wage increases, a reduction of 
the work week to 37^ hours for store clerks 
and to 40 hours for mail order clerks, and 
abolition of the quota system for sales eVrks. 

Gerard Picard, General President of the 
CCCL, participated in the negotiations. 



1140 



Causes of Industrial Peace --77 



Mature, Productive Relationship 

Follows Long Period of Unrest 

History of suspicion and friction between management and workers does 
not doom efforts to achieve mutually-profitable industrial peace, the 
National Planning Association reports in study of U.S. textile plant 



A mature and productive collective 
bargaining relationship at a New England 
textile plant, which promises now to 
endure following 48 years of general unrest, 
is analysed in the National Planning Asso- 
ciation's eleventh case study of the causes 
of industrial peace. 

Relations between the American Velvet 
Company of Stonington, Conn., and Local 
110 of the Textile Workers Union of 
America (CIO), the NPA reports, offer 
good evidence that a history of suspicion 
and friction between management and the 
workers does not doom efforts to achieve 
mutually profitable industrial peace. 

Relations had been unsettled and even 
bitter from the plant's opening in 1892 
until the end of a costly 16-month strike 
in 1939. A drastic change in 1940 to 
realistic collective bargaining, built on 
intelligent, conscientious and continuous 
efforts by management and union, has 
resulted in more money and steady growth 
for the company; full employment at good 
wages, plus a share in the profits, for the 
workers; economic, social and political gains 
for the community; and no strikes, work 
stoppages or arbitrations since the change. 

The on-the-spot investigation at the 
American Velvet plant was made by 
George S. Paul, Director, Labour-Manage- 
ment Institute, University of Connecticut, 
at the request of the NPA Committee on 
the Causes of Industrial Peace Under 
Collective Bargaining. 

Successful Profit-Sharing Plan 

A main factor in the American Velvet 
relationship, it is stressed, is the success of 
the profit-sharing plan started at the sug- 
gestion of the company's owner and 
president in 1940. The plan is viewed by 
both parties not as a substitute for good 
wages or other benefits worked out by 
the union and company but as a means 
of equitably sharing the fruits of their 
labour. Wages before profit sharing are 
in line with those of the industry and the 
community — generally higher. 



Although the plan has brought monetary 
returns to the workers, fluctuating from 11 
per cent to 39 per cent of the worker's 
annual pay in the 12 years it has been in 
operation, a more important effect of the 
system, the committee and author of the 
study believe, is the development of the 
philosophy that "everyone will prosper or 
no one will". Workers and their union 
are as interested as management in new 
products and sales and co-operate in 
finding ways to cut costs, increase produc- 
tivity and improve the general welfare of 
the business. 

As to what will happen when there are 
losses to share, the workers say they have 
always shared losses in terms of unem- 
ployment. Both management and labour 
feel that their relationship and their 
profit-sharing plan will survive bad times 
if they come. 

Although profit-sharing has provided the 
incentive for co-operation and for develop- 
ing habits of working together, it could 
not alone have produced industrial peace, 
the committee states. "The basic reason 
for success of the plan and of the whole 
collective bargaining relationship is the 
responsibility and mutual respect which is 
demonstrated in everyday activities by 
management and the union. This demo- 
cratic union has intelligent leadership 
guided by an active and interested mem- 
bership. It has demonstrated to manage- 
ment an ability and willingness to carry 
its share of the load on a wide variety 
of problems. Management, led by its 
president, has convincingly proved to 
workers its sincerity in seeking ways to 
assure that the workers have security, well- 
being and dignity in their jobs and 
community." 

Informality is Keynote 

The size of the organization — the smallest 
so far studied in the series — creates an 
opportunity for close association between 
management officials and union members 
and a free exchange of advice and infor- 



1141 



mation all through the working day, it is 
noted. Informality is the keynote through- 
out the plant — in management organization, 
disciplinary rules and regulations, grievance 
handling and in communications and con- 
sultation. Although the contract contains 
a standard four-step grievance procedure, 
no grievance has been reduced to writing 
or carried to the arbitration stage. 

By reason of this informality it is diffi- 
cult to determine how many grievances are 
settled at the various levels but they have 
been settled promptly. Some by-passing 
of management and union authority in 
both grievance handling and the communi- 
cations process has occurred but the com- 
pany is aware of this situation and is 
seeking to correct it through regular 
foremen's meetings. 

Communications 

A unique "Pops Committee", made up 
of past presidents of Local 110, serves as 
a top advisory group to management and 
the union on such problems as production, 
finance and labour relations. This advisory 
group has been effective and has con- 
tributed to industrial peace; both union 
and company respect and have confidence 
in its recommendations and opinions. 

Rapid expansion and the development 
of new fabrics in the last ten years have 
created problems concerned with work 
loads and piece-work rates. A joint 
"Planning Board", composed of three 
management and three union representa- 
tives, was formed at a meeting of the Pops' 
Committee to study and investigate all 
inequities and to suggest adjustments. 
Like the Pops' Committee, this Board has 
authority only to recommend; normal 
labour-management procedures are followed 
in initiating its recommendations. 

Future Outlook 

As regards the outlook for the future, 
it is pointed out that both management 
and union recognize that the relationship 
may face difficult tasks, such as no profits 
to share or a change in ownership or top 



management, but both believe that they 
can "meet such tests by continued applica- 
tion of the attitudes and methods that 
have built the present relationship". 

Parallels with Previous Studies 

The committee's appraisal of the under- 
lying causes of industrial peace at the 
American Velvet Company show significant 
parallels to important factors found in the 
previous ten studies — studies of companies 
of various sizes in different parts of the 
United States, in the pulp and paper, glass, 
chemical, clothing, aircraft, steel and 
machine-tool industries. Among the causes 
of peace common to all are: — 

1. Full acceptance by management of 
the collective bargaining process and of 
unionism as an institution. The company 
considers a strong union is an asset to 
management. 

2. Full acceptance by the union of 
private ownership and operation of the 
industry; recognition that the welfare of 
the members depends upon the successful 
operation of the business. 

3. A strong, responsible and democratic 
union. 

4. The company stays out of the union's 
internal affairs; it does not seek to 
alienate the workers' allegiance to their 
union. 

5. Mutual trust and confidence exist 
between the parties; there have been no 
serious ideological incompatabilities. 

6. Neither party to bargaining has 
adopted a legalistic approach to the solu- 
tion of problems in the relationship. 

7. Negotiations are "problem-centred" — 
more time is spent on day-to-day problems 
than on defining abstract principles. 

8. There is widespread union-manage- 
ment consultation and highly developed 
information-sharing. 

It is the committee's intention to 
evaluate the extent to which these factors 
may be transferable to other industries and 
areas in a summary report to be issued 
after the series of "on-the-spot" studies is 
completed. 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, 1952 

With Information for Certain Other Countries 

Price: 15 cents 

Contains a detailed list of strikes and lockouts occurring in Canada 
during 195 2, together with tables showing time loss, workers involved, 
causes and results; and also information for certain other countries 



1142 



Two States Enact Laws to Curb 

Racketeering on N.Y. Waterfront 

New York and New Jersey move to correct notorious dockside situation 
at Port of New York. AFL also taking steps to clean up conditions 



Twin bills designed to eliminate racket- 
eering on the New York City waterfront 
were signed on July 1 by Governors 
Thomas E. Dewey of New York and Alfred 
E. Driscoll of New Jersey. The new legis- 
lation provides for a two-state commission 
and must be passed by the United States 
Congress before receiving final approval. 

The New York District Council of the 
International Longshoremen's Association 
has voted to assess each union member 
in the port of New York $5 for a fund 
to contest the laws. The assessment is 
being referred to each of the 65 ILA locals 
in New York and New Jersey that come 
under the Council's jurisdiction. 

Patrick J. Connolly, ILA Executive Vice- 
president, said there were about 30,000 
organized longshoremen in the port so that 
the maximum sum that could be collected 
would be about $150,000. 

The main features of the bills are: regis- 
tration of longshoremen; the licensing of 
pier superintendents, hiring agents, port 
watchmen and stevedores; the abolition of 
"public loading" and the substitution of 
"employment information centres" for the 
"shape-up" system of hiring dock labour. 

The new requirements are the result of 
a year-long investigation of the waterfront 
areas by the New York State Crime 
Commission. According to the legislation, 
the abolition of "public loading" would 
remove the paying of middlemen for work 
on the docks. Public loaders are groups 
of longshoremen who transfer freight from 
piers to trucks rather than between ships 
and piers, the usual work of the trade. 

Under the "shape-up" system of hiring 
dock labour, longshoremen assemble daily 
before a hiring boss, who indicates the 
men who will work for the day. Governor 
Dewey has denounced the practice as 
"inhuman and degrading". This situation 
would be remedied by the establishment of 
"employment information centres". All 
longshoremen would be required to register 
and would be hired only through licensed 
hiring agents. 

If congressional approval is granted, the 
two bills will become effective December 1 
this year. Two provisions of the legis- 
lation are to become operative September 1. 



These particular sections forbid loitering on 
the waterfront and prohibit any waterfront 
local from collecting dues and other fees 
so long as it employs a convicted felon 
who has not been pardoned or given a 
good conduct certificate. 

The cost of the two-state commission is 
to be defrayed by an assessment of water- 
front employers based on the size of their 
payrolls. The maximum assessment was 
set at two per cent and, pending such 
levies, the commission will function on 
funds provided by the two states. 

During its investigations, the New York 
commission has made 71 indictments to 
date. At present, Joseph P. Ryan, Presi- 
dent of the ILA, is under an indictment 
charging larceny of union funds. 

Union Action 

Prior to the passage of the New York- 
New Jersey legislation, union action had 
been taken to curb racketeering on the 
waterfront. In the first of a series of such 
moves, contract negotiations between the 
ILA and the New York Shipping Associa- 
tion were scheduled for June, two months 
in advance of the regular date. The New 
York district council of the ILA voted to 
begin the negotiations earlier than usual 
with a view to winning agreement on the 
abolition of the "shape-up". 

The American Federation of Labor had 
insisted that steps towards the abolition 
of the "shape-up" be taken and that this 
method of hiring workers be eliminated by 
August 10. In addition, the district council 
instructed its affiliates to take immediate 
action towards the adoption of a code of 
"democratic union practices" which would 
meet with the approval of the parent body. 

The new code affecting union practices 
will deal with such matters as rules 
governing membership meetings, the holding 
of elections and the submission of financial 
reports. Previously, union members, voting 
in a district council referendum, had voted 
by 7,020 to 3,920 to keep the present 
method of hiring in effect. The AFL 
executive council had threatened to recom- 
mend the union's expulsion at the annual 
convention next month in St. Louis, if 



1143 



substantial progress towards reform had 
not been initiated by the August 10 
deadline. 

Among the major requirements laid down 
by the AFL executive council were the 
abolition of the "shape-up" and of the 
receipt by officials of the ILA and its 
locals of money payments from employers, 
the introduction of "democratic adminis- 
tration" in longshoremen's unions and the 
expulsion of union officials with criminal 
records. 

George Meany, President of the AFL, 
stated, with regard to union officials who 
have criminal records, "it is our belief that 
any individual who has been convicted of 
a serious crime or crimes which would 
operate to his public discredit or to bring 
the trade union movement into disrepute 
or which would otherwise operate to render 
him unfit to fulfil his responsibilities as a 
union official and employee representative, 
should not be permitted to serve." 

Mr. Meany added that "there are other 
officers and representatives of subordinate 
bodies of the ILA who, even though they 
do not possess a criminal record in its 
technical sense, nevertheless, by reason of 
their close association and dealings with 
known gangsters and racketeers, bring the 
entire labour movement into disrepute." 

As far as receipt by union officials of 
gifts is concerned, the AFL President 
stated that "it is our belief that acceptance 
by union representatives of money pay- 
ments from employers, although not 
amounting to briber, may, depending upon 
the particular circumstances, lend itself to 
many evils and abuses, and often serves to 
discredit or otherwise disqualify a union 
representative from faithfully serving the 
best interests of his membership." 

Previously, the ILA had refused to 
comply with the AFL ban on former con- 
victs, arguing that it would only do so 
when the AFL itself placed such a restric- 
tion upon all its affiliates. The executive 
council's action was based upon the fact 
that it was not proper for a union that 
"had brought public disgrace upon itself 
and on organized labour" to dictate rules 
to the rest of the labour movement. 

The AFL council does not have the con- 
stitutional power to suspend or expel the 
longshoremen's union without the concur- 
rence of the annual convention of the 
Federation. 

The present contract between the water- 
front unions and the New York Shipping 
Association expires September 30. By 
beginning negotiations before this date, the 
wage committee gave itself three months 
in which to work out a new committee 



system. The shipping association, repre- 
senting 170 dock concerns, had announced 
its opposition to the "shape-up" and its 
support of an off-the-street hiring scheme. 

Prior to the AFL ultimatum issued to 
the ILA, New York's maritime unions that 
are affiliated to the AFL formed a new 
organization through which to carry out 
waterfront reforms. The new association, 
called the New York Harbour Port Council, 
includes representatives from the Seafarers' 
International Union, the International 
Longshoremen's Association, the Radio 
Officers' Union, the Sailors Union of the 
Pacific, the Brotherhood of Marine Engi- 
neers, the Masters, Mates and Pilots of 
America, the Staff Officers Association and 
the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. 

Among the problems selected for reform 
by the new group were the following: 
union democracy, crime, pilferage, the 
"shape-up", the activities of "loan sharks",, 
"public loaders", work stoppages, the 
rehabilitation of former convicts and the 
licensing of waterfront workers. 

Federal Steps 

Prior to the recent steps taken by the 
AFL and the state governments concerned,. 
it had been announced that federal legis- 
lation would be enacted to clean up the 
dock unions unless the labour body acted 
itself. Senator Charles W. Toby remarked 
during a hearing by a senate subcommittee 
investigating waterfront conditions that the 
Government might intervene with remedial 
legislation. 

Apart from possible legislative action 
being taken by the federal Government, the 
National Labour Relations Board had 
already authorized its regional director in 
the New York and New Jersey area to 
turn over to the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation and the United States Attorney's 
office any information which would be of 
help in prosecuting either employees or 
employers guilty of crimes. 

British Hiring Methods 

It has been pointed out in New York by 
Viscount Waverley. Chairman of the Port 
of London Authority, that the substitution 
of a central labour registration system for 
a "shape-up" form of hiring has assured 
reasonably stead}' employment and a 
regular income for 23,000 longshoremen in 
the London area. Viscount Waverley added 
that all of London's 23.000 dock workers 
are registered with the National Dock 
Labour Board and that at least 16,000 of 
these are employed daily. Those for whom 

(Continued on page 1195) 



1144 



International 
Labour Organization 



Two Recommendations Approved 

at ILO's 36th General Conference 

One fixes minimum age for employment underground in coal mines at 16 
years; the other proposes a series of measures to protect the health 
of workers in their places of employment. No conventions approved 

observing their obligations in regard to the 
Conventions and Recommendations adopted 
at previous sessions. 

During the debate on the Director- 
General's report, the conference was 
addressed by a large number of Ministers, 
including the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Canada's Minister of Labour (L.G., July, 
p. 1014). 

The Recommendation establishing 16 
years as the minimum age in underground 
coal mining was approved by 183 votes to 
none, with one delegate abstaining. It 
calls upon member countries to put the 
minimum age into effect "as rapidly as 
national conditions allow" and proposes that 
young persons 16 and 17 years old should 
be employed in underground mining only 
in certain prescribed conditions. 

The Recommendation setting forth 
measures to safeguard health in workplaces 
was approved by 194 votes to none, with 
no abstentions. In approving the Recom- 
mendation, the conference rejected a 
workers' proposal that it adopt a conven- 
tion on the subject as well. 

The Recommendation has five sections. 
One sets forth a series of technical 
measures to be taken by the competent 
authorities or by employers to reduce 
health risks. Another declares that national 
laws or regulations should contain special 
provisions concerning medical examinations 
for workers in occupations with special 
risks to health. A third urges that national 
laws or regulations should require the 
notification of cases and suspected cases of 
occupational disease. The fourth calls for 
the provision in workplaces of first aid and 
emergency treatment in case of accident or 
occupational disease, poisoning or indis- 
position. 

The amendment to the constitution was 
adopted by 189 votes to none, with two 
abstentions. When the amendment is rati- 
fied by the required number of countries, 



Two Recommendations — the 96th and 
97th in the history of the International 
Labour Organization — were approved at 
the 36th general conference of the ILO, 
which ended June 25. One fixed 16 years 
as the minimum age for employment 
underground in coal mines and the other 
proposed a series of measures to protect 
the health of workers in their places of 
employment. 

No Conventions were approved at the 
session. 

(ILO members are required to consider 
Recommendations with a view to giving 
them effect by legislation or other appro- 
priate action. In contrast to Conventions, 
they are not subject to ratification.) 

The conference was attended by 212 
titular delegates — 109 representing govern- 
ments, 51 employers and 52 workers — and 
by 368 technical advisers. Observers 
brought the total participating in the 
session to 624. 

In addition to the two Recommendations, 
the conference also approved a series of 
conclusions designed to provide the basis 
for a proposed Recommendation on holi- 
days with pay that will be considered at 
the 1954 meeting. 

During its three weeks of deliberations, 
the conference also: — 

1. Debated the World Labour Report 
presented by ILO Director-General David 
A. Morse (L.G., June, p. 869) and heard 
an address by Mr. Morse in reply. 

2. Adopted a budget of $6,311,170 to 
finance ILO operations in 1954. 

3. Approved an amendment to the ILO 
constitution increasing the size of the 
Governing Body from 32 to 40 members. 

4. Approved a series of "observations 
and conclusions" regarding the organization 
and working of national labour depart- 
ments. 

5. Examined, and adopted a report on, 
the manner in which member countries are 



1145 



the size of the Governing Body will be 
increased from 16 government members, 
eight employers and eight workers to 20 
government members, ten employers and 
ten workers. Of the 20 government seats, 
10 will be allotted to the countries of 
chief industrial importance. 



In his reply to the debate on his report, 
Director-General Morse spoke of the 
problems that may arise after the Korean 
hostilities end. "If there is a possibility 
that we may be entering upon a new 
period in the relations between states," he 
said, "we must be prepared to consider 




Five Canadians photographed during an intermission at the 36th general conference 
of the International Labour Organization at Geneva. They are (left to right) : 
Hon. Charles Daley, Ontario's Minister of Labour; Carl E. Berg, Vice-President, 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada; Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour; 
Claude Jodoin, Vice-President, TLC; and Paul Goulet, Director, ILO Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour, who was one of the two government delegates to the conference. 

Facing page — The Canadian delegation to the conference. Front row (left to right) : 
Allan C. Ross, Canadian Construction Association, employer adviser; Paul Goulet, 
head of the delegation; H. R. Pettigrove, Department of Labour, government adviser; 
Louis Fine, Chief Conciliation Officer, Ontario Department of Labour; Hon. Charles 
Daley, Ontario's Minister of Labour; Claude Jodoin, workers' delegate; Hon. Milton 
F. Gregg, Minister of Labour; Clyde E. Shumaker, Canadian Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, employers' delegate; George V. Haythorne, Director, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour, government delegate; and Lucien Dorion, Vice- 
President, Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour, worker adviser. Back 
row (left to right) : Howard T. Pammet, Department of Labour, secretary of the 
delegation; Carl E. Berg, worker adviser; James Morrison, United Mine Workers of 
America, substitute workers' delegate; Bruce Williams, government adviser; A. H. 
Balch, Dominion Joint Legislative Committee, Railway Transportation Brotherhoods, 
worker adviser; Dr. Ernest E. Watkinson, Department of National Health and 
Welfare, government adviser; R. V. Robinson, CMA, employer adviser; H. M. Sparks, 
Canadian Chamber of Commerce, employer adviser; and James A. Brass, General 
Secretary, Railway Association of Canada, employer adviser. 

Photos by Ami, Geneva 



1146 




76944—4 



1147 



how the ILO can make its full contribu- 
tion to the establishment of permanent 
peace." 

Mr. Morse then suggested the contribu- 
tions the ILO can make. 

Given the earnest desire to understand the 
other man's point of view, and given good 
will towards all people under whatever 
social system they may live, I am convinced 
that international social problems arising 
from the existence of societies differently 
based can be solved in conditions of peace 
provided there is an open international 
forum in which differences can be recon- 
ciled and conflicting interests conciliated. 
The ILO can make a contribution to the 
maintenance of peace by offering such an 
international forum. This conference is that 
forum. 

I suggest we should, while not encouraging 
in ourselves any illusions as to the real 
obstacles to peace which remain to be over- 
come, nevertheless begin to think in terms 
of the real problems of social policy which 
a slackening of the present world tension 
would bring us up against. 

The major problems, he declared, were 
the threat of unemployment and the need 
to go on raising world productivity. 

On the threat of unemployment he said: 
"We must avoid at all cost that people 
should have reason to associate in their 
own minds, even for a temporary period, 
the coming of peace with economic disloca- 
tion and unemployment." 

On the need to raise world productivity 
he said: "The solution to problems in the 
drive to raise productivity must be sought 
largely on the industrial front. Good 
industrial relations are a guarantee of 
constructive co-operation both in increasing 
productivity and in securing an equitable 
distribution of its proceeds. Good indus- 
trial relations, as many speakers have 
pointed out, are not something which can 
be created by administrative decision or 
legal action. They may be assisted by 
governmental activity but their success 
depends upon the attitudes of the 
employers' and workers' organizations." 



Mr. Morse made two statements on the 
purpose and function of the ILO. "It is 
not the purpose of the Organization," he 
said, "to preach monolithic uniformity, to 
dictate ideal solutions, or to impose a 
blue-print of social structure uniformly 
upon all countries. Its purpose is to help 
the governments and people in all countries 
work out solutions to their social problems." 

(Earlier in the conference the United 
States employers' delegate, Charles E. Shaw, 
had expressed criticism of some phases of 
ILO operations. "The employers in my 
country view with great alarm," he said, 
"the adoption of an increasing number of 
conventions which, in effect, would regulate 
the internal affairs of citizens in member 
countries. It is our opinion that inter- 
national treaties should be confined to the 
regulation of questions which involve inter- 
national relations. The adoption of con- 
ventions with enforcement procedures 
which would regulate internal affairs of 
member nations is to set up a 'super-state'. 
If the long-range intent of the ILO is not 
to set up a 'super-state', then it should 
establish that fact by adopting recommen- 
dations and not conventions dealing with 
subjects that are primarily internal in 
nature. The United States employers 
recommended, at the last two conferences, 
that less emphasis be placed on conventions 
and more on the interchange of practical 
information and experience.") 

On the function of the ILO Mr. Morse 
said: "We cannot too much emphasize that 
technical assistance is a complementary 
function to the setting of social policy 
standards. The ILO would be abandoning 
its mission if it were to become, as regards 
technical assistance, merely a clearing house 
for travelling experts." 

In conclusion Mr. Morse declared: "It 
seems clearer to me now than ever before 
that if world democracy is to survive, then 
this Organization must be strengthened and 
must survive." 



TEXTS OF RECOMMENDATIONS 

Following are the texts of the two Recommendations approved at the 
36th general conference of the International Labour Organization. 

No. 96— Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Work Underground in Coal Mines 



The General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Thirty-sixth Session on 4 June 1953, 
and 

Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to the 



minimum age of admission to _ work 
underground in coal mines, which is 
the sixth item on the agenda of the 
session, and 
Having determined that these proposals 
• shall take the form of a Recommenda- 
tion, 
adopts this nineteenth day of June of the 
year one thousand nine hundred and fifty- 



1148 



three the following Recommendation, which 
may be cited as the Minimum Age (Coal 
Mines) Recommendation, 1953: — 

The Conference recommends that each 
Member should apply the following provi- 
sions as rapidly as national conditions allow 
and report to the International Labour Office 
as requested by the Governing Body con- 
cerning the measures taken to give effect 
thereto. 

1. Young persons under 16 years of age 
should not be employed underground in coal 
mines. 

2. Young persons who have attained the 
age of 16 years but are under 18 years of 

No. 97— Concerning the Protection of the Health 

The General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Thirty-sixth Session on 4 June 1953, 
and 
Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to the 
protection of the health of workers in 
places of employment, which is the fifth 
item on the agenda of the session, 
and 
Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of a Recommenda- 
tion, 
adopts this twenty-fifth day of June of the 
year one thousand nine hundred and fifty- 
three the following Recommendations, which 
may be cited as the Protection of Workers' 
Health Recommendation, 1953: — 

I. Technical Measures for the Control of 
Risks to the Health of Workers 

1. National laws or regulations should 
provide for methods of preventing, reducing 
of eliminating risks to health in places of 
employment, including methods which may 
be applied, as necessary and appropriate, 
in connection with special risks of injury 
to health. 

2. All appropriate measures should be 
taken by the employer to ensure that the 
general conditions prevailing in places of 
employment are such as to provide adequate 
protection of the health of the workers 
concerned, and in particular that — 

(a) dirt and refuse do not accumulate 
so as to cause risk of injury to 
health; 

(b) the floor space and height of work- 
rooms are sufficient to prevent over- 
crowding of workers, or congestion 
owing to machinery, materials or 
products; 

(c) adequate and suitable lighting, natural 
or artificial, or both, is provided; 

(d) suitable atmospheric conditions are 
maintained so as to avoid insufficient 
air supply and movement, vitiated air, 
harmful draughts, sudden variations in 
temperature, and, so far as is prac- 
ticable, excessive humidity, excessive 
heat or cold, and objectionable odours; 

(e) sufficient and suitable sanitary con- 
veniences and washing facilities, and 
adequate supplies of wholesome drink- 
ing water, are provided in suitable 
places and properly maintained; 

(f) in cases where it is necessary for 
workers to change their clothing when 



age should not be employed underground in 
coal mines except — 

(a) for purposes of apprenticeship or other 
systematic vocational training provided 
under adequate supervision by com- 
petent persons with technical and 
practical experience of the work; or 

(b) under conditions determined by the 
competent authority, after consultation 
with the employers' and workers' 
organizations concerned, relating to 
the places of work and occupations 
permitted and the measures of 
systematic medical and safety super- 
vision to be applied. 

of Workers in Places of Employment 

commencing or ceasing work, changing 
rooms or other suitable facilities for 
the changing and storage of clothing 
are provided and properly main- 
tained; 

(g) in cases where the workers are pro- 
hibited from consuming food or drink 
at their workplaces, there is on the 
premises suitable accommodation for 
taking meals, unless appropriate 
arrangements exist for the workers 
to take their meals elsewhere; 

(h) measures are taken to eliminate or 
reduce as far as possible noise and 
vibrations which constitute a danger 
to the health of workers; 

(i) provision is made for the storage 
under safe conditions of dangerous 
substances. 

3. (1) With a view to preventing, reduc- 
ing or eliminating risks to health in places 
of employment, all appropriate and practi- 
cable measures should be taken — 

(a) to substitute harmless or less harmful 
substances, processes or techniques for 
harmful substances, processes or tech- 
niques; 

(b) to prevent the liberation of harmful 
substances and to shield workers from 
harmful radiations; 

(c) to carry out hazardous processes in 
separate rooms or buildings occupied 
by a minimum number of workers; 

(d) to carry out hazardous processes in 
enclosed apparatus, so as to prevent 
personal contact with harmful sub- 
stances and the escape into the air 
of the workroom of dusts, fumes, gases, 
fibres, mists or vapours, in quantities 
liable to injure health; 

(e) to remove, at or near their point of 
origin, by mechanical exhaust, ventila- 
tion systems or other suitable means, 
harmful dusts, fumes, gases, fibres, 
mists or vapours, where exposure to 
them cannot be prevented in one or 
more of the ways prescribed in clauses 
(a) to (d) of this paragraph; 

(f) to provide the workers with such 
protective clothing and equipment and 
other means of personal protection as 
may be necessary to shield them from 
the effects of harmful agents, where 
other measures to protect the health 
of workers against these agents are 
impracticable or are not sufficient to 
ensure adequate protection and to 
instruct the workers in the use 
thereof. 



76944— 4* 



1149 



(2) Where the use of protective clothing 
and equipment referred to in clause (f) 
above is necessary because of the special 
risks attaching to the occupation, such 
clothing and equipment should be supplied, 
cleaned and maintained by the employer; 
where such protective clothing or equip- 
ment may be contaminated by poisonous or 
dangerous substances it should, at all times 
when not required for use at work or for 
cleaning or maintenance by the employer, 
be kept in entirely separate accommodation, 
where it will not be liable to contaminate 
the ordinary clothing of the worker. 

(3) National authorities should promote, 
and where appropriate undertake, study of 
the measures mentioned in subparagraph (1) 
of this paragraph, and encourage the appli- 
cation of the results of such study. Such 
studies should also be undertaken by 
employers on a voluntary basis. 

4. (1) The workers should be informed — 

(a) of the necessity of the measures of 
protection mentioned in Paragraphs 2 
and 3 above; 

(b) of their obligation to co-operate in 
and not to disturb the proper func- 
tioning of such measures; and 

(c) of their obligation to make proper use 
of the appliances and equipment pro- 
vided for their protection. 

(2) Consultation with workers on measures 
to be taken should be recognized as an 
important means of ensuring their co- 
operation. 

5. (1) The atmosphere of workrooms in 
which dangerous or obnoxious substances are 
manufactured, handled or used should be 
tested periodically at sufficiently frequent 
intervals to ensure that toxic or irritating 
dusts, fumes, gases, fibres, mists or vapours 
are not present in quantities liable to injure 
health. The competent authorities should 
publish from time to time, for the guidance 
of all concerned, the available information 
regarding maximum allowable concentrations 
of harmful substances. 

(2) The authority concerned with the pro- 
tection of the health of workers in places 
of employment should be empowered to 
specify the circumstances in which it is 
necessary to test the atmosphere of such 
workrooms and the manner in which the 
tests are to be carried out. Such tests 
should be conducted or supervised by quali- 
fied personnel and, where appropriate, by 
qualified medical personnel who possess 
experience in occupational health. 

6. The competent authority should draw 
the attention of employers and workers 
concerned, by all appropriate measures, for 
example by warning notices in places of 
employment, to the special risks to which 
the workers are exposed and to the pre- 
cautions to be taken to obviate these risks. 

7. The competent authority should provide 
for consultation at the national level 
between the labour inspectorate or other 
authority concerned with the protection of 
the health of workers in places of employ- 
ment and the employers' and workers' 
organizations concerned, with a view to 
giving effect to the provisions of Paragraphs 
2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. 

II. Medical Examinations 

8. (1) National laws or regulations should 
contain special provisions concerning medical 



examinations in respect of workers employed 
in occupations involving special risks to their 
health. 

(2) The employment of workers in occu- 
pations involving special risks to their health 
should be conditional upon — 

(a) a medical examination, carried out 
shortly before or shortly after the 
worker enters employment; or 

(b) a periodical medical examination; or 

(c) both an initial medical examination 
and a periodical medical examination 
as in clauses (a) and (b) above. 

(3) National laws or regulations should 
determine, or empower an appropriate 
authority to determine, from time to time, 
after consultation with employers' and 
workers' organizations concerned — 

(a) for which risks and in which circum- 
stances medical examinations should 
be carried out; 

(b) for which risks there should be an 
initial medical examination or a 
periodical medical examination, or 
both; 

(c) with due regard to the nature and 
degree of the risk and of the 
particular circumstances, the maximum 
intervals at which periodical medical 
examinations should be carried out. 

9. Medical examinations for the purposes 
of the foregoing paragraph should be carried 
out with a view to — 

(a) detecting as early as possible signs of 
a particular occupational disease, or 
of special susceptibility to that 
disease; 

(b) ascertaining whether, so far as risk 
of a particular occupational disease 
is concerned, there are medical objec- 
tions to the employment or continued 
employment of the worker in a 
particular occupation. 

10. (1) Where there are no medical 
objections to the employment of a worker 
in a particular occupation, so far as risk 
of a particular occupational disease is con- 
cerned, a certificate to this effect should be 
issued in a manner prescribed by the 
competent authority. 

(2) Such certificate should be kept on file 
by the employer and made available to 
officials of the labour inspectorate or other 
authority concerned with the protection of 
the health of workers in places of employ- 
ment. 

(3) Such certificate should be made avail- 
able to the worker concerned. 

11. The medical examinations should be 
carried out by a qualified physician who 
should possess, so far as possible, knowledge 
of occupational health. 

12. Measures to ensure the observance of 
medical secrecy should be adopted in con- 
nection with all medical examinations and 
the registration and filing of related docu- 
ments. 

13. (1) Medical examinations made in 
accordance with this Recommendation should 
not involve the worker concerned in any 
expense. 

{2) No deduction should be made from 
wages in respect of time lost for attendance 
at such examinations in cases in which the 
matter is dealt with by national laws or 
regulations; in cases in which the matter is 



1150 



dealt with by collective agreements, the posi- 
tion should be as determined by the relevant 
agreement. 

III. Notification of Occupational Diseases 
14. (1) National laws or regulations should 
require the notification of cases and sus- 
pected cases of occupational disease. 

(2) Such notification should be required 
with a view to— 

(a) initiating measures of prevention and 
protection and ensuring their effective 
application; 

(b) investigating the working conditions 
and other circumstances which have 
caused occupational diseases; 

(c) compiling statistics of occupational 
diseases; and 

(d) allowing the initiation or development 
of measures designed to ensure that 
victims of occupational diseases receive 
the compensation provided for such 
diseases. 

(3) The notification should be made to 
the labour inspectorate or other authority 
concerned with the protection of the health 
of workers in places of employment. 

(15) National laws or regulations should — 

(a) specify the persons responsible for 
notifying cases and suspected cases of 
occupational disease; and 

(b) prescribe the manner in which cases 
of occupational disease should be 
notified and the particulars to be 
notified and, in particular, specify — 

(i) in which cases immediate noti- 
fication is required and in which 
cases notification at specified 
intervals is sufficient; 
(ii) in respect of cases in which 
immediate notification is 
required, the time limit after the 
detection of a case or suspected 
case of occupational disease 
within which notification is 
required ; 
(iii) in respect of cases in which 
notification at specified intervals 
is _ sufficient, the intervals at 
which notification is required. 

16. Notification should provide the 
authority concerned with the protection of 
the health of workers in places of employ- 



ment with such information as may be 
relevant and necessary for the effective 
performance of its duties, including, in 
particular, the following details: — 

(a) age and sex of the person concerned; 

(b) the occupation and the trade or 
industry in which the person is or was 
last employed; 

(c) the name and address of the place or 
last place of employment of the person 
concerned; 

(d) the nature of the disease or poisoning; 

(e) the harmful agent and process to 
which the disease or poisoning is 
attributed; 

(f) the name and address of the under- 
taking in which the worker presumes 
that he was exposed to the risk to 
which the disease or poisoning is 
attributed; and 
(g) so far as is known or can readily be 
ascertained by the person making the 
notification, the date of the beginning 
and, where appropriate, the cessation 
of exposure to the risk in each of the 
occupations, trades or industries in 
which the worker concerned is or has 
been exposed to the risk. 

17. The competent authority should, after 
consultation with the workers' and employers' 
organizations concerned, draw up a list of 
notifiable occupational diseases or classes of 
cases, together with a symptomatology, and 
make from time to time such additions or 
amendments to the list of symptomatology as 
circumstances may require or as may be 
found to be desirable. 

IV. First Aid 

18. (1) Facilities for first aid and emer- 
gency treatment in case of accident, occupa- 
tional disease, poisoning or indisposition 
should be provided in places of employment. 

(2) National laws or regulations should 
determine the manner in which the above 
paragraph shall be applied. 

V. General Provision 

19. Where the term "national" is used in 
this Recommendation in reference to laws, 
regulations, or authorities, it shall be under- 
stood, in the case of a Federal State, to 
refer, as appropriate, to the Federal, State, 
provincial, cantonal or other competent 
governmental unit. 



122nd Session of ILO Governing Body 

Report that rights of trade unions being violated in Czechoslovakia 
is adopted. Statement of ILO views on full employment is approved 



A report that the rights of trade unions 
were being violated in Czechoslovakia was 
adopted at the 122nd session of the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Organization which opened in 
Geneva May 26 but recessed for the 
sessions of the ILO general conference 
(see above). 

The Governing Body went on record as 
noting that "the trade union organization 



established by the legislation at present in 
force in Czechoslovakia is contrary to the 
principle of freedom of association con- 
tained in the Declaration of Philadelphia" 
now forming part of the ILO's constitution. 

The Governing Body approved this 
statement in adopting a report of its 
Committee on Freedom of Association. 

The report dealt with complaints against 
the Czechoslovak Government submitted 



1151 



to the ILO by the International Confed- 
eration of Free Trade Unions and by the 
worker members of the ILO's Governing 
Body. The complaints alleged that various 
measures taken by the Czechoslovak 
Government constituted a violation of 
trade union rights. 

A request by the Governing Body to 
the Government of Czechoslovakia, made 
March 9, that consent be given for referral 
of the case to the ILO's Fact-Finding and 
Conciliation Commission was not answered. 
However, the Czechoslovak Government 
declared that the commission was incom- 
petent and unqualified to act indepen- 
dently on allegations regarding infringe- 
ments of trade union rights. 

The Committee on Freedom of Asso- 
ciation considered this statement and 
recalled in its report that the fact-finding 
commission had been approved by the 
ILO's general conference in 1950. The 
report said that in these circumstances the 
committee maintained the conclusions set 
forth in its report. 

The committee's conclusions were 
approved by 31 of the Governing Body's 
32 members. One government member 
abstained from voting. 

A statement of ILO views on full 
employment policy was approved by the 
Governing Body. This statement, to be 
presented to the Economic and Social 
Council of the ILO, included the following 
points: — 

That governments and employers make 
a determined effort to improve methods 
of forecasting changes in economic activity 
and employment in order to be better 
prepared to anticipate new situations. 

That governments keep in readiness well- 
formulated and varied plans for sustaining 
high levels of employment and that these 
plans should be designed so that appro- 
priate policies can be brought into action 
quickly if unemployment suddenly becomes 
severe. 

That it is desirable that there be an 
increased flow of capital from economically- 
developed countries to under-developed 
countries. 

That attention be drawn to certain ILO 
Conventions and Recommendations pro- 
posing action designed to overcome fric- 
tional unemployment. 

A proposed Program of Concerted 
Practical Action in the Social Field, 
drawn up by the secretary-general of the 



United Nations in consultation with 
several of the specialized agencies, was 
examined by the Governing Body. 

The members agreed to stress a state- 
ment made in the program that "govern- 
ments are sometimes tempted to put too 
high a proportion of the available resources, 
national and international, into projects of 
economic development, and that invest- 
ment in economic development, unaccom- 
panied by requisite complementary social 
development, will not produce satisfactory 
results and may frequently produce disaster 
for the human beings by whom in the last 
analysis the economic development has to 
be carried out and for whom its benefits 
are intended." 

The Governing Body also gave its 
support to a suggestion made by the 
ad hoc Committee on Forced Labour 
(see p. 1131). 

Dag Hammarskjold, recently-appointed 
Secretary-General of the United Nations, 
addressed the session and told the mem- 
bers of the Governing Body that the ILO 
had made a great contribution to the 
safeguarding of human rights. He said the 
common aim of both the United Nations 
and the ILO was "the welfare of men and 
peace among peoples". 

The Secretar y-G e n e r a 1 noted the 
"eminent part" being played by the ILO 
in the search for practical methods of 
increasing productivity. He expressed the 
hope that the ILO would "continue to give 
efficacious assistance to the modern world 
in finding a solution to the anxious problem 
which is raised by ever-increasing needs 
confronted with insufficient or insufficiently 
used resources." 

Mr. Hammarskjold commended the ILO 
for its participation in the work of tech- 
nical assistance to under-developed regions. 
He recalled that since 1936, the ILO has 
been acting in this respect by means of 
regional conferences and technical meetings, 
supplemented by technical advisory mis- 
sions and, in recent years, field offices for 
manpower and vocational training. 

The Governing Body unanimously elected 
A. M. Malik of Pakistan as its chairman 
for a one-year term, succeeding Fernando 
Gaiicia-Oldini of Chile. Mr. Malik is 
Minister of Labour, Health and Works in 
the Pakistan government, and has been his 
Government's representative on the ILO 
Governing Body since 1951. 



1152 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Functioning as an integral part of the 
training program, the LMPC at Canadian 
Tube and Steel Products Limited in 
Montreal has been actively engaged in 
presenting production ideas and helping to 
improve relations between labour and 
management. Through its activities, the 
LMPC has directly helped to bring about 
many production improvements and has 
also provided a general stimulus for other 
improvements not directly originating in 
committee meetings. 

The main objectives of the committee 
are to reduce costs and to improve produc- 
tion and quality. 

Co-operating with management in this 
LMPC is the bargaining agent, Local 2243 
of the United Steel Workers of America. 
* * * 

"We feel that the committee (LMPC) 
serves a very useful purpose in providing 
an opportunity for a free expression of 
opinion and exchange of ideas between 
employer and employee. We believe that 
we are extremely fortunate in having a 
group which is capable of taking respon- 
sibility with mature judgment to work 
toward an ever improving organization." 
This statement, by F. K. Richan, Manager 
of Industrial Relations at the Canadian 
Radio Manufacturing Corporation in Lea- 
side, Ont., summarizes the feelings of 
management about labour-management 
production committees after three years' 
experience. 

Commenting on the scope and work of 
the LMPC, Mr. Richan has noted:— 

"We deal quite regularly with items 
concerning safety, the cafeteria and snack 
bars, rest periods, transportation difficulties 
and a host of other items which can be a 
source of irritation to many employees 
if problems pertaining thereto are left 
unanswered. 

"There have also been a number of 
suggestions made by employees which have 
been discussed at meetings and have been 
adopted with a reasonable degree of 
success. For instance, our entire employee 
suggestion plan for plant and office 
employees was developed through discus- 
sion on the subject at committee meetings. 
A display of company merchandise and the 



handling of the resultant sales to employees 
is another item which developed out of 
committee discussions. Part of the respon- 
sibility for inaugurating our house magazine 
can be credited to the committee and quite 
often the committee acts as a trial group 
on policies or procedures which the com- 
pany may propose for all employees at 
large." 

The success of this LMPC has been 
achieved because of the continued support 
of the union representing the employees as 
bargaining agent. Locals 1589 and 1590 of 
the International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers represent the employees. D. E. 
Pass and V. H. Jones, Presidents of the 
locals, commenting on their experience with 
labour-management production committees 
said: — 

"Labour-management committees are one 
of the greatest forward strides of the 
century in industrial and human relations. 

"This is more than adequately proved by 
the fact that in an industry which has a 
good operating LMPC there are very few 
serious grievances regarding working condi- 
tions. Grievances are often a cause of 
lowered production and an alert committee 
can foresee and take action to prevent 
them, thus promoting the harmonious rela- 
tions between management and employees 
which are so important to increased 
production. 

"To do this, the employee representative 
must have the full confidence of his con- 
stituents. He must be very careful to see 
that he completely understands the point 
of view being presented by the employee; 
a mistake at this point can, in some 
circumstances, bring dissatisfying results to 
all concerned. 

"Management too must be very under- 
standing, for many excellent employees 
experience extreme difficulty in expressing 
their feelings in certain situations; as a 
result the employees' representative often 
finds it awkward to explain to the meeting 
the exact trouble; yet, unless understood 
and rectified, the trouble will remain. 

"LMPCs are doing these things every 
day and provide an excellent example of 
co-operation." 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



1153 



Industrial Relations 
and Conciliation 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board 
met for two days during June. The Board 
issued five certificates designating bargain- 
ing agents and ordered four representation 
votes. During the month, the Board 
allowed the withdrawal of two applications 
for certification and received four applica- 
tions for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Association of Radio and Television 
Employees of Canada, on behalf of a unit 
of program, administrative and clerical 
employees of the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation (L.G., Feb., p. 239). 

2. National Association of Broadcast 
Engineers and Technicians, on behalf of a 
unit of radio station employees of CKOY 
Limited, Ottawa (L.G., June, p. 872). 

3. International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Local 1318, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Radio Station CJCH 
(Chronicle Co. Ltd.), Halifax (L.G., July, 
p. 1020). 

4. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., Great Lakes and 
Eastern District, on behalf of second 
engineers and third engineers employed by 
Gulf and Lake Navigation Company 
Limited, Montreal, on the SS. Birchton and 
SS. Cedarton (L.G, July, p. 1020). 

5. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., Great Lakes and 
Eastern District, on behalf of a unit of 
marine engineers below the rank of chief 
engineer employed by Lake Erie Naviga- 
tion Co., Limited, Walkerville, Ont., on the 
SS. Alexander Leslie. (The application was 
received earlier in the month.) 

Representation Votes Ordered 

1. International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture 
Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada, and National Association of 
Broadcast Engineers and Technicians, 
applicants, and Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation, respondent (L.G., April, p. 574, 
and May, p. 697). The names of both 
applicant organizations will appear on the 
ballot. 



2. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, applicant, and The 
Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway 
Company, respondent (L.G., May, p. 697). 

3. L T nited Packinghouse Workers of 
America, applicant, and Purity Flour Mills 
Limited, St. Boniface, Man., respondent, 
and Purity Flour Mill Workers' Federal 
L T nion, Local No. 53 (TLC), intervener 
(L.G., June, p. 872). The names of the 
applicant and of the intervener will appear 
on the ballot. 

4. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, appli- 
cant, and Hall Corporation of Canada, 
Montreal, respondent (L.G., July, p. 1020). 
The names of the applicant and of the 
United Mine Workers of America, District 
50, Region 75, Local 13618, will appear on 
the ballot. 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., applicant, and Cana- 
dian Pacific Steamships Limited, respondent 
(L.G., July, p. 1020). 

2. United Mine Workers of America, 
District 50, Region 75, Local 13735, appli- 
cant, and Hall Corporation of Canada, 
Montreal, respondent (L.G., June, p. 872). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., on behalf of a 
unit of marine engineers employed by 
Lake Erie Navigation Co., Limited, 
Walkerville, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough) (See above). 

2. Federal Union Local 493 (TLC), on 
behalf of a unit of painters employed by 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company (B.C. 
Coast Steamship Service) (Investigating 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



1154 



3. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 857, on behalf of a unit 
of maintenance employees of Canadian 
National Railways employed in the 
Macdonald Hotel, Edmonton (Investigat- 
ing Officer: G. R. Currie). 



4. West Coast Seamen's Union (Canada), 
on behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by The Packers Steamship Com- 
pany Limited, Vancouver (Investigating 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with the 
following disputes: — 

(1) The Quebec Central Transportation 
Company, Sherbrooke, Que., and the Cana- 
dian Brotherhood of Railway Employees 
and Other Transport Workers (Concilia- 
tion Officer: R. Trepanier). 



■-(2) Colonial Steamships Limited, Port 
Colbourne, Ont., and Canadian Merchant 
Service Guild, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough). 

(3) McCabe Grain Company Limited 
(Seed Plant), St. Boniface, Man., and 
Malt and Grain Process Workers, Inter- 
national Union of United Brewery, Flour, 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions— for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



76944—5 



1155 



Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery Workers 
of America (Conciliation Officer: R. H. 
Hooper). 

(4) Nova Scotian Hotel, Halifax, N.S., 
Canadian National Railways, and Local 
662, Hotel and Restaurant Employees' and 
Bartenders' International Union (Concilia- 
tion Officer: H. R. Pettigrove). 

(5) Canadian Overseas Telecommunica- 
tions Corporation (Clerical Employees) 
and Overseas Communication Union, Local 
272 (Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier). 

(6) Purity Flour Mills Limited, Calgary, 
Alta., and Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 
Express and Station Employees (Concilia- 
tion Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

(1) Railway Express Agency, Inc., and 
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees (Conciliation Officer: 
R. Trepanier) (L.G., July, p. 1020). 

(2) Canadian Overseas Telecommunica- 
tions Corporation (Clerical Employees) 
and Overseas Communication Union, Local 
272 (Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier) 
(See above). 

(3) Purity Flour Mills Limited, Calgary, 
Alta., and Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 
Express and Station Employees (Concilia- 
tion Officer: D. S. Tysoe) (See above). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

(1) Quebec Railway, Light and Power 
Company and National Catholic Transport 



Brotherhood of Quebec, Inc. (L.G., July, 
p. 1021). The Board had not been fully 
constituted at the end of the month. 

(2) Quebec Railway, Light and Power 
Company and Catholic Syndicate of 
Garage Employees of the Quebec Railway, 
Light and Power Company, Inc. (L.G., 
July, p. 1021). The Board had not been 
fully constituted at the end of the month. 

Conciliation Board Reports Received 

(1) Canadian National Newfoundland 
Steamship Service, Canadian National 
Railways (unlicensed personnel) and Cana- 
dian Brotherhood of Railway Employees 
and Other Transport Workers, Division 285 
(L.G., May, p. 699). Text of the Board's 
report is reproduced below. 

(2) Canadian National Newfoundland 
Steamship Service, Canadian National 
Railways (pursers and chief stewards) 
and Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
Division 286 (L.G., May, p. 699). The 
text of the Board's report is reproduced 
below. 

(3) Canadian National Newfoundland 
Steamship Service, Canadian National 
Railways and Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild, Inc. (L.G., July, p. 1022). The text 
of the Board's report is reproduced below. 

Settlement following Board Procedure 

(1) Canadian Overseas Telecommunica- 
tions Corporation (operators), Montreal, 
and Overseas Communication Union, 
Local 272 (L.G., Jan, p. 54). 



Report of Boards in Dispute between 

Canadian National Newfoundland Steamship Service, 

Canadian National Railways 

and 

Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other 

Transport Workers, Divisions 285 and 286 



DIVISION 285 

To the Minister of Labour: 

The undersigned were appointed by you 
as members of a Board of Conciliation to 
investigate and endeavour to conciliate the 
matters at issue between the parties; and, 
under letter dated May 19, 1953, you 
extended to June 30, 1953 the time for 
filing the Report of the Board as pro- 
vided by the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act. 



The Board held several hearings with 
the representatives of the parties at which 
evidence under oath was taken and written 
briefs and oral arguments were submitted 
by both sides on the issues remaining in 
dispute between the parties. 

The Board now begs to submit the 
following unanimous recommendations: — 

1. Basic Wages. The Board recommends 
for all personnel affected a wage increase 
of five per cent (5%) on the wage scale 



1156 



applicable under the Collective Agreement 
between the parties which expired on 
December 31, 1952. 

2. Overtime Rates and Minimum Over- 
time Payments. The Board does not 
recommend any change in the existing 
provisions of the agreement except that 
a 5 per cent increase be allowed on existing 
overtime rates. 

3. Sick Benefits. The Board does not 
recommend any change in the existing 
provision with respect to Sick Benefit pay- 
ments to employees. 

4. Retroactivity. The Board recommends 
that the above-mentioned increase of wages 
be paid retroactively as from January 1, 
1953. 

The members of the Board were not 
satisfied that the Union had established 
its case for an increase in wages as such. 
However, all members of the Board were 
in agreement that the Unlicensed Personnel 
were entitled to some consideration by 
reason of the hours worked and the number 
of days on which, due to the nature of the 
service, they are continuously attached to 
the ship. As it is not feasible — because of 
difficulties in application arising out of the 
special requirements of the steamship 
operations — to recommend additional days 
of leave, the Board has awarded a wage 
increase in lieu of a shorter working week 
and additional time away from service on 
the ship. 

The Board realizes that one or the other 
of the parties or possibly both may not 
find the recommendations of the Board 
satisfactory. Nevertheless, it expresses the 
hope that both may be prepared to accept 



On June 29, 1953, the Minister of 
Labour received unanimous reports of 
the Boards of Conciliation and 
Investigation appointed to deal with 
matters in dispute between Divisions 
285 and 286, Canadian Brotherhood 
of Railway Employees and Other 
Transport Workers, and Canadian 
National Newfoundland Steamship 
Service, Canadian National Railways, 
affecting unlicensed personnel, pursers 
and chief stewards. 

The Boards were under the Chair- 
manship of Edmund J. Phelan, QC, 
St. John's, Newfoundland, who was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other members 
of the Boards. The nominee of the 
company on both Boards was Frank J. 
Ryan and the union nominee on both 
Boards was James Higgins, QC; both 
are of St. John's, Newfoundland. 

The texts of the Boards' reports are 
reproduced herewith. 



this award as an honest attempt by the 
members of the Board to adjudge and 
adjust fairly matters on which the parties 
themselves hold such divergent views. 
Dated the 27th day of June, A.D. 1953. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Sgd.) E. J. Phelan, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) James Higgins, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Frank Ryan, 
Member. 



DIVISION 286 

To the Minister of Labour: 

The undersigned were appointed by you 
as members of a Board of Conciliation to 
investigate and endeavour to conciliate the 
matters at issue between the parties; and, 
under letter dated May 19, 1953, you 
extended to June 30, 1953 the time for 
filing the report of the Board as pro- 
vided by the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act. 

The Board held several hearings with the 
representatives of the parties at which 
evidence under oath was taken and written 
briefs and oral arguments were submitted 
by both sides on the issues remaining in 
dispute between the parties. 

The Board now begs to submit the 
following unanimous recommendations: — 

1. Basic Wages. The Board recommends 
for all personnel affected a wage increase 



of five per cent (5%) on the wage scale 
applicable under the Collective Agreement 
between the parties which expired on 
December 31, 1952. 

2. Standby Wages. The Board recom- 
mends that, while the vessel is laid up for 
overhaul at any time, all Pursers and Chief 
Stewards be employed in their usual 
capacities and at the usual rates of pay 
for their respective ranks on the vessel to 
which they are attached or in some similar 
employment with the Company. This 
provision is to apply to the actual period 
only during which the ship is undergoing 
customary overhaul and is not to be 
applicable to any period during which the 
vessel is out of service for any reason other 
than customary overhaul. 

3. Sick Benefits. The Board does not 
recommend any change in the existing 
provision with respect to Sick Benefit pay- 
ments to employees. 



76944— 5h 



1157 



4. Retroactivity . The Board recommends 
that the above-mentioned increase of wages 
be paid retroactively as from January 1, 
1953. The provision for Standby Wages 
should become effective as from the date 
of this report. 

The members of the Board were not 
satisfied that the Union had established its 
case for an increase in wages as such. 
However, all members of the Board were 
in agreement that the Pursers and Chief 
Stewards were entitled to some considera- 
tion by reason of the hours worked and 
the number of days on which, due to the 
nature of the service, they are contin- 
uously attached to the ship. As it is not 
feasible — because of difficulties in applica- 
tion arising out of the special requirements 
of the steamship operations — to recommend 
additional days of leave, the Board has 



awarded a wage increase in lieu of a shorter 
working week and additional time away 
from service on the ship. 

The Board realizes that one or the other 
of the parties or possibly both may not 
find the recommendations of the Board 
satisfactory. Nevertheless, it expresses the 
hope that both may be prepared to accept 
this award as an honest attempt by the 
members of the Board to adjudge and 
adjust fairly matters on which the parties 
themselves hold such divergent views. 
Dated the 27th day of June, A.D. 1953. 
(Respectfully submitted, 

(Sgd.) E. J. Phelan, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) James Higgins, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Frank Ryan, 
Member. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Canadian National Newfoundland Steamship Service, 

Canadian National Railways 

and 

Canadian Merchant Service Guild Inc. 



To the Minister of Labour: 

The undersigned were appointed by you 
as members of a Board of Conciliation to 
investigate and endeavour to conciliate the 
matters at issue between the parties; and, 
under letter dated May 27, 1953, you 
extended to June 30, 1953 the time for 
filing the report of the Board as provided 
by the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act. 

The Board held several hearings with the 
representatives of the parties at which 
evidence under oath was taken and written 
briefs and oral arguments were submitted 
by both sides on the issues remaining in 
dispute between the parties. 

The Board now begs to submit the 
following unanimous recommendations: — 

1. Basic Wages. The Board recommends 
for all personnel affected a wage increase 
of five per cent (5%) on the wage scale 
applicable under the Collective Agreement 
between the parties which expired on 
December 31, 1952. 

2. Standby Wages. The Board recom- 
mends that, while the vessel is laid up for 
overhaul at any time, all Deck Officers be 
employed in their usual capacities and at 
the usual rates of pay for their respective 
ranks on the vessel to which they are 



On June 29, 1953, the Minister of 
Labour received the unanimous report 
of the Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation appointed to deal with 
matters in dispute between Canadian 
Merchant Service Guild Inc., and Cana- 
dian National Newfoundland Steamship 
Service, Canadian National Railways, 
affecting deck officers. 

The Board was under the Chair- 
manship of Edmund J. Phelan, QC, 
St. John's, Newfoundland, who was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two 
members of the Board. The nominee 
of the company was Frank J. Ryan, 
the union nominee, Mr. W. Frank 
Chafe; both are of St. John's, New- 
foundland. 

The text of the Board's report is 
reproduced herewith. 



attached or in some similar employment 
with the Company. This provision is to 
apply to the actual period only during 
which the ship is undergoing customary 
overhaul and is not to be applicable to any 
period during which the vessel is out of 
service for any reason other than customary 
overhaul. 



1158 



3. Sick Benefits. The Board does not 
recommend any change in the existing 
provision with respect to Sick Benefit 
payments to employees. 

4. Retroactivity. The Board recommends 
that the above-mentioned increase in wages 
be paid retroactively as from January 1, 
1953. The provision for Standby Wages 
should become effective as from the date 
of this report. 

The majority of the members of the 
Board (Mr. Chafe, the Guild nominee, 
dissenting) were not satisfied that the 
Guild had established its case for an 
increase in wages as such. However, all 
members of the Board were in agreement 
that the Deck Officers were entitled to 
some consideration by reason of the hours 
worked and the number of days on which, 
due to the nature of the service, they are 
continuously attached to the ship. As it 
is not feasible — because of difficulties in 
application arising out of the special 



requirements of the steamship operations — 
to recommend additional days of leave, the 
Board has awarded a wage increase in lieu 
of a shorter working week and additional 
time away from service on the ship. 

The Board realizes that one or the other 
of the parties or possibly both may not 
find the recommendations of the Board 
satisfactory. Nevertheless, it expresses the 
hope that both may be prepared to accept 
this award as an honest attempt by the 
members of the Board to adjudge and 
adjust fairly matters on which the parties 
themselves hold such divergent views. 

Dated the 26th day of June, A.D. 1953. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Sgd.) E. J. Phelan, 
Chairman. 

(Sgd.) Frank Chafe, 
Member. 

(Sgd.) Frank Ryan, 
Member. 



17th Annual Report of U.S. National Labor Relations Board 



The United States National Labor 
Relations Board, during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1952, conducted the largest 
number of representation elections in its 
17-year history, the Board's annual report 
discloses. 

The Board conducted 6,866 elections to 
determine whether or not 778,724 employees 
wished to be represented by unions in 
bargaining with their employers. 

This was an increase of five per cent 
over the prior record of 6,525 elections 
established in the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1951. 

Of these elections, 5,158, or 75 per cent, 
were conducted by agreement of the 
employers and the unions involved. This 
also was an all-time record number. The 
prior record was 4,973 in fiscal 1951. The 
Board ordered the remaining 1,708 to be 
held. 

In fiscal 1952, collective bargaining agents 
were selected in 4,960 elections. This was 

72 per cent of the elections held, compared 
with selection of bargaining agents in 74 
per cent of the elections in fiscal 1951, and 

73 per cent in 1950. 

'In the 1952 elections, the groups choosing 
bargaining agents embraced a total of 
587,363 employees. This was 75 per cent 
of those eligible to vote. 

A total of 674,412 employees cast valid 
ballots in the Board elections. This was 87 
per cent of those who were eligible to vote. 



Unions affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor won bargaining rights 
in 3,089 of the 4,711 elections in which they 
took part. This was 65-5 per cent of all 
elections in which they participated. In 
these elections, AFL unions won the right 
to represent 243,674 employees. 

Unions affiliated with the Congress of 
Industrial Organizations won 1,404 out of 
2,502 elections in which they took part. 
This was 56 per cent. In these elections, 
CIO unions won the right to represent 
226,876 employees. 

Unaffiliated unions won 467 out of 776 
elections. This was 60 per cent. In these 
elections, these unions won the right to 
represent 116,813 employees. 

AFL and CIO unions during fiscal 1952 
competed with each other for representa- 
tion rights in 722 elections in which 222,120 
employees were eligible to vote. 

AFL unions won 337 of these elections, 
giving them the right to represent 94,215 
employees. CIO unions won 298 elections, 
giving them the right to represent 98,029 
employees. A majority of employees voted 
against union representation in 75 of these 
elections, embracing 23,344 employees. 
Unaffiliated unions won 12 of these elections 
(which were three or four union competi- 
tions) embracing 6,532 employees. 



1159 



Collective Agreements 
Wage Schedule* 



Recent Collective Agreements 



Mining 

Asbestos Mining — Matheson, Ont. — Cana- 
dian Johns-Manville Ontario Limited 
and United Steelworkers of America, 
Local 4379. 

Agreement to be in effect from January 
29, 1953, to January 29, 1954, and there- 
after from year to year* subject to two 
months' notice. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable 
(previously voluntary and revocable). 

Hours: 8 per day, 6 days a week, a 48- 
hour week. Overtime: time and one-half 
for work in excess of above hours and for 
all work between 4 p.m. Saturday and 4 p.m. 
Sunday and on six (previously five) specified 
paid holidays. 

Vacations with pay: one week after one, 
two weeks after three, and 3 weeks after 
fifteen years' continuous service (previously 
one week after one, nine days after three, 
and two weeks after five years of con- 
tinuous service) . 

Medical plan: during the life of this 
agreement the two parties will work out 
and put into effect a medical plan whereby 
dependents of the employees are covered. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: erection and repair department — 
machinists $1.31 to $1.62, electricians $1.40 
to $1.62, carpenters $1.40 and $1.50, black- 
smiths $1.42 and $1.52, diesel mechanics 
$1.41 to $1.64; millwrights, welders, sheet- 
metal workers $1.33 to $1.52; roustabout 
crane operator $1.42, trailer truck driver 
$1.49, service truck driver $1.26; yard 
labour $1.20. Mine department — drillers, 
primary $1.40, secondary $1.39; powder man 
$1.30, shovel operator $1.74, shovel grounds- 
man $1.42, dumpman $1.25, blaster $1.50, 
bulldozer operators $1.43 and $1.56, truck 
drivers $1.28 and $1.40; churn drill oper- 
ator $1.45, helper $1.39. Mill department — 
crushermen $1.27 and $1.38; crusher house 
leader $1.45, floor attendant, bagger, screen 
repairman $1.26; shipper, sewer $1.28; dryer 
fireman $1.31, dumpman $1.20, fibre grader 
$1.50; pressure packer operator, trailings 
disposal attendant $1.35. (The above rates 
are, with a few exceptions, from 6 to 8 
cents per hour higher than the previous 
rates.) 

Night shift differential: the company will 
pay a premium of 3 cents per hour to all 
full-time workers employed on the evening 
and night shifts (a new provision). 

Seniority: in promotions (except to posi- 
tions outside the bargaining unit), transfers, 
the filling of vacancies, and increases and 
decreases in the working force the principle 
of seniority shall govern, provided the 
qualifications of the employees concerned 
are approximately equal. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 



A file of collective agreements is main- 
tained in the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour. 
These are obtained directly from the 
parties involved and through the Indus- 
trial Relations Branch of the Depart- 
ment. A number of those recently 
received are summarized here. Agree- 
ments made obligatory under the 
Collective Agreement Act in Quebec 
and schedules under Industrial Standards 
Acts, etc., are summarized in a separate 
article following this. 



Manufacturing 

Metal Products — Toronto, Ont. — John T. 
Hepburn Limited and United Steel- 
workers of America, Local 8335. 

Agreement to be in effect from February 
2, 1953, to November 30, 1953, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to notice 
during the month of September in any year. 

Check-off: compulsory for all eligible 
employees with the exception of those having 
five or more years of service with the com- 
pany. However, during the months of May 
any employee may notify the company that 
he wishes to be exempted from the check-off 
and the deductions will be discontinued. 

Hours: 8£ per day Monday through 
Friday, a 422-hour week (previously 9 per 
day, 45 per week). Overtime: time and 
one-half for work in excess of above daily 
hours and for work on eight specified paid 
holidays. 

Vacations with pay: after one year's con- 
tinuous service one week, after five years 
two weeks and after 25 years of continuous 
service, three weeks. Employees with less 
than one year of continuous service will 
receive vacations with pay according to 
provincial regulations. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: general machinists $1.41 to $1.79, 
machinist improver $1.39 to $1.54; milling, 
horizontal boring $1.34 to $1.73; engine 
lathe, shaper $1.34 to $1.67; planer, vertical 
boring, slotter $1.39 to $1.67; layout man 
$1.46 to $1.67, steel saw operator $1.28 to 
$1.38, jig borer $1.62 to $1.85, tool maker 
$1.56 to $1.90, crane operator $1.31 to $1.54, 
truck drivers $1.31 to $1.43, storekeepers 
$1.28 to $1.61, millwrights $1.41 to $1.73, 
electrician $1.41 to $1.61, blacksmith $1.48 
to $1.76, rivet heater $1.29 to $1.41, welder 
$1.31 to $1.71; unskilled labour, rough 
painter, sweeper $1.25 to $1.34; beginners 
and youths under 21 years of age — starting 
rate $1.18, after 90 days $1.24, after 180 
clays $1.29, after 210 days to be considered 
for re-classification. (With one exception, 
the above rates are 17 cents per hour higher 
than the previous rates.) 

Night shift differential: a night shift 
differential of 7 cents per hour will be paid. 



1160 



Out-of-town jobs: on away-from-plant 
projects shop men will be paid 10 cents per 
hour in excess of their regular shop rates. 
In addition, on jobs outside of the city- 
limits they will be paid transportation and 
travelling time, on a straight time basis, 
both ways between the city limits and the 
job. If the job is outside the Toronto 
district, the company will pay transportation 
expenses both ways (lower berth in case of 
night travel), provided that on long-term 
contracts employees agree to stay on the job 
continuously for at least three months. On 
projects lasting one week or longer the com- 
pany will pay a maximum of $16 per week 
($2.29 per day), and on projects lasting less 
than one week a maximum of $3.50 per day, 
toward the cost of board and room or living 
out, on condition that the recipient works 
the total regularly-assigned hours unless 
incapacitated by legitimate causes. Where 
employees are living and boarding at a 
campsite provided by the company or by 
arrangements with the operator of such 
camp the prevailing rate for living out and 
board will be paid by the company, but only 
up to a maximum of $2.29 per day. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure, 
seniority rights and the continuing employ- 
ment of physically handicapped workers. 

Sheet Metal Tools — Hamilton, Ont. — 
Brown Boggs Foundry and Machine 
Company Limited and United Elec- 
trical, Radio and Machine Workers of 
America, Local 520. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 30, 
1953, to May 1, 1954, and for a further 
period of one year, subject to notice. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. 

Hours: 85 per day Monday through 
Friday, except that for night shift workers 
at Victoria plant the hours will be 9J per 
day Monday through Thursday, 4J on 
Friday, a 42^-hour week in either case; for 
watchmen and engineers eight per day six 
days per week, a 48-hour week. Employees 
on rotating shifts will receive a paid lunch 
period of 30 minutes. Overtime: time and 
one-half for the first two hours after the 
daily number of assigned hours and for the 
first six hours on Saturday (except for 
watchmen and engineers), double time there- 
after and for all work on Sundays or, in 
the case of watchmen and engineers, the 
seventh consecutive day of work. Time and 
one-half for work on eight specified paid 
holidays. 

Rest and ivash-up periods: employees will 
be given two 5-minute wash-up periods; at 
the Sherman Avenue plant they will also be 
granted two 10-minute rest periods. 

Vacations with pay: one week with pay 
equal to 2 per cent of earnings during pre- 
ceding year to employees with less than 
three years' service, two weeks after three 
years and three weeks after 15 (previously 
20) years of service. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions, retroactive to February 11, 1953: 
blacksmiths $1.38 to $1.50, boring mill oper- 
ators $1.47 to $1.73; chain slinger, crane 
operator $1.43 to $1.53; chipper $1.38 to 
$1.48, coremakers $1.57 to $1.67, draftsmen 
$1.43 to $1.68, radial drill operators $1.57 
to $1.77, fitters $1.45 to $1.72, grinders $1.37 
to $1.75; heat treater $1.62 to $1.72, helper 



$1.33 to $1.43; labourers, sand mixer, tool 
crib attendant, watchman $1.37 to $1.42; 
lathe operators $1.47 to $1.77, millwrights 
and engineers $1.38 to, $1.57, moulders $1.57 
to $1.81; moulding machine operator $1.57 
to $1.67, helper $1.38 to $1.47; planer oper- 
ators $1.53 to $1.77, stock chaser $1.56 to 
$1.62, welders $1.52 to $1.77, assistant $1.42 
to $1.52; apprentices $1.13 to $1.41. (The 
above rates are 5 cents per hour higher than 
the previous rates.) Effective July 1, 1953, 
the wage rates of all eligible employees will 
be increased by 2 cents per hour. 

Night shift differential: the company will 
pay a bonus of 9 cents per hour to all 
employees on any shift starting between 
2 p.m. and 6 a.m. Overtime rates for night 
shift employees will be based on regular 
rates and will not include night shift bonus. 

Welfare plan: the company agrees to 
contribute 50 per cent towards the Group 
Insurance Welfare Plan; the remaining 
50 per cent will be contributed by the 
employees in the form of weekly payroll 
deductions. A non-contributory pension 
plan shall become effective from the date 
of approval by the Department of National 
Revenue and remain in effect for a period 
of five years. 

Provision is made for apprenticeship plan, 
grievance procedure, seniority rights and a 
union-company safety committee. 

Metal Products — Montreal, Que. — Canadian 
Tube and Steel Products Limited and 
the United Steelworkers of America, 
Local 2423. 

Agreement to be in effect from November 
7, 1952, to May 7, 1954, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week. Overtime: time 
and one-half for work in excess of the 
standard daily work hours and for work 
between 7 a.m. Saturday and 7 a.m. Monday, 
double time for work on eight specified 
paid holidays. 

Vacations with pay: one week after one 
year, one week and one day after two years, 
two weeks after three years and three weeks 
after 15 years of continuous service. 
Employees with less than one year's service 
will be granted one-half day for each full- 
calendar month of continuous employment. 
Vacations will be granted only to employees 
who have not been absent more than 14 
standard working days during the period 
entitling them to their vacations. 

Job classification: the parties agree "to 
enter into a job classification program using 
the CWS system" as provided by a pro- 
cedural agreement executed at the same 
time as this agreement. 

Wages: the wage rates settled at the 
signing of this agreement shall remain in 
effect for the period of this agreement or 
any renewal thereof unless 60 days prior 
to August 7, 1953, either party gives notice 
to the other party that they wish to open 
negotiations for discussion of the basic wage 
rates only. 

Off -shift differential: employees will be 
paid a shift premium of 3 cents per hour 
for work on the second shift and of 5 cents 
per hour for work on the third shift. 

Provision is made for seniority rights, 
grievance procedure and the safety and 
health of employees. 



1161 



Aluminum Products — Isle Maligne, Que. 
— Aluminum Company of Canada 
Limited (Isle Maligne Works) and 
Le Syndicat National des Employes 
de V Aluminium de St. Joseph d'Alma, 
Inc. (National Syndicate of Aluminum 
Employees of St. Joseph d'Alma, Inc.) 

Agreement to be in effect from January 
27, 1953, to January 27, 1954, and there- 
after from year to year, subect to notice. 

Check-off: voluntary and revocable. 

Hours: eight per day, an average of 42 
hours per week. Shift workers will be 
allowed up to 20 minutes per shift off for 
meals. Overtime: time and one-half for 
work in excess of the scheduled hours per 
pay period, double time for work on six 
specified paid holidays. An additional two 
days will be observed as statutory holidays 
by day workers. Owing to the nature of 
continuous operations, statutory holidays 
cannot be allowed shift workers. 

Vacations with pay: one week after one 
year and two weeks after three years of 
continuous service, provided an employee has 
worked at least 1,650 hours (exclusive of 
overtime) since he last qualified for a vaca- 
tion. The company retains the right to 
Avithhold the total or any proportion of 
allowance for vacation from any worker who 
has lost, without reasonable excuse, more 
than 48 hours from work during the pre- 
ceding 12 months. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: plant maintenance — blacksmiths $1.59 
to $1.81, burners $1.50 to $1.57, carpenters 
$1.62 to $1.74, crawler crane operators $1.62 
to $1.70; electricians $1.60 to $1.86, assis- 
tants $1.45 to $1.55; helpers (mechanical 
trades) $1.45 to $1.49, millwrights $1.59 to 
$1.83, tractor operators $1.47 to $1.61, truck 
drivers $1.44 to $1.54, labourers $1.38 and 
$1.40; potroom operation — head syphoner 
$1.43; head channel changer, crust breaker 
operator $1.39; trimmer $1.41; syphoner, 
rod raiser $1.36; channel changer, stud 
inserter $1.33; cranemen $1.35 and $1.37; 
stud machinery operator $1.37 (potroom 
employees will be paid a production bonus 
in addition to above minimum hourly rates) ; 
remelt, shipping, etc. — bundler $1.38 to $1.49, 
craneman $1.39 to $1.46, ore unloader $1.38 
to $1.47, mix distributor $1.53, pot baker 
$1.46 to $1.48, potroom service men $1.39 
to $1.47, pourer $1.44 to $1.55; sand blast 
operator $1.38 to $1.44, assistant $1.38. (The 
above rates are from 11 to 17 cents per 
hour higher than the previous basic rates; 
however, the previous agreement provided 
for a cost-of-living bonus of 40 cents per 
week for each point increase in the DBS 
cost-of-living index above 182, while the 
present agreement does not provide for any 
cost-of-living bonus.) 

Seniority: skill, competence and efficiency, 
as determined by the company, shall govern 
in all cases of promotions, demotions, 
transfers, suspensions, lay-offs, dismissals and 
rehiring. When two or more candidates 
satisfy the normal requirements of the job, 
the employee with the longest continuous 
service will be given preference. The com- 
pany shall also take into account the 
employee's continuous service in the depart- 
ment concerned, his family status and place 
of regional residence. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 



Construction 

Electricians — St. John's Nfld. — Electrical 

Employers and the International 

Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 
Local 566. 

Agreement to be in effect from May 1, 
1953, to April 30, 1954, and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to two months' notice. 

Union security: union shop. No member 
of the union will be permitted to contract 
for or perform electrical work for a con- 
tractor who is not a party to this agree- 
ment. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, four on Saturday, a 44-hour week. 
Overtime: time and one-half for work after 
the regular working day until midnight, 
double time thereafter and for work on 
Sundays and on 9J specified holidays, 5£ of 
which are paid holidays. (Previous agree- 
ment provided for two paid holidays.) 

Hourly wage rates: journeymen $1.52, if 
in charge of work where three or more 
journeymen are employed 10 cents per hour 
above journeyman's rate; apprentices, 1st 
year 30 per cent, 2nd year 40 per cent, 
3rd year 52 per cent and 4th year 65 per 
cent of journeyman's rate. (Previous rate 
for journeyman was $1.40.) 

Out-of-town jobs: employees on out-of-town 
jobs shall have all board and transportation 
costs paid by the employer. They will also 
be paid travelling time on the basis of a 
normal working day, except that Sunday 
travel will be paid for at the overtime rate. 
If, at the request of the employer, an 
employee's car is used when employment is 
outside the city a mileage allowance of 12 
cents per mile each way will be paid by 
the employer. 

Apprentices: the ratio of apprentices to 
journeymen shall be one apprentice to every 
2 journeymen and one apprentice for the 
shop. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
differences. 

Carpenters — Fredericton, N.B. — C apit at 
Builders Exchange and United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America, Local 1893. 

Agreement to be in effect from May I, 
1953, to April 30, 1954, and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to 3 months' notice. 

Union security: preference of employment 
will be given to local union carpenters if 
available. Union carpenters will work with 
non-union carpenters only while competent 
carpenters are not available. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, four on Saturday, a 44-hour week 
(previously eight per day six days a week, 
a 48-hour week). Overtime: time and one- 
half for the first 4 hours in excess of 
above hours, double time thereafter until 
a break of 8 hours occurs and for work on 
Sundays and on 7 specified and all other 
proclaimed holidays. In case of emer- 
gencies (completion of concrete pour, etc.) 
a total of 4 hours extra may be worked 
during any week without overtime penalty. 

Hourly wage rate: no carpenter in the 
Fredericton District shall work for less 
than $1.40 (previously $1.30) per hour. 

Out-of-toivn jobs: carpenters on out-of- 
town jobs will receive transportation to and 



1162 



from the job; in case of night travel a 
sleeper will be provided. Meals and 
travelling time up to 8 hours in 24 will 
be paid for. However, return transporta- 
tion and travelling time will not be paid 
in the case of a man quitting or being 
discharged for cause who has been on the 
job less than 30 working days. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
differences. 

Carpenters — Guelph, Out. — Certain General 
Contractors and United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
Local 2173. 

Agreement to be in effect from May 1, 
1953, to April 30, 1954, and thereafter 
subject to 60 days' notice. 

Union security: the employers agree to 
employ as carpenters members of the union 
so long as the union can furnish mechanics 
to take care of the work. All new 
employees, if competent, will be asked by 
the business agent to join the union. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week. Overtime: time 
and one-half for work in excess of the 
regular daily hours and for work on 
Saturday between 8 a.m. and 12 noon; 
double time for all other work on Saturdays 
and for all work on Sundays and on seven 
specified holidays. No work shall be per- 
formed on Labour Day. 

Vacations with pay will be granted in 
accordance with the provincial law; pay will 
be computed on the basis of 4 per cent of 
earnings. 

Minimum hourly wage rate for journey- 
men carpenters shall be $1.60 (an increase 
of 10 cents over the previous rate). 

Shift work: shifts after the regular work- 
ing day will be paid for at the rate of 
eight hours' pay for seven hours' work. In 
split shifts all hours other than those 
worked during the regular day will be paid 
for at the overtime rate. 

Out-of-town work: on jobs outside the city 
limits but within a radius of four miles 
from Guelph the employer will provide 
transportation beyond the city limits and 
pay for travelling time one way; beyond 
the 4-mile limit he will provide transporta- 
tion and pay for travelling time both ways. 

Apprentices shall be governed by the 
Ontario Apprenticeship Act. An employer 
will be allowed one apprentice to every 
eight journeymen. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 

Plumbers — Kingston, Ont. — The Master 
Plumbers' Association of the City of 
Kingston and the United Association 
of Journeymen and Apprentices of the 
Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry 
of the United States and Canada, 
Local 221. 

Agreement to be in effect from May 1, 
1953, to May 1, 1954, and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to two months' notice. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week. Overtime: time 
and one-half for work after the regular 
working hours up to 12 midnight, double 
time from 12 midnight to 8 a.m. and for 
work on Saturdays, Sundays and on seven 
specified holidays. However, if to finish a 



regular repair job on a regular working day 
will not take longer than one hour, it may 
be done at straight time. Emergency work 
may be performed on Saturday morning at 
the rate of time and one-half. 

Vacations with pay: commencing July 1, 
1953, employees will be paid a vacation- 
with-pay allowance of 4 per cent of their 
wages. The vacation period shall be mutu- 
ally agreed upon between the employer and 
employee. 

Hourly wage rate: journeymen $1.80 (pre- 
viously $1.72). 

Out-of-town jots: men working outside of 
Kingston will have their board and trans- 
portation paid, the board allowance to be 
50 cents per hour for each full day worked. 
For travelling between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. 
they will be paid travelling time. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
grievances. 

Bricklayers — Vancouver, B.C. — The Gen- 
eral Contractors Association of Van- 
couver, B.C., and The Bricklayers, 
Masons and Plasterers' International 
Union of America, Local 1. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 
1953, to March 31, 1954, or until a further 
agreement is signed, but may be continued 
from year to year by mutual consent. 

Union security: only competent union 
journeymen shall be hired; if such are not 
available the contractor may obtain brick- 
layers and stonemasons elsewhere but the 
latter must join the union within 30 days 
or be replaced by competent union trades- 
men when available. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week. Overtime: double 
time for all work in excess of the regular 
working periods of eight hours. Nine speci- 
fied holidays will be recognized; no work 
shall be performed on Labour Day. 

Vacation pay will be provided as required 
by provincial law. 

Hourly wage rates, effective April 27, 
1953: journeymen, bricklayers and stone- 
masons $2.32; foremen will be paid 28 cents 
per hour over the journeyman's rate. Brick- 
layers working under dirty or disagreeable 
conditions (heat, fumes) will be paid one 
hour's pay extra per day or any portion 
thereof. When required to work on indus- 
trial stacks they will receive one hour's pay 
extra for any portion of the first four hours 
and also one hour's pay for any portion of 
the second four hours each day they work 
over and above a height of 60 feet. 

Off -shift differential: time and one-seventh 
will be paid for work on the second and 
third shifts. 

Out-of-toivn jobs: when required to travel 
to and from the job daily, travelling time 
and free transportation will be provided 
both ways between the city limits and the 
job; when bricklayers are requested to 
furnish their own private transportation 
they will be paid at the rate of 8 cents 
per mile. On jobs from which they do not 
return home daily, bricklayers will receive 
travelling expenses, first class board and 
room and travelling time up to eight hours 
in any 24-hour period. However, in order 
to be entitled to return fare, travelling 
time and expenses they must remain on the 
job at least 30 days or until the job is 
completed. If unable to work due to con- 
ditions directly under the control of the 



1163 



employer, bricklayers and masons will be 
guaranteed a minimum of 40 hours per 
week, excluding Saturdays and Sundays. In 
case of illness they will receive necessary 
board and room for one week and if then 
still unable to work they will be given 
their return fare and transportation. 

Apprentices will be employed in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the British 
Columbia Apprenticeship Act. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and accident prevention. 

Labourers — Vancouver, B.C. — The General 
Contractors Association of Vancouver, 
B.C., and International Hod Carriers, 
Building and Common Labourers' 
Union of America, Local 602. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 
1953, to March 31, 1954, or until a further 
agreement is signed, but may be continued 
from year to year by mutual consent. 

Union security: only competent union men 
shall be hired; if they are not available the 
contractor may hire other labourers but the 
latter must join the union within 30 days 
or be replaced by competent union men 
when available. 

Hours: eight per day Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week. Overtime: time and 
one-half for the first two hours in excess of 
eight hours per day and up to eight hours 
on Saturdays, double time thereafter until 
a break of eight hours occurs and for work 
on Sundays and on nine specified holidays. 
No work shall be performed on Labour Day. 

Vacation pay will be provided as required 
by provincial law. 

Hourly wage rates, effective May 11, 1953: 
common and building labourers $1.55; jack- 
hammermen, breakermen, drill runners and 
timbermen $1.75; powdermen $1.90, rock 
foremen $2. (The above rates are 5 cents 
per hour higher than the previous rates.) 

Shift work: eight hours' pay will be 
granted for seven hours' work on night 
shifts, when required and continued for 
three or more consecutive nights, and on 
shifts starting after 4 p.m. on jobs in 
occupied buildings where work must be done 
after regular working hours. 

Out-of-toivn jobs: all workmen on out-of- 
town jobs shall receive transportation to 
and from the job; in the case of night 
travel, a sleeper will be provided. Meals 
and travelling time, up to 8 hours in 24, 
will be paid for. However, in the case of 
a man quitting or being discharged for cause 
before he has been on the job 60 days or 
before the completion of the job, return 
transportation and travelling time will not 
be paid. On jobs beyond the city limits 
but within the jurisdiction of the agreement, 
transportation to and from the city limits 
shall be provided. Men shall report at the 
city limits in time to reach the job by 
8 a.m. In all cities or towns, and also 
where there is a union agreement, the hours 
of work customarily in those cities or towns 
or as specified in the agreement shall be 
worked. 

On out-of-town jobs from which they can- 
not return home daily, and where a camp is 
maintained, board and lodging will be pro- 
vided by the employer; where no camp is 
provided, board and lodging will be arranged 
for by the employer. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 



Transportation, Storage, Communication 

Longshoremen — Vancouver, B.C. — Shipping 
Federation of British Columbia and 
International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501 
(Deep Sea Vessels). 

The two-year agreement which became 
effective September 16, 1951 (see Labour 
Gazette, February 1952, p. 176), has been 
amended as follows: — 

Wage rates: effective October 1, 1952, the 
base rate of wages for discharging and 
loading deep sea vessels were increased by 
5 cents and the rate for hatch tenders, dock 
gang leaders and side runners by 15 cents 
per hour, with corresponding increases in 
the overtime and other rates. The basic 
straight time ship and dock hourly rates 
are now as follows (overtime rates in 
parentheses) : dock gang leader, side runner 
(loading only), hatch tender $2.25 ($3.28); 
double winch driver, all other labour $2.05 
($3.08). 

Longshoremen — Vancouver, B.C. — Shipping 
Federation ,of British Columbia (Coast- 
wise Section) and International Long- 
shoremen's Association, Local 38-163. 

Agreement to be in effect from November 
16, 1952, to November 16, 1953, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to 60 days' 
notice. 

Union security: preferred employment for 
coastwide longshore work will be given, when 
they are available, to men who have been 
registered by the Federation for such work 
and who are regularly enrolled members of 
the Association. 

Hours and overtime: straight time is all 
time between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, and between 8 a.m. and 
1 p.m. on Saturdays. All other time is 
overtime. When men have worked all night 
and are ordered to continue work on the 
same job after 8 a.m., they will be paid 
the overtime rate from 8 a.m. until released. 
The recognized meal hour shall be any one 
hour of the following periods: 11 p.m. to 
12 p.m. or 12 p.m. to 1 a.m., 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. 
or 6 a.m. to 7 a.m., 11 a.m. to 12 noon or 
12 noon to 1 p.m., 5 p.m. to 6 p.m. or 6 p.m. 
to 7 p.m. Men shall not be worked more 
than five consecutive hours from the last 
meal hour taken without eating, except when 
finishing a vessel when time may be extended 
one hour. 

Statutory holidays: 10 specified holidays 
will be recognized. In addition, any other 
holiday proclaimed by Dominion Statute may 
be mutually agreed upon. 

Vacation pay of 4 cents per hour for each 
hour worked, whether straight or overtime, 
will be granted to all employees. 

Hourly wage rates: double winch driver, 
lift truck driver, hatch tender (where 
employed) $2.01 (overtime $2.96) : all other 
labour $1.91 (overtime $2.86). (The above 
basic rates are 5 cents per hour higher than 
the previous rates.) If required to work 
both hours of the 2-hour meal period double 
winch drivers, lift-truck drivers and hatch 
tenders will be paid $2.96, and all other 
labour $2.86, per hour for the last hour of 
the 2-hour period in the case of the noon 
meal hour and $4.39 and $4.29, respectively, 



1164 



in the case of any other meal hour. When 
men are required to work for more than 5 
consecutive hours from 6 p.m. in order to 
finish a ship, they shall be paid at the 
penalty meal hour rate after the fifth hour. 
When loading or discharging certain speci- 
fied commodities (fish meal, green hides, 
sulphur in bulk, etc.) employees will be 
paid 10 cents per hour in excess of the 
above rates. When a vessel cannot reach 



her berth without first discharging or shift- 
ing cargo, all men shall be paid at the rate 
of $2.86 per hour while working and $1.43 
per hour while travelling or standing by. 
Free meals will be ' furnished on board 
vessel when the men are not permitted to 
go ashore. 

Provision is made for the settling of 
disputes and for a Safety and Welfare 
Committee. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Recent proceedings under the Collective 
Agreement Act, Quebec,* include the exten- 
sion of one new agreement, the repeal of 
three others, and the amendment of ten. 
In addition to those summarized below, 
they include: the repeal of the agreements 
for grocers and butchers at Sherbrooke and 
for retail stores at Granby and at Farnham 
and the amendment of the agreement for 
barbers and hairdressers at Trois Rivieres, 
published in the Quebec Official Gazette 
May 30, and the amendment of the agree- 
ment for garages and service stations at 
Quebec gazetted June 6. 

Requests for new agreements for retail 
stores at Dolbeau, for the sheet metal 
industry at Montreal and requests for the 
amendment of the agreements for the 
building trades at Trois Rivieres, for tavern 
employees and for the automobile industry 
at Quebec were gazetted May 30. Requests 
for new agreements for garages and service 
stations at Sherbrooke and for structural 



*In Quebec, the Collective Agreement Act 
provides that where a collective agreement 
has been entered into by an organization of 
employees and one or more employers or 
associations' of employers, either side may 
apply to the provincial Minister of Labour 
to have the terms of the agreement which 
concern wages, hours of labour, apprentice- 
ship, and certain other conditions made 
binding throughout the province or within 
a certain district on all employers and 
employees in the trade or industry covered 
by the agreement. Notice of such applica- 
tion is published and 30 days are allowed 
for the filing of objections, after which an 
Order in Council may be passed granting 
the application, with or without changes as 
considered advisable "by the Minister. The 
Order in Council may be amended or 
revoked in the same manner. Each agree- 
ment is administered and enforced by a 
joint committee of the parties. References 
to the summary of this Act and to amend- 
ments to it are given in the Labour Gazette, 
January, 1949, page 65. Proceedings under 
this Act and earlier legislation have been 
noted in the Labour Gazette monthly since 
June, 1934. 



steel erectors in the province and requests 
for the amendment of the agreements for 
the bakery industry and for metal trades at 
Quebec and for the men's and boys' cloth- 
ing and the dress manufacturing industries 
in the province were gazetted June 6. 

Requests for the amendment of the 
agreements for barbers and hairdressers at 
St. Jean and Iberville, at Trois Rivieres, at 
St. Jerome and at Joliette, for the uncor- 
rugated paper box industry and for hard- 
ware and paint stores at Quebec, for the 
building trades at Montreal, for gasoline 
and service stations at Chicoutimi and for 
tannery employees in the province were all 
gazetted June 13. 

Orders in Council were also published 
approving the by-laws and constitution of 
certain joint committees and others approv- 
ing the levy of assessments on the parties 
to certain agreements. 

Manufacturing 

Retail Fur Industry, Montreal. 

An Order in Council dated May 29 and 
published June 6 makes binding the terms 
of a new agreement for this industry 
between The Retail Merchants Association 
of Canada — -Quebec, Inc., Fur Section, and 
"L'Union nationale du Vetement, Inc., Sec- 
tion de la Fourrure". Agreement to be in 
effect from June 6, 1953, until March 31, 
1954, thereafter from year to year subject 
to notice. 

It applies to all parties represented by 
the contracting association shown above, to 
private firms that signed the agreement and 
to all retail fur merchants within the terri- 
torial jurisdiction of the agreement. It 
does not apply to the fur trimming and 
dyeing industry. 

Territorial jurisdiction comprises the Island 
of Montreal and the area within a radius 
of 50 miles from its limits. 

Hours: 40 per week distributed between 
8 a.m. and 6 p.m. Monday through Friday, 
on Saturday till 1 p.m. From September 
till December inclusive, four hours extra per 
week may be worked at regular rates. 
Outside the Island of Montreal 44 hours per 
week may be worked at regular rates; from 
September to December inclusive 48 hours 
per week. 



1165 



Overtime: time and one-half for work in 
excess of regular hours; time and one-half 
in addition to regular rates for work on any 
of eight specified paid holidays. 

Minimum weekly wage rates: cutter (class 
A) $76.80, (class B) $64.80; male operator 
(class A) $64, (class B) $50; male finisher 
(class A) $56.80, (class B) $47.20; male 
blocker (class A) $50, (class B) $38.80; 
female operator (class A) $47.60, (class B) 
$38.80; female finisher (class A) $47.60, 
(class B) $38.80; female coat closer $47.60; 
female lining cutters $42.80; female lining 
sewers $38; lining makers $44.80. (These 
rates are from $2.40 to $4.80 per week 
higher than those previously in effect.) The 
above minimum rates may be reduced by 15 
per cent in any firm located outside the 
Island of Montreal, in a town with a popula- 
tion under 25,000. This provision does not 
apply to any branch of a firm located within 
the limits of the Island of Montreal, newly 
found during the term of the present agree- 
ment. Minimum rates for apprentices are 
$2 per week higher and are now as follows: 
male and female apprentices from $19.20 in 
first 6 months of first year to $29.20 in 
first 6 months of third year; apprentice 
cutters from $38 in first 6 months of first 
year to $58 in second 6 months of third 
year. Wage rates for skilled workers not 
adjusted by reason of their being higher 
than the minimum rates fixed in the agree- 
ment will be increased by 6i per cent. 

Vacation: one week with pay after one 
year of service; two weeks after two years' 
continuous service with the same employer. 
(Vacation provisions are unchanged.) 

Other provisions stipulate the number of 
class A employees to be engaged on each 
operation; prohibit contracting, subcon- 
tracting or piece work inside the employer's 
shop; prohibit work at home by an employee 
already engaged by an employer subject to 
the terms of the agreement for this indus- 
try; indicate the ratio of apprentices to the 
number of skilled workers employed. 

Uncorrugated Paper Box Industry, Dis- 
trict of Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
published May 30 amends ^ the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Oct. 1951, p. 1376; Feb. 1952, p. 139, July, 
p. 930). 

Hours: 45 per week of 5£ days (a reduc- 
tion of three hours per week). 

Minimum hourly wage rates are the same 
as those rates established for Zone II in 
an amendment to the agreement for this 
industry covering the province and pre- 
viously summarized (L.G., April 1953, p. 
581). However, the classification general 
hand (male) 92 cents per hour is added to 
the wage scale. 

Vacation ivith pay: one week with pay 
after one year of continuous service with 
the same employer; two weeks with pay 
after five or more years' continuous service. 
(The last provision is new.) 

Printing Trades 
Conditions affecting employees engaged in 
the printing trades respecting wages, classifi- 
cations, etc., are those specified in the 
agreement, as amended, relating to the 
printing trades in the district of Quebec 
(L.G., April 1951, p. 544; April 1952, p. 451; 
March 1953, p. 432, June, p. 885). 



Garages and Service Stations, Montreal. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
published May 30 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
April 1950, p. 517, May, p. 694; Sept. 1951, 
p. 1250). Another amendment was pub- 
lished in the Quebec Official Gazette 
September 1, 1951, as well as another in 
the issue of April 12, 1952. The name 
Canadian Automotive Wholesalers' and 
Manufacturers' Association, Eastern Divi- 
sion, Montreal, replaces the name The 
Canadian Automotive Wholesalers' Associa- 
tion, Eastern Division, Montreal, in the list 
of contracting parties. Agreement to be in 
effect from May 30, 1953, until February 18, 
1954, thereafter from year to year subject 
to notice. 

Industrial jurisdiction: the present agree- 
ment applies to employers, professional 
employers, artisans and wage earners in 
garages, gasoline stations, service stations 
and parking grounds, etc. It does not 
apply to commercial and industrial firms nor 
to public bus or truck transport concerns 
who limit such services to their own needs. 
Nor does- it apply to firms manufacturing 
motor vehicles or engaged in assembling 
parts on new vehicles. 

Territorial jurisdiction: the Island of 
Montreal. 

Hours: day and night journeymen and 
apprentices 49 per week; garage employees 
on day work 60 per week, on night work 
72 per week; service men in gasoline and 
service stations 60 per week on one shift 
operations and on the day shift of 2-shift 
operations, on the evening shift of 2-shift 
operations work begins at 7 p.m. and ends 
at 2 a.m. and 3-shift operations are as 
follows: 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., 3 p.m. to 11 p.m. 
and 11 p.m. to 7 a.m.; demolishers 60 per 
week; watchmen 72 per week. 

Overtime: day journeymen and appren- 
tices, time and one-half for work in excess 
of regular hours and on Saturday afternoon, 
double time between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. 
Monday to Saturday morning inclusively and 
after 5 p.m. on Saturday; night journeymen 
and apprentices, time and one-half for work 
in excess of regular hours and after 7 a.m. 
Monday to Friday inclusively, double time 
between 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. Monday through 
Saturday; garage employees, time and one- 
half for work in excess of regular hours; 
service men on one shift operations and on 
the day shift of 2-shift operations, time and 
one-half for work in excess of regular hours, 
double time for work between 10 p.m. and 
7 a.m., on the evening shift of 2-shift oper- 
ations time and one-half for work after 
2 a.m. and for work after the regular finish- 
ing time on 3-shift operations. Double time 
is paid for work on Sundays or the alternate 
day of rest and six specified holidays, four 
of which are paid holidays to all employees 
except garage employees and watchmen. 

Minimum hourly icage rates in garages 
and machine shops — day work, journeymen 
(first class) $1.20, (second class) $1.05, 
(third class) 85 cents; apprentices from 45 
cents in first 6 months to 75 cents in third 
year; garage employees (less than 4 months 
of experience) 50 cents, others 60 cents; 
night work, the above rates plus 5 cents per 
hour with the exception of garage employees 
who receive 10 cents per hour in addition 
to the above rates; gasoline and service 
stations — service men (one shift) 60 cents,. 



1166 



(day shift of 2-shift operations) 60 cents, 
(night shift) 80 cents, (day shift of 3-shift 
operations) 70 cents, (evening shift) 80 
cents, (night shift) $1 per hour; demolishers 
(less than 4 months of experience) 65 cents, 
others 75 cents; watchmen 55 cents. 

Guaranteed weekly pay: a minimum guar- 
antee of 44 hours' pay to all journeymen 
and apprentices who are on the premises 
and at the disposal of their employers 49 
hours during the week; absence reduces the 
guarantee to the pro rata of hours of 
absence. 

Vacation: six working days with pay 
annually after one year's service, one half- 
day for each calendar month of service to 
those employed less than one year; two 
weeks with pay after five or more years 
of service. 

Other provisions of this amendment in- 
clude definitions, apprenticeship regulations, 
uniforms, compensation for treatment follow- 
ing an accident, as well as regulations 
governing outside work, tools, ratio between 
journeymen and apprentices and other 
general provisions concerning the rates of 
wages and hours of labour. 

Glass Processing Industry, Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
gazetted May 30 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Oct. 1950, p. 1679; June 1951, p. 827; July 
1952, p. 931). 

Hours are unchanged at 9 per day, 45 per 
week. However, urgent work may be done 
on Saturdays but, employees may be com- 
pelled to work only on alternate Saturdays. 

Minimum, hourly wage rates for certain 
classifications are from 5 to 8 cents per hour 
higher and are now as follows: setters 
(classes A, B, C) $1.21, $1.07 and 89 cents 
per hour; levellers (A, B, C) $1.18, $1.04, 
89 cents; silverers, cutters (A, B, C) $1.15, 
$1.01, 86 cents; scratch polisher, spinner, 
examiner, buffer, belt worker, froster, sand 
polisher, draughtsman (classes B and C) 96 
and 81 cents per hour; shipper (full time) 
class "B" $1.06, class "C" 88 cents; packer 
94 and 81 cents; truck driver 99 and 83 
cents; maintenance men from 71 cents in 
first year to $1.10 after 3 years. Minimum 
rates for all classifications during first year 
of employment are unchanged and range 
from 61 to 71 cents per hour. 

Vacation: one week with pay after one 
year of continuous employment with the 
same employer; two weeks with pay after 
five years. Employees who have not com- 
pleted one year of service as of July 1 in 
any year are entitled to as many half days 
of vacation as they have months of service. 

Transportation and Public Utilities 
Longshoremen (Ocean Navigation), 
Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
published May 30 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Sept. 1949, p. 1116; Dec. 1951, p. 1672). 

Hours: eight per day, from 8 a.m. to 
12 noon and from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Provi- 
sion is made for day and night shifts. 

Overtime: time and one-half for work 
between 5 p.m. and 7 a.m.; double time 
between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m. on Sundays or 
any of four specified holidays. Special 
rates are provided for work during meal 
hours. 



Minimum hourly wage rate: $1.61 (an 
increase of 16 cents). 

Other provisions include regulations gov- 
erning notice for starting times and the 
revision of certain working conditions. 

Checkers (Ocean Navigation), Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
published May 30 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Dec. 1951, p. 1673). 

Hours and overtime are unchanged as 
follows: nine per day, 8 a.m. to 12 noon 
and 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. Time and one-half 
between 5 p.m. and midnight and between 
1 a.m. and 7 a.m. However, work done 
between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m. will be paid at 
double time instead of time and one-half 
as previously. 

Minimum hourly wage rate: $1.40 (an 
increase of 20 cents per hour). Checkers 
ordered out to work during day or night 
hours and on Sundays and holidays will be 
paid a minimum of two hours. They will 
be given two hours' notice for day calls, 
three hours' notice for 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. 
calls as well as for night and Sunday calls. 
A premium of 35 cents per hour will be 
paid for work in connection with certain 
hazardous cargoes. 

Freight Handlers (Longshoremen) 
(Inland and Coastal Navigation), 
Montreal. 

An Order in Council dated May 29 and 
published June 6 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Dec. 1950. p. 2068; June 1951, p. 830; July 
1952, p. 931, and previous issues) . 

Minimum hourly wage rates are increased 
from $1.27 to $1.43 for work done between 
7 a.m. and 7 p.m. and from $1.37 to $1.68 
per hour for work between 7 p.m. and 
7 a.m. Designated freight handlers oper- 
ating piling machines or tractors will be 
paid 10 cents per hour in addition to 
above rates. 

Construction 

Building Trades, Joliette. 

An Order in Council dated May 20 and 
published May 30 amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Nov. 1950, p. 1905; June 1951, p. 829; Aug. 
1952, p. 1084; April 1953, p. 596, and 
previous issues). Agreement, as amended, is 
extended to February 28, 1955, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to notice. 

Minimum hourly wage rates for all classifi- 
cations in Zones I and II are 10 cents per 
hour higher than those previously in effect. 
New minimum rates for certain classifica- 
tions are now as follows: sprinkler fitter, 
bricklayer, block layer and jointer pointer, 
plasterer $1.50 per hour in both Zones; 
carpenter and joiner, asbestos coverer (other 
than pipe insulation) roofer (slate and tile), 
roofer (composition, gravel, etc.) floor 
scraping, etc., rigger (hand or machine), 
millwright, pipe insulation mechanic, painter- 
gilder, cork setter (insulation), mastic floor 
layer, tile, asphalt and terrazzo layer, 
marble layer, pipe welder (acetylene or 
electric) $1.50 in Zone I, $1.40 in Zone II; 
electrician $1.55 in Zone I, $1.50 in Zone II; 
tinsmith, roofer (sheet metal worker, shop 
or job), plumber, steamfitter, pipe mechanic, 



1167 



oil burner mechanic $1.50 in Zone I, $1.45 
in Zone II; power shovel operator $1.55 in 
Zone I. $1.45 in Zone II; painter, sprayman, 
decorator, glazier, etc. $1.35 in Zone I, $1.25 
in Zone II; labourer (common) $1.10 in 
Zone I, $1.05 in Zone II; roller operator 
(steam or gasoline), bulldozer operator, 
grader operator $1.30 in both Zones; tractor 
operator $1.35 in both Zones. 



Building Trades, Quebec. 

An Order in Council dated May 29 and 
published June 6 extends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Sept. 1950, p. 1679; July 1951, p. 877, Aug., 
p. 1109, Sept,, p. 1251, Nov., p. 1539, Dec, 
p. 1672; Oct. 1952, p. 1362, Nov., p. 1481; 
March 1953, p. 433, July, p. 1032, and previous 
issues) to July 1, 1953. 



Industrial Standards Acts, etc. 



Recent proceedings under the Industrial 
Standards Act, etc.* include five new 
schedules, all summarized below. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 



*In six provinces — Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
and Alberta — legislation provides that, follow- 
ing a petition from representatives of 
employers and employees in any (or speci- 
fied) industries, the provincial Minister 
charged with the administration of the Act 
may himself, or through a government 
official delegated by him, call a confer- 
ence of representatives of employers and 
employees. This conference is for the pur- 
pose of investigating and considering the 
conditions of labour in the industry and of 
negotiating minimum rates of wages and 
maximum hours of work. A schedule of 
wages and hours of labour drawn up at such 
a conference, if the Minister considers that 
it has been agreed to by a proper and 
sufficient representation of employers and 
employees, may on his recommendation be 
made binding by Order in Council in all 
zones designated by the Minister. The 
Minister may also establish an advisory 
committee for every zone to which a 
schedule applies to assist in carrying out 
the provisions of the Act and the regula- 
tions. 

Summaries of these Acts and amendments 
have been published in the Labour Gazette, 
as follows: Nova Scotia — Industrial Standards 
Act, in issues of July 1936, p. 604, Aug. 
1937, p. 861, July 1939, p. 671, Aug. 1946, 
p. 1102, July 1948, p. 749, Oct. 1952, p. 1364; 

New Brunswick Industrial Standards Act 

in issues of Oct. 1939, p. 996, Aug. 1941, 
p. 956, Dec. 1944, p. 1551, Dec. 1948, p. 1434; 
Ontario — Industrial Standards Act, in issues 
of June 1935, p. 534, May 1936, p. 410, May 

1937, p. 505, May 1938, p. 501, June 1939, p. 574, 
Aug. 1948, p. 890, Aug. 1949, p. 999; Manitoba 
—Fair Wages Act, Part II, in the issues of 
May 1938, p. 499, June 1939, p. 570, Feb. 1941, 
p. 137, June 1942, p. 696, June 1946, p. 826; 
Saskatchewan — Industrial Standards Act, in 
the issues of June 1937, p. 635, May 1938, 
p. 507, June 1939, p. 581, June 1940, p. 559, 
June 1948, p. 627, July 1950, p. 1071; Alberta 
—Alberta Labour Act (The original Indus- 
trial Standards Act was made part of the 
Alberta Labour Act— see L.G., June 1947, 
p. 837), in issues of June 1935, p. 534, June 

1938, p. 501, June 1937, p. 640, June 1938, 
p. 633, June 1939, p. 567, Dec. 1950, p. 2082. 



Construction 
Plumbers, Moncton. 

An Order in Council dated June 4 and 
gazetted June 17 makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for the plumbing and 
pipefitting trades in the Zone comprising the 
area within a radius of five miles from the 
City Hall in the city of Moncton and in- 
cluding the village of Dieppe, to be in effect 
from July 1, 1953, until May 1, 1954. 

The terms of this schedule are similar to 
those which were previously in effect and 
summarized in the Laboub Gazette, January 
1953, on p. 99, with the exception of the 
following: — 

Minimum hourly icage rate for work done 
during regular working periods is increased 
from $1.40 to $1.50 per hour; for work done 
during special working periods from $1.50 
to $1.60 per hour. (Weekly hours remain 
at 44.) 

ONTARIO 

Construction 

Lathers, Ottawa. 

An Order in Council dated April 30 and 
gazetted May 14 makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for lathers at Ottawa, to 
be in effect from May 26, 1953, during 
pleasure. 

Hours: eight per day, Monday through 
Friday, 40 per week. Provisions is made 
for shift work. 

Overtime: time and one-half for work in 
excess of regular hours till midnight Monday 
through Friday and on Saturday between 
8 a.m. and noon; double time for all other 
overtime including Sundays or any of seven 
specified holidays. No overtime work will 
be done without a permit from the advisory 
committee. No permit will be issued for 
overtime work on a holiday except in cases 
of extreme necessity. 

3Iinimum hourly wage rate is increased 
from $1.40 per hour (L.G., Oct. 1948) to 
$1.85 per hour for work during regular 
working periods and for night work. 
Employees are entitled to eight hours' pay 
for seven hours' work on night shift. 
(Regular weekly hours, 40 per week.) 

The advisory committee may fix a lower 
minimum rate for handicapped workers. 



1168 



Painters and Decorators, Hamilton. 

An Order in Council dated May 7 and 
gazetted May 23 makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for painters and decorators 
at Hamilton, to be in effect from June 2, 
1953, during pleasure. 

The terms of this schedule are similar 
to those previously in effect and summar- 
ized in the Labour Gazette, September 
1951, p. 1254, with the exception of the 
following: — 

Specified holidays are increased from 
seven to eight by the addition of Hamilton 
Civic Holiday. 

Minimum hourly wage rates are 15 cents 
per hour higher and are now as follows: 
spray painting $1.75 per hour; paper- 
hanging $1.70; painting and all other work 
$1.65. (Regular weekly hours remain at 40 
per week.) 

Painters and Decorators, Sault Ste. Marie. 

An Order in Council dated May 21 and 
gazetted June 6 makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for painters and decorators 
at Sault Ste. Marie, to be in effect from 
June 16, 1953, during pleasure. 

The terms of this schedule are similar to 
those previously in effect and summarized 
in the Labour Gazette, January 1952, p. 57, 
with the exception of the following: — 

Specified holidays: Saturday after midday 
is not included in the list of specified 
holidays as previously. 

Overtime: time and one-half during the 
7-hour period immediately following a 
regular working day and during the 4-hour 



period immediately following eight hours' 
work in any 24-hour period known as night 
work; double time for all other overtime 
including Sundays and seven specified 
holidays. No overtime without a permit 
from advisory committee. (Previously this 
applied to Labour Day only.) 

Minimum hourly wage rates for a 44-hour 
week are increased from $1.35 to $1.75 for 
spray painting; from $1.25 to $1.65 for other 
work. 



ALBERTA 



Construction 



Painters and Decorators, Calgary. 

An Order in Council approved May 22 
and gazetted June 15 makes obligatory the 
terms of a new schedule for painters and 
decorators at Calgary, to be in effect from 
June 25, 1953, until June 24, 1954. 

Hours: eight per day, 40 per week. Pro- 
vision is made for night shift work. 

Overtime: time and one-half for all work 
done between 5 p.m. and 8 p.m. Monday 
through Friday and between 8 a.m. and 
5 p.m. Saturday; double time for work done 
during other hours and for work on Sunday 
or any of nine specified holidays. 

Minimum hourly wage rate: journeymen 
$1.50 per hour; spray painters and men 
working on swing scaffolds 10 cents per 
hour extra. Work on night shift will be 
paid for at the rate of eight hours' pay for 
seven hours' work. 

Apprenticeship conditions governed by the 
Alberta Apprenticeship Act. 



Reduction of Waste 
Important LMPC TasU 

One of the most important activities of 
the LMPC at Canadian Tube and Steel 
Products in Montreal (see p. 1153) has 
been helping to reduce waste. 

A questionnaire on the problem of waste 
designed to provide the basis for an 
organized attack on this industrial problem 
has been prepared. Incorporated in it are 
many LMPC ideas. 

The questionnaire divides the types of 
materials where care should be exercised 
into four categories: fabricating materials, 
such as steel and brass; maintenance 
materials, such as fuel, oils and greases, 
acids and belting; tooling materials, such 
as tool steels, dies, etc.; and such shipping 
materials as boxes, kegs and ties. A series 
of questions, presented under each category, 
acts as an excellent yardstick for discus- 



sion of the waste problem. In conclusion, 
the precis notes that "a good many answers 
(to these questions) are to be found in the 
scrap pan. Let's take a look and have 
a few suggestions ready for the next 
meeting." 

One company official has commented on 
the LMPC as follows: "It has been our 
experience that in joint discussion ... a 
free interchange of opinions and sugges- 
tions is creating a better understanding of 
the production problems confronting the 
successful operation of the plant which 
will serve as a constructive means of 
boosting mutual confidence, teamwork, and 
morale .... Our LMPC program we feel 
serves as a morale builder and a resultant 
instrument to improve production the sum 
of which provides a basic foundation for 
healthier industrial relations." 



1169 



Labour Law 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Supreme Court of Canada renders judgment in cases involving labour 
relations boards of British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec 

The Supreme Court of Canada on June 8 handed down decisions in four 
cases which arose out of the operation of labour relations legislation in British 
Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. In each of these cases the issue 
brought before the Court centred around the duty of the Labour Relations 
Board in respect to the certification of a union as bargaining agent for a group 
of employees. 



In the British Columbia case, the com- 
plaint was that the Board had wrongly 
interpreted the definition of "employee" by 
failing to exclude from a bargaining unit 
employees who had access to confidential 
information. The Court held that the posi- 
tion taken by the Board was one that could 
reasonably be reached on the evidence and 
that in such circumstances the decision of 
the Board was final. 

In the Nova Scotia case, the question 
was whether under the statute the Board 
had discretion to refuse certification to an 
applicant union, which had satisfied the 
Board that it fulfilled the conditions for 
certification set out in the Act, on the 
grounds that one of its leaders was a 
Communist. The Court held that the 
Board did not have authority to disqualify 
the union on that ground. 

In the Ontario case, the complaint was 
that the Board had failed to exercise its 
duty to make a full inquiry into the ques- 
tion of "membership in good standing" 
which it was required to determine in order 
to decide whether the union was represent- 
ative of the employees concerned. The 
Court held that the complaint was justified 
and that the order issued as a result of 
the incomplete inquiry was invalid. 

In the Quebec case, the complaint was 
that the Board, without any hearing of 
the union's side, revoked a certificate as 
bargaining agent on the grounds that the 
union was engaging in an illegal strike. 
The Court held that the Board has a duty 
to hear both parties on any issue it decides 
and that the order made without a proper 
hearing was invalid. 

In these cases the Supreme Court of 
Canada established that decisions of labour 
boards may in certain circumstances be 
brought before the courts for review even 
if the statute setting up the tribunal pro- 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



vides that its decision shall be final. The 
legislature is presumed to intend only that 
there shall be no right of appeal when the 
board is exercising the jurisdiction con- 
ferred upon it. If it exceeds its jurisdiction 
(that is, if it does more than the statute 
expressly permits) or if it declines jurisdic- 
tion (that is, fails to do all that the statute 
requires it to do), then there is the usual 
access to the courts. A board cannot add 
to its jurisdiction by a misinterpretation of 
the law. 

The Labour Relations Board et al v. 
Canada Safeway Limited. 

In the Safeway case, the Supreme Court 
dealt with the question whether the British 
Columbia Labour Relations Board had 
acted within its powers in including in a 
bargaining unit office employees who had 
access to confidential information. 

The Retail, Wholesale and Department 
Store Union, Local 580, applied to the 
British Columbia Labour Relations Board 
for certification as the bargaining authority 
for office emploj^ees (except department 
managers and outside salesmen) at the 
distributing warehouses in Vancouver of 
Canada Safeway Limited. The Act pro- 
vides that "the Board shall determine 
whether the unit is appropriate for 
collective bargaining, and the Board may, 
before certification, include additional 
employees in, or exclude employees from, 
the unit." 

In the interpretation section of the Act, 
"employee" is defined as 



1170 



a person employed by an employer to do 
skilled or unskilled manual, clerical, or 
technical work, but does not include: — 

(a) a person employed in a confidential 
capacity or a person who has authority to 
employ or discharge employees: 

(b) a person who participates in collec- 
tive bargaining on behalf of an employer, or 
who participates in the consideration of an 
employer's labour policy . . . 

The Board determined that the office 
employees, except in certain positions and 
classes of work which it listed on the back 
of the certification order, were a unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining. The 
unit comprised 24 comptometer operators, 
nine operators of Powers machines, six 
telephone operators and two duplicating 
machine operators. The excepted positions 
and classes of work were: managers, 
assistant managers, managerial secretaries, 
personnel records, payroll clerks, chief 
accountant, accountant, supervisor of comp- 
tometer operators, supervisor of Powers 
machine operators, pricing department 
clerk, advertising clerk, bulletin typist. 

The company, by means of a writ of 
certiorari, obtained a review of the Board's 
decision in the British Columbia Supreme 
Court. The Court held that the Board's 
decision was within its powers. The com- 
pany appealed this decision to the British 
Columbia Court of Appeal, which reversed 
it, holding that the Board had exceeded 
its powers. The union and the British 
Columbia Labour Relations Board then 
brought an appeal in the Supreme Court 
of Canada. 

With two judges dissenting, the Supreme 
Court of Canada allowed the appeal and 
restored the judgment of the British 
Columbia trial court. 

Mr. Justice Rand, in his reasons, 
described the nature of the work of the 
operators in question. The comptometer 
operators are engaged in the preparation 
and assembly of statistical and report 
material. What may be called the primary 
figures come to the central office from the 
warehouses, merchandising departments and 
retail stores in the zone, and are combined, 
consolidated or summarized in such detail 
and such manner as the company requires. 
In this matter appear prices, wages, bonuses, 
profits and other items. The Powers 
machines are used among other things to 
make out cheques to employees, for the 
preparation of invoices of goods to the 
retail stores, records of cost prices, sale 
prices and profit margins throughout the 
zone, and of daily and quarterly reports of 
volume sales of individual commodities. 
The duplicating machine operators repro- 
duce the statistical returns and distribute 
incoming and handle outgoing mail. 



From this description he considered it to 
be clear that the work done is simply the 
mechanical production. of statements of the 
business. These statements may contain 
information which the company does not 
"broadcast from the housetops" but the 
operators do nothing about it except to 
transcribe it for the use of others. Their 
work is basically instrumental. The argu- 
ment that they should be excluded from 
the definition of employees covered by the 
Act is based on the fact that they are 
"exposed to" the information. 

This is a condition which is present more 
or less in every business and an employee 
is under a legal duty as a term of his 
employment to treat all such matters as 
the exclusive concern of the proprietor. 

But the question under the statute is not 
to be determined by the test whether the 
employee has incidental access to this in- 
formation; it is rather whether between the 
particular employee and the employer there 
exists a relation of a character that stands 
out from the generality of relations and 
bears a special quality of confidence. In 
ordinary parlance, how can we say that a 
person skilled to operate a comptometer and 
employed primarily because of that skill, 
who is presumably so fully occupied with 
the particular work of transcribing or con- 
solidating, that the figures in general mean 
little to him, is by that exposure converted 
into an employee with a "confidential" 
relation? Between the management and the 
confidential employee there is an element of 
personal trust which permits some degree of 
"thinking aloud" on special matters; it may 
be on matters in relation to employees, 
competitors or the public or on proposed 
action of any sort or description; but that 
information is of a nature out of the 
ordinary and is kept within a strictly 
limited group. In many instances it is of 
the essence of the confidence that it be not 
disclosed to any member of any group or 
body of the generality of employees. 

In his opinion, there is nothing of that 
sort here. With a large office of upwards 
of 35 employees engaged in similar occupa- 
tion, the matter which they work into 
reports, so far as it is known to one of 
them, is of common knowledge throughout 
the office. They occupy no exceptional 
position in office organization. Most of 
them are now members of the union. He 
found no validity in the argument that 
"the certification of the union to represent 
them would open the floodgates of exposure 
of the company's business chiefly to 
competitors". 

No such information would be used by 
any tribunal except by compelling the com- 
pany to produce it or by permitting it to 
be disclosed by witnesses; but no evidence 
would be countenanced that had been 
obtained by a breach of duty. The feature 
a union would be interested in is the 
financial result of the business, and in this 
case that fact is published to the world. 



1171 



He then went on to discuss how "con- 
fidential capacity" may be determined. He 
said that there is an element of confidence 
between an employer and all his employees 
and an ascending scale up to those whose 
relation takes on the "confidential capacity". 
The point at which that is reached is a 
matter of judgment to be formed by weigh- 
ing all the circumstances. As an example, 
the handling of typewritten reports on 
advanced stages of atomic development 
might well today be classed as done by 
one in such a capacity. Apart from qualifi- 
cations as a competent operator, integrity 
and the capacity for self-discipline and 
control might be an important considera- 
tion. Twenty-five years from now all that 
information may be as common as the 
formulas of chemistry. 

Under the Act the responsibility for 
determining "confidential capacity" rests 
with the Board. In his words: "The task 
of evaluating all these considerations has 
been committed by the legislature to the 
Board; and so long as its judgment can 
be said to be consonant with a rational 
appreciation of the situation presented, the 
Court is without power to modify or set 
it aside." 

Mr. Justice Taschereau, Mr. Justice 
Cartwright and Mr. Justice Estey, accept- 
ing the reasons of Chief Justice Farris of 
the Supreme Court of British Columbia, 
held that the appeal should be allowed 
simply on the grounds that, on the 
evidence before it, it was open to the 
Board to come to the conclusion that the 
operators in question were not in fact 
employed in such a capacity as to be 
excluded from the term "employees" within 
the meaning of the Act. In such circum- 
stances they considered that effect must be 
given to the section of the Act which 
provides that this question is to be deter- 
mined by the Board and its decision is 
final. They did not consider it necessary 
to inquire whether they would have reached 
the same conclusion. 

Mr. Justice Kerwin, also concurring, did 
not rely on the provision making the 
Board's decision final but was satisfied that 
the Board and Chief Justice Farris came 
to the right conclusion on the question at 
issue. He dealt with the argument that 
the operators in question should be excluded 
as much as the accountant or supervisors. 
In his view, the duties of accountants and 
supervisors comprise much more than tabu- 
lating on machines information from various 
sources. They would collate the informa- 
tion with a view to presenting it, and 



making recommendations in connection with 
it, to a superior employee. For these 
reasons he thought that the excepted 
employees were clearly distinguished from 
those in the unit. 

Dissenting Opinions 

The Chief Justice and Mr. Justice 
Kellock dissented, and would have dis- 
missed the appeal. The Chief Justice 
accepted the reasons of the Chief Justice 
of the British Columbia Court of Appeal. 
Mr. Justice Kellock, in giving his reasons, 
said first that the sections providing that 
the question of whether a person is an 
employee is to be determined by the 
Board, and making the Board's decision 
final, do not exclude the supervisory juris- 
diction of the court of there is "an error 
on the face of the proceedings". 

The error alleged to be apparent on the 
face of the record in the case at bar is the 
view taken by the Board of the statutory 
definition of "employee". Although it is for 
the Board to determine whether or not a 
particular person is brought within the 
statutory definition, the Board may not 
misconstrue that definition. 

He went on to discuss the meaning of 
"confidential": — 

The difference to my mind between a 
person employed in a confidential capacity 
and one not so employed is that, in the 
former case, for reasons, it may be, of 
convenience or necessity on the part of the 
employer in the conduct of his business or 
affairs, the employee is put in possession of 
matter which the employer regards, from his 
standpoint, as secret or private. 

In this case, the company operates chain 
stores on a large scale and of necessity 
requires the assistance of a considerable 
number of employees in dealing with 
matters which it desires to keep private. 
While it is true that being a public com- 
pany, its annual profits and losses are 
published, profits or losses for each indi- 
vidual store are not published and "it is 
obvious that the respondent would have 
the best of reasons for desiring to keep 
such information to itself and not avail- 
able to its competitors". It is detailed 
information of this sort that the employees 
in question are dealing with. In his view 
the Board, in its interpretation, was depart- 
ing from the plain meaning of the language 
used by the legislature. 

Smith & Rhuland Limited v. The Queen, 
on the relation of Brice Andrews 
et al. 

The case concerns the rejection by the 
Labour Relations Board of Nova Scotia of 
an application from the Industrial Union 



1172 



of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of 
Canada, Local 18, for certification as the 
bargaining agent of employees in a collec- 
tive unit. The Board found the unit 
appropriate for bargaining purposes and the 
other conditions of certification to be met, 
but refused certification on the ground that 
the secretary-treasurer of the union, Bell, 
who had organized the local body and as 
its acting secretary-treasurer had signed the 
application, was a Communist and the 
dominating influence in the union. The 
Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, on 
certiorari, set aside the Board's order 
dismissing the application and directed the 
Board to reconsider it, holding that the 
Board had, in the circumstances, no discre- 
tion to refuse but that, even if it had, the 
discretion had been improperly exercised. 
Before the Supreme Court of Canada both 
these grounds were challenged. 

The first, that the Board had no discre- 
tion to refuse certification if the prescribed 
conditions were met, depends on the inter- 
pretation of the word "may" in Section 
9(2) (b) of the Nova Scotia Trade Union 
Act, which reads: — 

If a vote of the employees in the unit 
has been taken under the direction of the 
Board and the Board is satisfied that not 
less than 60 per cent of such employees have 
voted and that a majority of such 60 per 
cent have selected the trade union to be 
bargaining agent on their behalf; the Board 
may certify the trade union as the bargain- 
ing agent of the employees in the unit. 

The provincial Interpretation Act provides 
that "may" shall be construed as being 
permissive. Such definitions in the Inter- 
pretation Act are to apply "in so far as 
they are not inconsistent with the interests 
and object" of the Acts to which they 
extend. 

The reasons of Mr. Justice Kerwin, Mr. 
Justice Estey and Mr. Justice Rand were 
delivered by Mr. Justice Rand. 

Examining the Trade Union Act, Mr. 
Justice Rand found that it exemplified 
strikingly the contrasted uses of "shall" 
and "may": — 

For instance, in 9(1) we have "the Board 
shall determine" whether the unit is appro- 
priate; "the Board may . . . include addi- 
tional employees in the unit"; "the Board 
shall take such steps to determine the wishes 
of the employees"; 9(4) "the Board . . . may, 
for the purpose . . . make such examination 
of records or other inquiries, etc."; "the 
Board may prescribe the nature of the 
evidence to be furnished"; 9(5) "the Board, 
in determining the appropriate unit, shall 
have regard to the community of interests"; 
9(7) "if the Board is not satisfied ... it 
shall reject the application and may desig- 
nate the time before a new application will 
be considered"; Sec. 11, the Board "may 
revoke the certificate." 



There are other examples, and in the face 
of them, Mr. Justice Rand held that it 
would be "an act of temerity to hold that 
in the clause before us the word is to be 
taken in an imperative sense". The word 
is to be taken as permissive and as 
"connoting an area of discretion". 

The remaining question was whether the 
Board, in its rejection, acted within the 
limits of that discretion. In examining this 
question, Mr. Justice Rand assumed the 
findings made as to Bell's adherence to the 
doctrines of communism and the strategy 
and techniques by which they are 
propagated. 

The Board's finding of domination was 
based on the key position of general 
secretary-treasurer and organizer which Bell 
held, on his acceptance of communistic 
teachings and by the fact that the 
Communist Party requires its adherents to 
seek by deceit, treachery and revolution to 
subvert democratic institutions. As summed 
up by His Lordship: — 

That is to say, the circumstance that an 
officer of a federated labour union holds to 
these doctrines is, per se, and apart from 
illegal acts or conduct, a ground upon which 
its local unions, so long as he remains an 
officer, can be denied the benefits of the 
Trade Union Act. 

No one can doubt, he said, that the 
problem presented in choosing between 
toleration of those who hold such doctrines 
and restrictions repugnant to our political 
traditions is a difficult one; but there are 
certain facts which must be faced. 

He pointed out that there is no law in 
this country against holding such views nor 
of being a member of a group or party 
supporting them: — 

This man is eligible for election or appoint- 
ment to the highest political offices in the 
province: on what ground can it be said 
that the legislature of which he might be a 
member has empowered the Board, in effect, 
to exclude him from a labour union? or to 
exclude a labour union from the benefits of 
the statute because it avails itself, in legiti- 
mate activities, of his abilities? 

If it should be shown that a union is 
not intended to be an instrument of 
advantage and security to its members "but 
one to destroy the very power from 'which 
it seeks privilege" then a different situa- 
tion would be presented. That was the 
situation in Branch Lines Limited v. Cana- 
dian Seamen's Union which was held to 
justify a revocation of the certificate by 
the Canada Labour Relations Board. 

In this case nothing was urged against 
the local union; it seeks the legitimate 
end of the welfare of its members. The 



1173 



federated body to which the local belongs 
is affiliated with the Canadian Congress of 
Labour. During 1951, two local units of 
this union were certified by the Board. To 
treat the communistic views of the organ- 
izer as a ground for refusing certification 
he termed "a want of faith in the intelli- 
gence and loyalty of the membership of 
both the local and the federation". 

The dangers from the propagation of the 
communist dogmas lie essentially in the 
receptivity of the environment. The Cana- 
dian social order rests on the enlightened 
opinion and the reasonable satisfaction of 
the wants and desires of the people as a 
whole; but how can that state of things be 
advanced by the action of a local tribunal 
otherwise than on the footing of trust and 
confidence in those with whose interests the 
tribunal deals? Employees of every rank 
and description throughout the Dominion 
furnish the substance of the national life 
and the security of the state itself resides 
in their solidarity as loyal subjects. To 
them, as to all citizens, Ave must look for 
the protection and defence of that security 
within the governmental structure, and in 
these days on them rests an immediate 
responsibility for keeping under scrutiny the 
motives and actions of their leaders. Those 
are the considerations that have shaped the 
legislative policy of this country to the 
present time and they underlie the statute 
before us. 

For these reasons he did not think that 
the Board was empowered to take away 
rights from a labour organization because 
there was among its officers an individual 
holding political views considered by the 
Board to be dangerous. There must be 
some evidence that, with the acquiescence 
of the members, he had directed the union 
towards ends destructive of its legitimate 
purposes to justify excluding employees 
from the rights and privileges of a statute 
designed primarily for their benefit. The 
appeal was accordingly dismissed. 

Mr. Justice Kellock, holding with the 
majority that the appeal should be dis- 
missed, adopted somewhat different reason- 
ing. In his view, when the statute provides 
that the Board "may" certify the union, it 
contemplates the other questions which the 
Board has to decide concerning the appro- 
priateness of the unit as set out in Section 
9(3). This he considered to be the only 
interpretation of "may" which would be 
in harmony with Section 8, which provides 
for the certification of a union to represent 
a craft unit and which says that, under 
certain conditions, the union "shall be 
entitled" to be certified. He did not 
consider that "may" was intended to denote 
an area of discretion; accordingly other 
considerations than those the Board is 
directed by the statute to consider are 



irrelevant. In this case he held that the 
Board's decision was reached upon a con- 
sideration of extraneous matters; for this 
reason he would dismiss the appeal. 

Dissenting Opinions 

Mr. Justice Taschereau, Mr. Justice 
Cartwright and Mr. Justice Fauteux dis- 
sented, holding that the Board properly 
exercised a discretion conferred on it by 
the statute and that it was not the 
function of the court to interfere. Mr. 
Justice Cartwright, in a judgment with 
which Mr. Justice Fauteux concurred, 
summed up his position as follows: — 

In the case at bar, the Board was guided 
by the fact, as found by it. that the 
dominant leadership and direction of the 
applicant union was provided by a member 
of the Communist Party, to the conclusion 
that certification would be inconsistent with 
the principle and purpose of the Act and 
contrary to the public interest. I am quite 
unable to say as a matter of law that this 
was an extraneous consideration. It must 
not be forgotten that under Section 11 cer- 
tification once granted may be revoked but 
only after it has been in effect for not less 
than ten months. It is not necessary that I 
should express an opinion as to whether the 
decision of the Board was right or wise. It 
appears to me to be a decision made in the 
bona fide exercise of a discretion which the 
legislature has seen fit to commit to it and 
not to the courts. 

They would have allowed the appeal and 
set aside the order of the Supreme Court 
of Nova Scotia. 

Toronto Newspaper Guild, Local 87 v. 
Globe Printing Company. 

By leave of the Court of Appeal for 
Ontario, the Toronto Newspaper Guild, 
Local 87, appealed from a judgment of 
that Court affirming an order of the High 
Court of Justice quashing a certificate of 
the Ontario Labour Relations Board. The 
certificate entitled the union to act as 
bargaining agent for the employees of the 
circulation department of the Globe Print- 
ing Company. 

With two judges dissenting, the Supreme 
Court of Canada dismissed the appeal. 

Mr. Justice Kellock in his reasons for 
decision set out the facts in detail. The 
Toronto Newspaper Guild applied to the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board to be 
certified as bargaining agent for certain 
employees in the circulation department of 
the Globe Printing Company, claiming to 
have a majority of the employees as 
members in good standing. 

The Labour Relations Act 1948 (Ontario) 
and regulations under it (the legislation 
under which the application was made) 
empower the Board to grant certification 



1174 






if satisfied that the majority of the 
employees in a unit appropriate for collec- 
tive bargaining are members in good 
standing of an applicant trade union. If 
a question arises whether a person is a 
member in good standing of a trade union, 
the Board is to decide the question, such 
decision to be final and conclusive. 
Another section of the Act provides that 
the decisions of the Board are not to be 
reviewed by any court. 

As required by the rules made by the 
Board, the application was verified by the 
affidavit of the secretary of the applicant 
union and written notice of its filing was 
duly given to the company by the registrar 
of the Board. In its reply the company 
requested the Board to determine if the 
applicant represented a majority of the 
employees in the unit. A hearing was 
called by the registrar. 

The statute contains provisions which 
indicate the nature of the hearing that is 
to be held: — 

(7) The Board and each member thereof 
shall have the power of summoning any 
person and requiring him to give evidence 
on oath before the Board and to produce 
such documents and things as may be deemed 
requisite for the full investigation of any 
matter coming before the Board and shall 
have the like power to enforce the atten- 
dance of witnesses and to compel them to 
give evidence and to produce documents and 
things as is vested in any court in civil 
cases. 

(8) The Board and each member thereof 
may receive and accept such evidence and 
information on oath, affidavit or otherwise 
as in its or his discretion it or he may deem 
fit and proper whether admissible as evi- 
dence in a court of law or not. 

It is further established by case law 
(Board of Education v. Rice, 1911 A.C., 
179) that a tribunal of the nature of the 
one here in question "must act in good 
faith and fairly listen to both sides, for 
that is a duty lying upon every one who 
decides anything," and that it must give 
a fair opportunity to those who are parties 
in the controversy for correcting or con- 
tradicting any relevant statement preju- 
dicial to their view. 

At the hearing, after the matter of the 
composition of the bargaining unit was 
disposed of, the Board proceeded to deal 
with the claim of the union to have a 
majority of the employees in its member- 
ship. The union claimed to have 59 
members and filed documents said to 
represent 57 members who had paid 
initiation fees or dues. As requested by 
the Board, the company's counsel filed 
lists of employees of the department as 
of the date of the application and the 
date of the hearing. 



Counsel for the company then contended 
that the documents filed by the union in 
support of its membership claims did not 
show that a majority of the employees in 
the unit were members in good standing 
and he asked to cross-examine the union 
secretary. He stated that he had informa- 
tion that a number of employees had sent 
in resignations. The chairman stated that 
he saw no relevancy to resignations. 
Counsel for the union objected to any 
cross-examination of union officials and 
said that the documents which had been 
filed did represent members in good 
standing according to the union's constitu- 
tion. The chairman ruled against cross- 
examination of the witness. Counsel for 
the company then urged that a heavy onus 
lay upon the Board to make a full 
investigation to satisfy itself, and that it 
should itself question the witness and 
examine the documents, or examine some 
or all of the employees in the department, 
or order a vote by secret ballot. 

The Board did not take a vote, or, so far 
as is disclosed by the record, make any 
further inquiry, and issued an order 
certifying the union as bargaining agent for 
the employees in the defined unit. 

Mr. Justice Kellock considered it to be 
plain from this recital of the facts that 
there was no hearing of the matter before 
the Board for investigation within any 
reasonable interpretation of the word. 

In the case at bar it was impossible for 
the Board to determine whether any one 
of the persons alleged to be members of 
the appellant was in fact a member in good 
standing if the Board refused to enter upon 
the question as to whether or not, assuming 
membership to have originally existed, it 
had continued. This was the very obliga- 
tion placed upon the Board by the statute. 
By refusing to enter upon it, the Board in 
fact declined jurisdiction. It is well settled 
that any order pronounced by an inferior 
tribunal in such circumstances is subject to 
the supervising jurisdiction of the superior 
courts, exercisable by way of certiorari. 

He then dealt with the contention of 
counsel for the Guild that a mere refusal 
to permit the cross-examination of a 
witness does not amount to a "manifest 
defect of jurisdiction" such as to make the 
Board's action subject to court review. 
The refusal to permit cross-examination 
might not have been so considered had 
the Board not itself declined to enter into 
the inquiry which the statute laid upon it. 

He dismissed the point that the Board's 
failure to consider resignations might have 
been for the reason that under the union 
constitution any withdrawal of member- 
ship was ineffective at the time of the 

1175 



hearing, since this point was not raised in 
the courts below nor was any material 
filed with the court. 

Mr. Justice Fauteux reviewed the obliga- 
tion of the Board to decide any question 
submitted before concluding that the 
alleged members of the union were in good 
standing. 

On a consideration of the material 
admittedly showing what took place before 
the Board, I cannot convince myself that 
the latter did not decline jurisdiction as a 
result of its rulings on the various requests 
made at hearing by the respondent, all of 
them being directed to the contestation of 
the right of the appellant trade union to be 
certified as bargaining agent. In the per- 
spective of all that took place, the ruling as 
to the evidence is, I think, as much, if not 
more, consistent with a declining of juris- 
diction than with a wrongful refusal to 
receive evidence. 

Mr. Justice Kerwin, after reviewing the 

facts and the applicable legislation, noted 

that, since the Board refused to order a 

vote as requested by the employer, the 

Board's jurisdiction to certify depended 

upon its being satisfied that the majority 

of the employees in the unit were members 

in good standing of the union. 

But the Board said that it was irrelevant 
whether certain individuals had resigned 
from the Union and it therefore declined to 
investigate that all important question. In 
proceeding to certify, it exceeded its juris- 
diction and excess of jurisdiction has 
invariably been held to be a ground upon 
which a Superior Court could quash an 
order of an inferior tribunal. 

Dissenting Opinions 

Mr. Justice Cartwright, dissenting, was 

unable to find from the record that the 

Board's procedure was such that it had 

exceeded its jurisdiction or that it had 

failed to fulfil a duty laid upon it by the 
statute. 

What is complained of is that the Board 
refused to permit cross-examination or to 
receive or obtain for itself evidence all 
directed to establishing that between the 
date of the application for certification and 
the date of the hearing a number of 
employees of the respondent who had there- 
tofore been members of the appellant had 
sent in their resignations and had conse- 
quently ceased to be "members in good 
standing". 

He pointed out that it was clear that before 

ruling that resignations were irrelevant, the 

Board heard full argument from counsel 

for both parties. 

The ruling indicates that the Board 
reached the conclusion that a member who 
sent in his resignation during the stated 
period nonetheless remained a member in 



good standing at the date of the hearing. 
If this conclusion was right then the evidence 
tendered was irrelevant. It may well be 
that the conclusion was wrong; but that 
would, or might, depend upon the provisions 
of the constitution of the appellant which 
may or may not have been before the Board 
or upon the contents of the written applica- 
tions for membership which were before the 
Board. 

Even assuming that the Board was 
wrong in refusing to receive evidence, the 
refusal, in his view, was for the reason 
that even if received it would not prove 
the- subject matter into which the Board 
was bound to inquire, that is whether those 
who sent in their resignations ceased to be 
members in good standing. 

I conclude, therefore, that no refusal to 
hear the parties, or excess of jurisdiction or 
declining of jurisdiction is made out and 
that effect must be given to the provisions 
of the statute which render the decision of 
the Board final and forbid its review. 

Mr. Justice Rand also dissented from 
the Court's decision. After reviewing the 
legislation, he said that the provision of 
the Act excluding the control of the courts 
is designed to apply to the scope of action 
within which the Board is intended by the 
legislature to act. Ultra vires action is a 
matter for the superior courts. The real 
controversy lies in the determination of 
the boundaries of that contemplated scope. 

Certainly where the Board is at liberty 
to inform itself of matters of fact by any 
means, as it is here, and where it can act 
if "satisfied" of certain things and where its 
findings are declared to be final and judicial 
review excluded, I doubt that the test can 
be anything less than this: is the action or 
decision within any rational compass that 
can be attributed to the statutory language? 

He noted that neither the statute nor the 
regulations made any reference to a hear- 
ing; the hearing is a step that arises by 
implication from procedural rules. Assum- 
ing that the parties have a right to a 
hearing, "it has been encrusted with so 
many qualifying powers in the Board that 
its ordina'ry function has been virtually 
emasculated". It is reduced to an oppor- 
tunity for each side to present its own 
evidence unilaterally and by its own means 
only. It may be disclosed to the Board 
only. 

Such a method, in his view, "clashes with 
the lessons of our law's experience; the 
best means to truth remain those of open 
disclosure of the facts". Yet, he pointed 
out, both unions and employers are apt 
to insist strongly upon the secrecy of what 
is called "confidential" matter. In general 
the open public court is recognized as "the 



1176 



citadel of our legal system". Authority to 
make decisions on matters undisclosed to 
both sides is the first step toward arbitrary 
judgment, the final stage of which, if 
allowed to be pursued, is dictation. 

These considerations, however, he held 
to be irrelevant where there is no clear 
departure from the field of action defined 
by the statute, and he found none in this 
case. It is to the legislature, not the courts, 
that complaints against the procedure 
authorized by the legislation must be 
addressed. 

U Alliance des Professeurs catholiques de 
Montreal v. La Commission des Rela- 
tions ouvrieres de la province de 
Quebec et La Commission des Ecoles 
catholiques de Montreal, Mise-en~ 
cause. 
In the Montreal teachers' case, the 
Supreme Court, with no dissenting opinion, 
found the Board's decertification order to 
be invalid. The Chief Justice in his 
reasons for decision carefully set out the 
steps leading up to the placing of the issue 
before the Supreme Court. 

On May 12, 1944, the Quebec Labour 
Relations Board certified UAlliance des 
Professeurs Catholiques de Montreal (the 
Association of Catholic Teachers of Mont- 
real) as the bargaining agent for all teachers 
in the French schools of the Montreal 
Catholic School Commission. 

In January 1949, the Association and the 
School Commission had not succeeded in 
negotiating a collective agreement covering 
salaries for the current year. At a general 
meeting of the Association held January 12, 
the majority of the members present voted 
in favour of a strike which was to begin 
Monday, January 17. The strike took place 
on that date but, at the end of the week, 
the teachers decided to return to work, and 
did so on Monday, January 24. During 
the strike, on January 21, the School 
Commission addressed a letter to the 
Board requesting the cancellation of the 
certificate as bargaining agent held by the 
Association. On the same day, without a 
hearing or notice to the Association, the 
Board rendered a decision cancelling the 
certification. This decision was sent to the 
Association by telegram the same day and 
confirmed by a letter the following day. 

On April 27, 1949, the Association applied 
to a judge of the Superior Court for an 
order authorizing the issue of a writ of 
summons. In its application which accom- 
panied the writ, the Association claimed 
that the cancellation of the certificate as 
bargaining agent was illegal, since a strike 
was not a just cause for cancellation and 



because, in addition, the Association had 
not received any notice of the request for 
decertification. It asked for a declaration 
that the Board had exceeded its jurisdic- 
tion in its decision of January 21 and that 
in consequence this decision should be 
adjudged null and void. Leave was given 
to bring the issue into court and an order 
was made restraining the Board from 
acting on the revocation until the trial of 
the action. 

The judgment of the Superior Court 
given September 23, 1950, confirmed the 
writ of prohibition and quashed the Board's 
decertification order. The Labour Rela- 
tions Board appealed this decision to the 
Court of King's Bench, Appeal Side, and 
the appeal court reversed the decision. 
The Association then brought an appeal to 
the Supreme Court of Canada. 

After setting out the facts the Chief 
Justice reviewed the reasons given by Mr. 
Justice Savard in the Superior Court for 
finding that the Board had exceeded its 
jurisdiction and that the decertification 
order should be quashed. He stressed the 
fact that not only did the Board render a 
decision without notice to the Association, 
or the holding of a hearing, but that it 
actually gave the decision before the 
matter was properly before it. The appli- 
cation of the School Commission was 
prepared at Montreal after a meeting of 
the Commission and was dated January 21. 
That is the same day that the Board, 
sitting at Quebec, granted the request, 
although it did not receive the Commis- 
sion's submission until January 24. 

What this amounts to is that the Board 
granted the request of the School Com- 
mission without even having received it, 
and then telegraphed the decision can- 
celling the certification to the Association. 
In the Chief Justice's words, 

Voila une justice expeditive, s'il en est 
une: Le jugement rendu avant que la requete 
fut devant la Commission intimee et la partie 
interessee informee par telegramme. 

He held with the judge of the Superior 
Court that this procedure was contrary to 
the fundamental principles of justice. 

He then reviewed the article of the Code 
of Civil Procedure which provides that no 
judicial question can be adjudicated upon 
unless the party against whom it is made 
has been heard or duly summoned; he 
cited numerous cases in which the prin- 
ciple had been applied. 

Whatever powers of discretion a body 
such as the Labour Relations Board may 
have, it is not a question here of discretion 
but of the most arbitrary action. Even 



1177 



if it is called an administrative body, when- 
ever it exercises a semi-judicial function, as 
it did in this instance, it becomes an 
inferior tribunal in the sense of Article 1003 
of the Code of Civil Procedure. It did 
more than exceed its jurisdiction; it acted 
without any jurisdiction and its action 
gives rise to a writ of prohibition. 

He dealt next with the semi-judicial 
nature of the Board's functions. The 
Association possessed the certificate as 
bargaining agent issued by the Board. 
Under Section 7 of the Labour Relations 
Act, the Board, before issuing the certifi- 
cate, was under a duty to assure itself of 
the representative character of the Associa- 
tion and of its right to be recognized, after 
having examined its books and records. 
He called attention to the phrase "right 
to be recognized" which appears in the Act. 

In addition, under Section 41, the Board 
may, for cause, revise or cancel any deci- 
sion or order rendered by it or any 
certificate issued by it. This power is 
given the Board only "for cause". The 
situation then was that the Association 
had been recognized by the Board and that 
this recognition could not be revoked 
arbitrarily, nor even in the exercise of 
discretion, but only "for cause". Conse- 
quently, in revoking the Association's 
certificate, the Board was taking away a 
right and the decision that it rendered was 
thus strictly a judicial decision in which 
the Board was called upon to judge 
whether cause existed to take away the 
right. 

In such circumstances, the rule is that 
the party whose right is at stake must be 
given a hearing and the opportunity to 
defend himself. This is borne out by many 
cases. The Chief Justice quoted from a 
judgment of the Privy Council in a 
Quebec case (Lapointe v. Association de 
Bienfaisance et de retraite de la Police de 
Montreal, 1908 AC 535) :— 

They are bound in the exercise of their 
functions by the rule expressed in the maxim 
'Audi alteram partem' that no man should be 
condemned to consequence resulting from 
alleged misconduct unheard, and without 
having the opportunity of making his 
defence. This rule is not confined to the 
conduct of strictly legal tribunals, but is 
applicable to every tribunal or body of 
persons invested with authority to adjudicate 
upon matters involving civil consequences to 
individuals. 

This well-recognized principle is found in 
the Act itself. Section 50 gives certain 
powers to the Labour Relations Board and 
stipulates that, in case of violation of the 
section on forbidden practices, the Board 
may, without prejudice to any other 



penalty, decree the dissolution of the 
association, but "after giving it an oppor- 
tunity to be heard and to produce any 
evidence tending to exculpate it". In the 
appeal court, the point was made that 
since this provision appeared in the Act 
only in the case of violations of the 
section on forbidden practices, it must have 
been intended that no notice was required 
under Section 41. That no one may be 
condemned or deprived of his rights with- 
out being heard is a general rule of law 
and it would take more than the silence 
of a statute to deprive any one of it. It 
would be necessary for the legislature to 
use explicit terms to put aside this obliga- 
tion which rests on all tribunals. 

He then dealt with the main argument 
upon which the majority of the appeal 
court had based their opinion, that is, that 
the fact that the Act (Section 36) gave 
the Board all the powers, immunities and 
privileges of commissioners appointed 
under the Public Inquiry Commission Act, 
and that a provision of that Act is to the 
effect that "no writ of injunction or 
prohibition or other legal proceeding shall 
interfere with or stay the proceedings of 
the commissioners in the inquiry (RSQ 
1941, c. 9, s. 17)." Along with the judge 
of the trial court, he was of the opinion 
that there was no reason to conclude that 
the Legislature intended to make this 
provision applicable to the Labour Rela- 
tions Board. In any case it could not be 
invoked to prevent a writ of prohibition 
against a judgment rendered without 
jurisdiction. 

Much could be said, the Chief Justice 
remarked, on the constitutionality of 
statutory provisions which purport to 
prevent superior courts from examining the 
validity of decisions rendered by this or 
that board and of shutting off access to 
the regular courts of the country. In this 
case, the constitutionality of the section 
was not raised. The Supreme Court of 
Canada could have raised the issue, in 
which event the Attorney General of 
Canada and of the Attorney General of the 
Province of Quebec would have had to be 
notified. In his view it was better to wait 
until that question becomes essential for 
the decision of a case. In this case it was 
not essential. 

Mr. Justice Fauteux and Mr. Justice 
Kerwin, each writing separate reasons for 
decision, were in agreement with the Chief 
Justice that the appeal should be allowed 
on .the ground that the Board was bound 
to give notice to the teachers' Association 
and to hear any representations the 



1178 



Association desired to make before deciding 
whether the certificate should be cancelled. 

Mr. Justice Rand considered that this 
question also had been raised in the 
appeal: whether a strike called in violation 
of the Labour Relations Act and of the 
Public Services Employees Disputes Act is 
a cause for revoking a certificate of repre- 
sentation under the Labour Relations Act 
to a professional syndicate, i.e. an 
employee organization incorporated under 
the Professional Syndicates Act. 

In considering this question he first 
looked at the Labour Relations Act to 
determine the scope within which the 
legislation was conceived and enacted and 
was intended to be administered. In his 
words, the object is 

to promote the reconciliation, with the 
least waste, and by rational means, of the 
conflicting interests of employers and 
employees. Indirectly it seeks the broader 
object of maintaining confidence and faith 
of the community in itself and its solidarity 
in freedom by furnishing means for reaching 
adjustments between those who employ and 
those employed in the execution of the 
various functions of our complex life. 

The effect of revocation would be to 
deprive the syndicate of its right to 



require negotiation by the employer until, 
on the basis, of the argument submitted 
by counsel for the Board, the Board in 
its wisdom thought the punishment had 
been sufficient or until the Association, to 
the satisfaction of the Board, in some form 
or other, "had purged itself of its sin". 
Until then, the Association would, in effect, 
be outlawed. Such a conception could not, 
in his view, be reconciled, on any reason- 
able view of the objects of the statute, 
with promoting harmony in any service or 
work, public or private. 

Further, it is a basic rule that where an 
Act creates an offence and provides a 
penalty for it, that penalty, in the absence 
of language indicating a contrary intent, is 
to be presumed to be the only punishment 
intended. There is nothing in the statute 
in question from which the slightest 
implication can be drawn that other punish- 
ment was intended; but the Board imposed 
other and severe punishment. 

The argument that the strike showed the 
Association not to be a group that seeks 
its object "with respect for law and 
authority", as in the definition of "asso- 
ciation", he thought could not be taken 
seriously. 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 



General increase in minimum rates made in Saskatchewan; regulations 
under province's Mines Regulation Act revised. In Manitoba, annual 
fair wage schedule for construction industry is issued. Details of 
procedure for payment of pensions to disabled laid down in Alberta 



Under the Saskatchewan Minimum Wage 
Act, a general' increase in the minimum 
rates to $26 and $24.50 a week became 
effective June 1; the coverage of the Act 
was extended to the entire province. 
Since the coverage of the Hours of Work 
Act and the Minimum Wage Act is the 
same, hours of work orders were revised and 
reissued to make provision for the extension. 

Significant changes were made in a new 
revision of the regulations under the 
Saskatchewan Mines Regulation Act. 

In Manitoba, the annual fair wage schedule 
for the construction industry was issued, 
establishing higher minimum rates of pay. 



Regulations made under the recently 
proclaimed Boiler and Pressure Vessels 
Act of Ontario set out qualifications for 
certificates of competency of boiler in- 
spectors and the procedure for registra- 
tion and approval of designs of boilers, 
pressure vessels and plants. 

Schedules of fees for the examination of 
building plans were set out in regulations 
under the Ontario Factory, Shop and Office 
Building Act. 

Details of administrative procedure for 
the payment of pensions to disabled persons 
were laid down in Alberta. 



76944—6 



1179 



FEDERAL 

Department ot Veterans Affairs Act 

Disabled veterans employed in sheltered 
employment workshops operated by the 
Minister of Veterans Affairs are deemed 
to be "employees" within the meaning of 
the Government Employees Compensation 
Act as a result of a revision of the Vetcraft 
Shops Regulations made by an Order in 
Council (PC. 1953-502) on March 31 and 
gazetted April 22. Employees in Vetcraft 
Shops, who are paid at wage rates recom- 
mended by the Minister and approved by 
Treasury Board, will receive compensation 
for injury or disablement incurred from 
their employment at the same rate as 
persons employed by private employers, 
according to the terms of the Workmen's 
Compensation Act of the province in which 
the accident occurs or the disease is 
contracted. 

The other provisions of the regulations 
were not changed (L.G., 1951, p. 1700). 

PROVINCIAL 
Alberta Disabled Persons' Pensions Act 

Regulations under the Disabled Persons' 
Pensions Act passed at the 1953 session of 
the Alberta Legislature have been issued 
laying down the details of administrative 
procedure under the Act, which provides 
for the payment of pensions to needy 
disabled residents of the province. 

The Act defines a "disabled person" as 
one who is suffering from a chronic 
disability and is physically unfit for gainful 
employment. A disability is considered 
chronic when a person has suffered from 
it for a period of 12 months or longer. 
The pension, not to exceed $40 a month, 
is payable to a disabled person who is at 
least 21 years of age and who has resided 
in Alberta for the 10 years immediately 
preceding the date of his application for a 
pension, provided he is not in receipt of 
certain other types of assistance, such as 
an allowance under the Blind Persons Act, 
and provided that his income, including the 
pension, does not exceed $720 a year if he 
is unmarried or $1,200 a year for both the 
recipient and his wife if he is married. 
The Act came in force on June 1. 

Also effective on that date, the regula- 
tions, gazetted April 30 and approved by 
O.C. 550-53, provide for the making and 
investigation of applications and the pay- 
ment of pensions. In form and wording 
the regulations are similar to those pro- 
viding for old age assistance and other 
pensions. 



A person who has attained the age of 20 
years and eight months may apply for the 
pension. The following particulars must 
be given in the application: the full name 
of the applicant (a married woman must 
also give her full maiden name) ; the place 
and date of birth of the applicant and his 
spouse; his present address and the place 
or places of residence during the 10 years 
preceding the date of application; the 
particulars of marital status; the occupa- 
tion, income and means of subsistence of 
the applicant and spouse; and particulars 
of any real or personal property (apart 
from household furnishings or personal 
effects) owned by the applicant or spouse 
at the date of application or transferred to 
any person during the preceding five years. 
The application must be supported by a 
statutory declaration that all statements 
made are true and that no information 
required has been concealed or omitted. 

An investigation must be made before 
the Pensions Board may grant, suspend or 
reinstate a pension or alter the rate of a 
pension. The regulations set out the 
evidence which may be accepted by the 
Board as proof of age, marital status and 
residence and outline the method of deter- 
mining income. 

The Board is to include as income the 
pension paid under the Act, any assis- 
tance given to an applicant's spouse under 
any other pension legislation, interest from 
real or personal property and the value of 
board and lodging furnished either free or 
for a nominal charge. The amount con- 
sidered as income, where board and lodging 
are supplied free or for a nominal sum, may 
not be less than $10 a month for lodging, 
$20 a month for board, or $30 a month for 
board and lodging for a single person and 
$15, $30 and $45, respectively, for a 
married couple. 

Temporary absences from Alberta which 
when totalled and averaged do not exceed 
60 days a year are not considered to be 
interruptions in the residence in Alberta 
of the applicant. Certain types of employ- 
ment outside the province are also deemed 
to be equivalent to residence in Alberta. 
They include employment on ships, trains 
and fishing boats, seasonal employment for 
not more than six months in one year, 
employment by a Canadian firm or by the 
United Nations and missionary work, pro- 
vided that, in any of these cases, the 
applicant had a permanent place of abode 
in the province or maintained a self- 
contained domestic establishment there. 
Absence from Alberta on government ser- 
vice or with the Armed Forces (including 



1180 



war service with an ally of Canada) is also 
counted as residence in Alberta, if the 
applicant returned to Alberta when his 
duties abroad ended. 

The pension, payable at the end of each 
calendar month, is to be suspended while 
a recipient is absent from Alberta; but the 
Board may pay the pension for any period 
of absence less than 92 days in the year 
preceding the recipient's return. The 
pension must also be suspended if the 
recipient is in prison with a sentence of 
more than 30 days, if he is in a public 
mental hospital, or if he does not comply 
with the Act or regulations. An amend- 
ment made by O.C. 671/53, gazetted May 
30, requires suspension of the pension if 
the recipient is in a provincial sanatorium 
or other public institution. 

Any increase or reduction in income or 
real property of a recipient or his wife 
must be reported to the Board. Authority 
is given to the Board to recover any sum 
improperly paid to the recipient. 

Alberta Widows' Pensions Act 

The Widows' Pensions Regulations (L.G., 
1952, p. 1103) were re-issued without 
significant change, effective from April 1. 
The new regulations were approved by 
O.C. 549-53 and gazetted April 30. 

The Board administering the Act and 
regulations, formerly known as the Old Age 
Pensions Board, is now the Pensions 
Board. It also administers the Blind 
Persons Act, the Old Age Assistance Act, 
the Supplementary Allowances Act, and the 
Disabled Persons' Pensions Act. With 
respect to administrative procedure, the 
Widows' Pensions Regulations are almost 
identical with the Disabled Persons' Pen- 
sions Regulations described above. 

An amendment to the Widows' Pensions 
Regulations, gazetted May 30 and effective 
June 1, makes confinement of a widow to 
a provincial sanatorium or other public 
institution a reason for suspending pay- 
ment of her pension. 

British Columbia Electrical Energy 
Inspection Act 

New schedules of fees for inspection 
services have been issued under the British 
Columbia Electrical Energy Inspection Act. 
In all but a few cases, the fees are higher 
than previously. The schedules form a 
part of the regulations under the Act (L.G., 
1950, p. 1064; 1951, p. 244), which were 
re-issued with little other change by O.C. 
653 of March 21, gazetted April 9. These 
regulations require permits for electrical 
work anywhere in the province and provide 
for the inspection of all such work. 



British Columbia Hours of Work 
and Minimum Wage Acts 

Commercial travellers in British Columbia 
are now exempt from the operation of the 
Hours of Work Act and the Male and 
Female Minimum Wage Acts. The exemp- 
tion, provided for by Hours of Work 
Regulation No. 39 and Minimum Wage 
Regulation No. 1, took effect on May 28. 

Amendments to the Minimum Wage 
Acts, passed during the 1953 session of the 
Legislature, authorized the Board of Indus- 
trial Relations to make exemptions for the 
purpose of efficient administration. It had 
been found impracticable for employers to 
keep the required daily records of the 
wages and hours of these employees. 

British Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act 

Work in a prison hospital unit is now 
considered employment in which workers 
who contract tuberculosis may receive 
compensation under certain conditions. 
The change in the schedule of industrial 
diseases, gazetted April 9, was made and 
became effective April 1. 

To be eligible for compensation for 
tuberculosis, a worker in a prison hospital 
unit must be free from evidence of the 
disease when tuberculosis became an indus- 
trial disease applicable to him under the 
Act, that is, on April 1, 1953; must be 
free from the disease when first entering 
such employment; and must continue to be 
free from evidence of tuberculosis for six 
months after being employed unless he can 
show by means of a negative tuberculin 
test that he was free from tuberculosis 
infection at the time of employment. 

Similar places of employment already 
covered in the schedule are hospitals, 
sanatoria, clinics, the British Columbia 
Medical Research Institute, and a public 
health unit of the provincial Government, 
of the University of British Columbia, of 
any municipality, of a school board, or of 
a branch of the Victorian Order of Nurses. 

Manitoba Fair Wage Act 

Fair Wage Schedule for 1953-54 

The annual schedule of minimum rates 
of wages and maximum hours of work 
prescribed by the Fair Wage Board for 
certain public and private construction work 
in Manitoba (Reg. 11/53) was gazetted 
April 25 and will be in effect from May 1, 
1953, to April 30, 1954. The schedule as 
regards Zone "A" rates and hours (Greater 
Winnipeg) is chiefly based on provisions of 
existing collective agreements. 

The number of zones for which differing 
rates are set by the schedule was reduced 
from three to two. Zone "A" rates apply 



76944— 6J 



1181 



to public and private work in Winnipeg 
and a 30-mile radius; Zone "B" rates apply 
to public work elsewhere in the province 
and to private work in cities and towns 
with a population of more than 2,000. 
These cities and towns are now listed and 
include Brandon, Dauphin, Flin Flon, 
Minnedosa, Neepawa, Portage la Prairie, 
Steinbach, Swan River and The Pas. 
Formerly, the schedule set rates for 
Zone "C", which applied to public and 
private work in Brandon, now included in 
Zone "B". 

"Public work" includes public works 
authorized by the Minister of Public Works 
for the execution of which a contract has 
been entered into between the Minister and 
an employer. 

"Private work" means the construction, 
remodelling, demolition or repair of any 
building or construction work in the 
Greater Winnipeg Water District or of any 
such work, irrespective of the number of 
contracts made, in any city or town with a 
population exceeding 2,000, or in any other 
part of the province to which the Act may 
be extended by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, provided that the total cost of 
such work exceeds $100. 

All the minimum hourly rates in Part I 
of the schedule were raised except those 
for bridge and structural steel and iron 
workers; linoleum floor layers; and persons 
employed on mastic floor work as kettle- 
men, rubbers and finishers and spreaders 
and layers. The increase is 10 cents an 
hour in most cases. 



A rate of $1.40 an hour is set for the 
first time for helpers with at least two 
years' experience assisting journeymen elec- 
trical workers in Zone "A". For these 
workers, a maximum 48-hour week is set. 

By a further change, lathers working on 
wood and wire must now receive the higher 
rates formerly paid only to metal lathers. 
Previously, these workers were governed by 
a lower rate fixed for lathers working on 
material other than metal. 

The maximum weekly hours in all cases 
remain the same as those fixed for last 
year. 

In Part II of the schedule the minimum 
rates for all classes of workers engaged in 
public road and bridge works in those parts 
of the province outside the limits of the 
City of Winnipeg were raised by five cents 
an hour. The maximum hours for which 
straight-time rates are paid over each two- 
week period remain at 108. 

As previously, with respect to overtime, 
it is provided that time worked in excess 
of the standard weekly hours listed in the 
schedule must be paid for at not less than 
time and one-half the minimum scheduled 
rate and work on Sundays must be paid for 
at double time. 

The schedule also notes that employers 
in construction work in Greater Winnipeg 
are required to affix vacation-with-pay 
stamps in a worker's stamp-book to the 
extent of two per cent of the total wages 
earned in each pay-period. 
The schedule follows: — 



FAIR WAGE SCHEDULE 

ZOD To1> , oth a ''ruuL Pl work'' and "private work", as above defined, Winnipeg and a radius of thirty 
(30) miles, measured from the intersection of Osborne Street and Broadway. 

Z ° ne (l) To^publkwork'', as above defined, in all other parts of the Province except where Zone 

(2) To , ' , p?ivite P work'» t as above defined, wherever the population exceeds 2,000 except where 

(3) In°the Town of Flin Flon the minimum basic wage rate specified in Zone "B" applies but the 
maximum hours per week shall in all cases be 48. 

Schedule "A"— Part I 
The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1, A.D. 1953, on "Private Work" and on 
"Public Works", as described above: 



Occupation 



1. Asbestos Workers — 

(a) Journeyman 

(b) 1st Class Improvers. 

(c) 2nd Class Improvers 

1182 



Zone "A" 



Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Minimum 
per hour 



1.S0 
1.50 
1.35 



Hours 



Maximum 
per week 



Zone "B" 



Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Minimum 
per hour 



1.70 
1.45 
1.30 



Hours 



Maximum 
per week 



48 
48 
48 



Schedule "A" Part I — continued 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1, A.D. 1953, on "Private Work" and on 
'Public Works", as described above: 





Zone 


"A" 


Zone 


"B" 


Occupation 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Minimum 
per hour 


Hours 

Maximum 
per week 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Minimum 
per hour 


Hours 

Maximum 
per week 




% 

2.10 
1.90 
1.90 

City of B 
1.25 

1.90 

1.40 

Town of 

1.92 

1.34 

1-25 
1.05 
1.70 


40 
40 
40 
randon 

48 

40 

40 

Flin Flon 

40 

40 

48 
48 
40 


% 

1.95 
1.90 
1.75 
1.80 
1.20 

1.75 

1.75 
1.92 
1.34 

1.20 
1.00 

1.35 
1.00 
1.75 
.90 
.90 
1.10 

1.45 
1.45 

1.35 
1.15 

1.15 

1.15 
1.60 
1.70 
1.95 
1.60 
1.15 
1.00 


44 


3. Bridge and Structural Steel and Iron Workers 


44 


4. Carpenters and Millwrights 


44 




44 


5. Cement Finishers (in warehouse or large floor area jobs) 

6. Electrical Workers (inside wiremen, licensed journey- 

men) 


48 
48 


Helpers with two (2) years or more experience assisting 






48 


7. Elevator Constructors (passenger and freight) 


44 
44 


8. Building Labourers — 

(a) Assisting mechanics in the setting of cut stone, 
terra cotta, tile and marble, bending reinforcing 
materials, mixing mortar 


48 


(b) General Building Labourers 


48 


9. (a) Lathers, Wood, Wire and Metal 






48 


10. Linoleum Floor Layers 


1.05 

1.90 

.95 

.95 

1.15 

1.65 
1.65 

1.50 
1.25 

1.25 

1.25 

1.75 
2.10 
2.00 
1.25 
1.05 


48 
40 
48 
48 
48 

48 
48 

48 
48 

48 

48 

40 
40 
40 

40 
48 


48 


11. Marble Setters 


44 




48 


13. Mastic Floor Rubbers and Finishers 


48 


14. Mastic Floor Spreaders and Lavers 


48 


15. Operating Engineers and Firemen on Construction — 
Class A: Engineers in charge of hoisting engines of 
three drums or more operating any type of 
machine, or operating clam-shells or orange peels, 
regardless of capacity; or operating steam shovels 
or dragline of one yard capacity or over, or 
operating drop hammer pile drivers; in all cases 
irrespective of motive power 


48 


Class B: Engineers in charge of hoisting engines 
having only two drums or a single drum, used 
in handling building material or steam shovels 
and draglines not specified in "A" hereof; irres- 
pective of motive power 


48 


Class C: Engineers in charge of any steam operated 
machine not specified in "A" or "B" hereof; or 
in charge of a steam boiler if the operation of 
same necessitates a licensed engineer under the 
provisions of The Steam Boiler Act or air com- 
pressor delivering air for the operation of riveting 
guns on steel erection work, or pumps in caissons, 
or trenching machines or bull dozers over size 
D4 or equivalent; irrespective of motive power 

Class D: Men firing boilers of machines classified in 
"A", "B" or "C" hereof or assisting Engineers 
in charge of same 


48 
48 


Class E: Operators operating concrete mixers over 
\ yard capacity or bull dozers up to and includ- 
ing size D4 or equivalent; irrespective of motive 
power 


48 


Class F: Operators of gas or electric . engines for 
machines not otherwise specified in "A", "B" 
or "C" hereof, of a type usually operated by 
skilled laborers 


48 


Swing Stage and Spray Painters 


48 
48 


17. Plasterers 


44 


18. Journeymen of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry 
Helpers 


44 
44 


19. Roofers— Mop Handlers 


48 







1183 



Schedule "A" Part I— continued 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1, A.D. 1953, on "Private Work" and on 
"Public Works", as described above: 



Occupation 



20. 



2G. 



Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Minimurr 
per hour 



Sewer Construction Work — 

(a) Caisson Workers 

(b) Labourers 

(c) Pipe Layers 

(d) Tunnellers 

Sheet Metal Workers 

Shinglers 

Stonecutters 

Stonemasons 

Terrazzo and Oxi-Chloride Workers — 

(a) Layers 

(b) Machine Rubbers (Dry) 

(c) Machine Rubbers (Wet) 

Tile Setters (including all clay product tile and Vitro- 

lite Glass) 

Tile Setters (plastic, metal, asphalt, rubber and lino 

tile) 

Timber and Crib Men working on grain elevators or 

bridges doing the "crib work" on grain elevators, 

or rough timber work on bridges 

Truck drivers (while in charge of truck on construction 

work only) 

Watchmen 



Zone "A" 



Hours 

Maximum 
per week 



1.25 
1.05 
1.10 
1.10 
1.75 
1.50 
1.70 
2.10 



1.90 



1.40 



1.35 

1.25 
.80 



48 

48 

48 

48 

42| 

40 

44 

40 

40 

48 



Zone "B" 



Basic 
Wage 
Rate 



Minim __ 
per hour 



um 



1.20 
1.00 
1.05 
1.05 
1.45 
1.40 
1.60 
1.95 

1.70 
1.20 
1.05 

1.75 

1.25 



1.35 
1.20 



Hours 

Maximum 
per week 



44 



Ontario Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 

New regulations were issued under Sec- 
tion 44 of the Boilers and Pressure Vessels 
Act, 1951, replacing all those made under 
the previous Act, by an Order in Council 
O. Reg. 44/53 made on April 2 and 
gazetted April 18. 

New sections in the 1951 Act provide 
that all inspectors of boilers and pressure 
vessels, including those of boiler insurance 
companies, must hold certificates of com- 
petency and require the design of a boiler 
or pressure vessel to be submitted to and 
approved by the Chief Inspector before 
construction is begun. The Act was pro- 
claimed in force on March 27, 1953. The 
regulations therefore set out the qualifica- 
tions of inspectors, and the procedure for 
registering designs of boilers and pressure 
vessels and plants. They also specify the 
type of identification markings which must 
be stamped on a boiler when it has been 
registered and fix the fees for inspection. 

To qualify as an inspector an applicant 
must be at least 25 years old and have 
had a minimum of five years' experience in 
one or a combination of two or more of 
the following: mechanical engineering, in- 



cluding designing, constructing, installing 
and operating boilers and pressure vessels; 
steam engineering; or inspection of high 
pressure boilers. If the applicant holds a 
degree in engineering from a Canadian 
university, the period of experience 
required is reduced to three years. 

Application for a certificate must be in 
writing and must be accompanied by the 
prescribed fee. 

An applicant with the required qualifi- 
cations who passes the examinations and 
tests required by the Minister must be 
granted a certificate of competency. A 
certificate of competency may be issued 
without examination, on payment of the 
fee, to a person qualified to inspect boilers 
and pressure vessels in another province or 
in any of the states of the U.S.A. 

The certificate of a government inspector 
remains in force during the period of his 
appointment. If a certificate is issued to 
a person other than a government inspector, 
it will expire on the first Monday in March 
following the end of the year during which 
it is issued but it may be renewed on 
payment of the required renewal fee. A 
penalty is provided for late renewal of 
certificates. 



1184 



Schedule "A" — Part II 

Public Roads and Bridge Works 

31. The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, 1953, on Public Works for highway, 
road, bridge or drainage construction where a contract has been entered into by the Minister of 
Public Works, in all parts of Manitoba outside the limits of the City of Winnipeg. 



Occupation 


Basic Wage 

Rate 
Minimum 
Per Hour 


Maximum hours of 

straight time 

rates over each 

two-week period 




$1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.25 
1.30 
1.00 
1.15 

.95 
1.00 
1.05 
1.15 
1.00 

.90 
1.15 
1.40 

1.10 
1.00 

.95 
1.00 

.75 


108 


33. Asphaltic Oil Distributor Driver 


108 


34. Blade Grader (12 h.p. and over) Operator 


108 
108 




108 


*37. Dragline, Shovel and Crane Operator 

38. Elevator Grader Operator 

39. Engineer, Stationary Boiler 

40. Laborers 


108 
108 
108 
108 


41. Motor Patrol Operator 


108 


42. Roller Operator, 6-ton and over, steel wheels 

*43. Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator 


108 
108 
108 


45. Teamsters 


108 




108 


47. Teamsters and Four-Horse Teams 

48. Timber Men (timber work where use of hammers, 

saws, axes and augers only are required) 


108 

108 
108 


50. Tractor Operator, under 50 h.p. drawbar 

51. Truck Drivers 

52. Watchman and Flagman 


108 
108 







53. Where due to emergency or inclement weather, less than 108 hours are worked in any two-week 
period an employer may, during the next two- week period employ his employees at straight time 
rates for as many hours additional to the regular 108 hours as have been lost during the preceding 
two- week period. 

54. (1) Where a new employee agrees with his employer to prove his ability to operate one of these 

machines by a short trial period at a probationary rate, not later than the date upon which 
the employee starts work, the employer shall send to the Department, by registered mail, a 
letter signed by the employee and the employer, certifying that for a probationary period not 
exceeding 30 day3, a rate of 15c. below the schedule rate has been agreed upon. 

(2) Subsection (1) is applicable only to: Concrete Paver Operator, Dragline, Shovel and Crane 
Operator, Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator. 

*Probationarv Rates. 



A certificate of competency may be 
suspended or cancelled if the inspector is 
untrustworthy, wilfully negligent in making 
inspections or is proved to have knowingly 
falsified an inspection report. 

An application for registration and 
approval of a design of a boiler, pressure 
vessel or plant must be made by the 
manufacturer in the form appended to the 
regulations and sent to the Chief Inspector 
accompanied by three sets of drawings and 
specifications and by the prescribed fee. 
When the design is approved, the Chief 
Inspector must register the design, assign 
to it a registration number and return one 
set of drawings stamped "approved" show- 



ing the date of approval and the regis- 
tration number. If the Chief Inspector 
does not approve the design, he must 
return one set of specifications with a 
memorandum of his reasons for withhold- 
ing approval. An approved design may 
be revised by the owner by following the 
same procedure as for a new design. 

The Chief Inspector is required to main- 
tain a register of the designs of all boilers, 
pressure vessels and plants registered under 
the Act. 

All boilers and pressure vessels which 
are manufactured from a registered design 
must have an identification marking not 
less than f inch high, as prescribed in the 



1185 



regulations, stamped into the boiler plate 
in a conspicuous place or, if permitted by 
the Chief Inspector, a metal plate bearing 
the identification markings may be affixed 
to the boiler. 

Special rules are laid down with respect 
to the installation of refrigeration equip- 
ment in hockey, skating and curling rinks 
and are chiefly designed to provide pro- 
tection against fire and dangerous fumes 
when certain types of refrigerants are used. 

The forms to be used for inspection 
certificates issued for a boiler under con- 
struction, for a used boiler or for the 
annual inspection, and for a certificate of 
approval permitting operation of the boiler 
or pressure vessel until its annual inspec- 
tion, are included in the regulations. A 
table of fees for the issue of certificates 
of competency, inspection fees and fees to 
be paid for approval of designs is also set 
out. The fee for the annual inspection of 
boilers, pressure vessels and refrigeration 
plants in charitable institutions, as defined 
in the regulations, is one-half the prescribed 
fee. 

Other provisions deal with the expenses 
incurred by inspectors in making an in- 
spection which in certain cases must be 
paid by the manufacturer or owner of the 
boiler, pressure vessel or plant. 

Ontario Factory, Shop and Office Building Act 

One of the amendments to the Factory, 
Shop and Office Building Act made in 1953 
provided for the payment of fees for the 
examination of building plans which is 
required by Section 13 of the Act. 
Formerly, such plans were examined free 
of charge. 

The fees to be charged for examination 
and approval of building plans or plans of 
alteration for any factory or a building 
over two storeys in height which is to be 
used as a shop, bakeshop, restaurant or 
office building are now set out by Order 
in Council O. Reg. 45/53 made on April 2 
and gazetted April 18. The fees are based 
on the estimated cost of the building or 
alteration. 

If the estimated cost, as approved by the 
Chief Inspector, is not more than $100, no 
fee will be charged; if the cost is between 
$100 and $1,000 the fee will be $3; where 
the cost is over $1,000, the fee will be $3 
plus $1 for each additional $1,000 or fraction 
of that amount in excess of the first $1,000. 
The maximum fee which may be charged 
is $5,000. 

The application form for approval of 
drawings and specifications is appended to 



the regulations. This form must be filled 
out and submitted to the Chief Inspector 
along with the drawings and specifications, 
in duplicate, and the estimated cost of the 
building. 

When the fees have been paid, the plans 
are examined and, if approved and certi- 
fied, one copy is returned to the applicant, 
after which the construction or alterations 
may be proceeded with. 

Ontario Workmen's Compensation Act 

Aerial-testing or flying by the manufac- 
turer of aeroplanes was removed from the 
list of industries in which employers are 
liable to contribute to the Accident Fund 
under the Workmen's Compensation Act, 
by O. Reg. 47/53, approved on April 2 
and gazetted April 18. 

Saskatchewan Mines Regulation Act 

Continuing the trend towards more 
uniform mine safety regulations across 
Canada, the rules governing the operation 
of mines under the Saskatchewan Mines 
Regulation Act were completely revised. 
They were approved by Order in Council 
735/53 on April 7 and gazetted April 25. 

The new rules are similar to legislation 
in effect in Manitoba, Ontario and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories. New 
provisions were included or higher 
standards imposed with respect to medical 
certificates, mine rescue stations, the keep- 
ing of mine plans and other records, mine 
hoisting, fire protection, and the operation 
of quarries and metallurgical works. The 
rules cover all mines in the province except 
coal mines, which come under the Coal 
Miners' Safety and Welfare Act. Safety 
rules for petroleum, natural gas and oil 
operations are no longer included, as these 
were removed from the coverage of the Act 
at the 1953 session of the Legislature. 
Regulations covering the safe operation of 
such undertakings were recently issued 
under the Oil and Gas Conservation Act 
(L.G., April, p. 591). 

The regulations, which are lengthy and 
extensive, are organized and arranged 
under 25 subject headings. These are: 
interpretation, powers and duties, pro- 
cedure re fatal accidents, mine rescue 
stations, records and returns, mine plans, 
other notices and information, protection 
of unused workings, medical examinations, 
classifications of hoistmen, general safety 
regulations, handling water, care and use of 
explosives, ladders and stairways, general 
regulations for the protection of workmen, 



1186 



shaft sinking equipment and practice, 
hoisting equipment and practice, records, 
signals, haulage, protection from machinery, 
steam and compressed air, use of elec- 
tricity, clay, sand and gravel pits and 
quarries, crushing plants, mills and metal- 
lurgical works. 

Many of the new provisions are designed 
to provide a greater measure of protection 
for the health and safety of workmen. 
These are set out below. Other new 
provisions, which are mainly of a technical 
nature, establish higher standards for the 
operation and equipment of mines. 

Medical Certificates 

As a precaution against silicosis, new 
provisions, similar to those in the Ontario 
Mining Act, require all persons working 
in a dust exposure occupation to hold a 
medical certificate. "Dust exposure occu- 
pation" means employment underground, in 
ore or rock-crushing operations, and any 
other occupation at the surface designated 
by the Chief Inspector. 

An initial certificate may be granted to 
an employee who, upon being examined 
by a doctor before commencing employ- 
ment, is found to be free from diseases 
of the respiratory organs and is otherwise 
fit for employment in a dust exposure 
occupation. Within a month of the first 
anniversary of his initial certificate the 
miner must again be examined and have 
his certificate endorsed. In a year's time 
(within a month of the first anniversary 
of his endorsed certificate), on being 
examined for the third time and still 
found free of respiratory : diseases, the 
miner will be granted a miner's certificate 
good for one year and renewable after 
that time if the miner passes an annual 
medical examination. 

The Chief Inspector may exempt persons 
from being required to hold medical 
certificates if, in his opinion, the mine 
where they are employed does not contain 
silica in quantities likely to cause silicosis. 

As before, a hoistman who operates a 
hoist which carries persons is required to 
hold a medical certificate. The regula- 
tions now require a record of the medical 
certificates of all hoistmen in a hoistroom 
to be kept posted showing names and the 
date of the last certificate issued to each. 

Hours and Minimum Age 

With respect to hours, the regulations 

state that hours of work underground must 

be in accordance with the provisions of the 

Hours of Work Act. Under Hours of Work 



Order O.C. 1019/53, workers in mines may 
work up to 48 hours a week at straight 
time rates, after which time and one-half 
must be paid. The regulations also limit 
the hours during which- a workman may 
operate a hoist to eight in any consecutive 
24. However, a hoistman may work four 
hours extra when another is absent from 
duty, and extra time may be worked in 
hoisting and lowering men at the beginning 
and end of each shift in a mine where the 
work is not carried out continuously on 
three shifts a day. 

The minimum age for a person oper- 
ating a hoist in which persons are carried 
is now 21 years and the former minimum 
of 18 years now applies only to operators 
of other types of hoists. 

Welfare Provisions 

With regard to sanitation, the regula- 
tions now require one sanitary conveni- 
ence for every 25 men or less on any shift 
of workers underground, and one sanitary 
convenience and one urinal for every 25 
men or less on any shift employed on the 
surface. Where women are employed, one 
toilet for every 15 or less must be 
provided. 

In any case where men are employed 
underground or in a hot or dusty surface 
occupation, accommodation for drying and 
changing clothes and supplies of warm and 
cold water must be provided above ground 
near the principal mine entrance. Pre- 
viously, this was required only if more 
than 10 persons were ordinarily employed 
below ground each day. 

A protective hat must be worn not only 
by anyone employed underground but by 
any workmen in any place in a pit or 
quarry designated by an inspector. 

Mine Rescue Stations 
Mine rescue stations must be established 
in such places in the province as the 
Minister of Mines may direct. He must 
appoint a person to be in charge of the 
station and to train rescue crews and 
supervisors in the use and maintenance of 
mine rescue equipment. Mines in areas 
where there is no mine rescue station must 
be equipped with such rescue apparatus as 
the Chief Inspector may direct. The 
manager is responsible for the supervision 
of all mine rescue crews unless an inspector 
directs otherwise. 

Where fire occurs and the services of 
mine rescue stations are required, the 
owner, manager or superintendent must 
immediately notify the Rescue Superin- 
tendent and the Chief Inspector. 



76944—7 



1187 



Fire Protection 

As regards fire protection, the manager 
must draw up the general procedure to be 
followed in case of fire underground, in any 
mine plant building, or in surface buildings. 
All persons concerned must be kept in- 
formed of their duties and notice of the 
procedure must be kept posted in the shaft- 
house, hoistroom and other prominent 
places. No person may build a fire under- 
ground unless authorized to do so and only 
after the necessary fire-fighting equipment 
has been provided. 

No person may smoke or use open flame 
lamps in any area designated by the Chief 
Inspector as a fire hazard area. The 
manager must maintain suitable signs in 
such an area. 

Where the Chief Inspector recommends 
to the Minister that a connection between 
mines be made and equipped as a refuge 
station, a committee, consisting of a rep- 
resentative of each of the mining companies 
concerned and a mining engineer recom- 
mended by the Chief Inspector as chairman, 
is to be appointed to investigate the 
matter. On the recommendation of the 
committee and with the approval of the 
Minister, the Chief Inspector may order 
the connection and refuge station to be 
established. 

A new section provides that all plant 
buildings where men are regularly 
employed, except those used for explosives, 
must have, in addition to the main 
entrance, adequate auxiliary exits which 
must be ready for use in case of fire. 

Where persons are employed under- 
ground, there must be a system of check- 
ing in and out those underground. 

If there is a non-continuous shift oper- 
ation, the oncoming shift must be warned, 
before beginning work, of any abnormal 
conditions affecting safety by means of a 
written record signed by a responsible 
person from the off-going shift and counter- 
signed by the corresponding responsible 
person on the oncoming shift. 

Special Safety Rules for Gravel Pits, 
Quarries and Metallurgical Works 

No person may work near the pit wall 
of a gravel pit or quarry until it has been 
found safe by the pit foreman. Men 
working on the wall must wear a life line, 
securely snubbed above the working place 
or held taut by one or more fellow work- 
men. When a load is being hoisted or 
lowered, the signalman must clear the area. 
Unless the movement of the hoist is 
visible to the hoistman at all times, a suit- 
able signal system with signals approved by 



the inspector must be installed. Adequate 
lighting, safe footing and sufficient room 
must be provided for all workmen required 
to work about machinery. 

In a mill or metallurgical works, no 
person may enter a storage bin from which 
material is drawn off at the bottom, unless 
a second person is in constant attendance 
and precautions are taken against the 
danger of caving material. The owner or 
manager must provide life lines, and work- 
men must wear them continually when the 
interests of safety demand it. If the 
inspector is of the opinion that working 
platforms in or at bins should be used, 
they must be provided and maintained in 
a safe working condition. At all furnaces 
of the hand-filled type, the room at the 
furnace top where workmen are engaged 
must be adequately ventilated. A stair- 
way equipped with a handrail must be 
provided from the top of the furnace to 
the ground level. When a workman is 
required to go above the casting floor, he 
must notify the foreman or person in 
charge who must make sure that another 
workman is in attendance outside the 
gaseous area to give the alarm and render 
assistance in case of danger. Com- 
munication by telephone, gong or other 
mechanical means must be maintained 
between the furnace top and other 
dangerous places and the casthouse or 
other place where workmen are contin- 
uously on duty. 

Inspection 

As regards mine inspection generally, 
inspectors are now expressly required to 
notify the mine owner or agent in writing 
of any dangerous practice or defective 
equipment and to set a time within which 
the danger must be removed. He may 
a]so order the immediate cessation of work 
and the departure of all persons from any 
mine or part of a mine which he con- 
siders unsafe. 

The requirements for inspecting hoists 
and testing the safety equipment were 
made more stringent. The owner or 
manager of a mine where a hoist is in use 
must appoint a competent person to 
inspect the shaft at least once a week, 
and at least once a month to examine 
thoroughly the guides, timber, walls and 
hoisting equipment generally. A shaft 
inspection record book must be kept for 
each shaft and a record made of every 
examination. 

A shaft conveyance must be equipped 
with safety catches and mechanism of an 



1188 



approved type. Before a shaft convey- 
ance so equipped is first used, or is again 
put into use after alteration or repairs to 
safety catch mechanism have been made, 
a test must be made and the catches and 
mechanism must be found to function 
according to the requirements of the 
inspector. If the inspector deems it 
necessary, he may, after consultation with 
the manager, conduct specific tests of the 
efficiency of the safety devices on the 
hoist equipment. 

New provisions with respect to steam 
boilers and air receivers require them to 
be inspected at least once a year by a 
boiler inspector of the Department of 
Labour. The inspection report must be 
forwarded to the Chief Inspector and the 
inspection certificate must be posted in 
the boiler room at all times. Every steam 
boiler must be equipped with a proper 
safety valve, steam gauge and water gauge 
showing the pressure of the steam and the 
height of the water in each boiler. 

Records and Mine Plans 
The mine owner or manager is now 
required to keep additional or more com- 
plete records and mine plans. A hoist- 
man's log book must now be kept at 
every shaft or winze hoist and entries are 
to be made regarding working conditions, 
tests, stoppages, etc. A rope record book 
must also be kept containing a record of 
the testing of the hoisting rope and other 
required data. Where electric hoists are 
used, a weekly examination of the hoist 
motor and control and safety devices must 
be carried out and a report entered in 
the electrical hoisting equipment record 
book. 

Before January 15 of each year the 
owner or agent must send to the Depart- 
ment a return for the preceding year 
showing the number employed above and 
below ground, classifications, wage and 
hour statistics, quantity, value and weight 
of minerals sold during the year and other 
particulars required by the Minister. If 
required, the owner or agent of a metal- 
liferous mine must report monthly or 
quarterly. 

The owner or manager is now required 
to keep up-to-date plans of the surface, 
underground workings, vertical mine sec- 
tions and ventilating system of the mine. 

Saskatchewan Minimum Wage Act 

Extension of Coverage 

The Minimum Wage Act of Saskat- 
chewan has been extended to apply to the 



entire province. Originally applied to the 
cities, and from time to time extended 
both as to geographical area and occupa- 
tions covered, the Act has since March 1, 
1952, applied to all occupations except 
farming and domestic service in private 
homes in the cities, towns and villages 
with 300 or more persons, to five specified 
summer resorts, and to any area in the 
province where mining, logging, lumbering 
and factory operations are carried on. 

The two orders designated by the letters 
"A" and "B" (L.G., 1952, p. 468), which set 
out the geographical areas and occupations 
covered by the Act, were replaced by 
Orders "C" and "D", which were approved 
by Orders in Council 654/53 and 653/53, 
respectively, on March 24 and gazetted 
April 4. 

The new Order "C" states that the Act 
is extended to all portions of the province 
other than the cities. Order "D", which 
makes no change as to the occupations 
covered, provides that the Act will apply 
to all industries, businesses, trades and 
occupations, except agriculture and domestic 
service in private homes, in the area 
covered by Order "C". 

The change in coverage became effective 
April 13. 

New Revision of Minimum Wage Orders 
'Revised minimum wage orders, approved 
by Orders in Council 847-855/53 on April 
17 and gazetted May 1, went into effect 
on June 1, raising the minimum wage to 
$26 a week in the eight cities and nine 
larger towns, and to $24.50 a week in the 
remainder of the province. Hourly part- 
time rates were increased by five cents an 
hour. The last general increase in rates 
was made in 1951 (L.G., 1951, p. 841) when 
the minimum was raised to $24 and $21.50. 
The only workers excepted from the 
orders are agricultural workers; domestic 
servants in private homes; firemen (who 
are covered by the Fire Departments 
Platoon Act) ; employees of rural munici- 
palities employed solely on road main- 
tenance and workers engaged in the 
construction of highways; student nurses, 
laboratory technicians and X-ray techni- 
cians whose wages and working conditions 
are fixed by regulations under the Hospital 
Standards Act; cooks and cookees employed 
by boarding car contractors and in cook 
cars operated by highway construction 
contractors; and persons employed solely 
in a managerial capacity. 

There are now eight orders instead of 
ten. The only changes in coverage are 
that Orders 3 and 4, which formerly applied 



76944—71 



1189 



co 1*51 smaller places (over 300 in popula- 
tion), now apply, as a result of the exten- 
sion of the Minimum Wage Act noted 
above, to the entire province outside the 
cities and nine larger towns. The former 
Order 9, which applied to five specified 
summer resorts, and Order 10, which 

Coverage 
Order No. 1: 

All employees (except those under Order 
No. 2) in, and within a five-mile radius 
of, the cities and nine larger towns. 
Order No. 2: 

All employees in hotels, restaurants, educa- 
tional institutions, hospitals and nursing 
homes in, and within a five-mile radius 
of, the cities and nine larger towns. 
Order No. 3: 

All employees (except those under Order 
No. 4) in the remainder of the province. 
Order No. 4: 

All^ employees in hotels, restaurants, educa- 
tional institutions, hospitals and nursing 
homes in the remainder of the province. 
Order No. 5: 

Long-distance truckers. 

Order No. 6: 

Janitors and caretakers in residential 
buildings. 
Order No. 7: 

All employees in logging and lumbering. 



applied to mines and factories in areas 
outside centres of 300 or more population, 
were repealed. Workers in these work- 
places now come under Orders 3 and 4. 

The coverage of the eight orders and 
the minimum wage set by each are as 
follows: — 

Minimum Wage 

Full-time $26 a week. 
Part-time 70 cents an hour. 



Full-time $20 a week. 
Part-time 70 cents an hour. 



Full-time $24.50 a week. 
Part-time 60 cents an hour. 

Full-time $24.50 a week. 
Part-time 60 cents an hour. 



2 J cents a mile or 

75 cents an hour, whichever is greater. 

Full-time $33 a week. 
Part-time 70 cents an hour. 

70 cents an hour. 

For cooks, cookees, bull cooks and watch- 
men, $135 a month. 

Full-time $26 a week. 
Part-time (cities) 70 cents an hour; 
(elsewhere) 65 cents an hour. 

Except with respect to janitors and caretakers in residential buildings, full-time 
employees are those who work 36 hours or more in a week. For janitors and caretakers, 
the full-time work-week is 48 hours or more. 



Order No. 8: 

Employees in places of amusement (theatres, 
dance halls, rinks, bowling-alleys, etc.) 



While the same minimum wage is fixed 
for hotels, restaurants, educational institu- 
tions, hospitals and nursing homes as for 
other work places, separate orders are made 
for workers in hospitals, hotels, restaurants, 
etc., because of the special conditions laid 
down by the Board for the workers in 
these establishments. These conditions 
include a different requirement for pay for 
work on a public holiday (in addition to 
the regular daily wage, wages at the 
regular rate or equivalent time off with 
pay within four weeks) ; a minimum age 
of 16 years; a prohibition of deductions 
for provision, repair or laundering of 
uniforms where these are required by the 
employer; maximum deductions for board 
and/or lodging; regulation of time allowed 
for meals; and the requirement that hours 
must be confined within a 12-hour period 
in a day and no employee required to 
report for duty more than three times in 
the 12-hour period. A special provision 
relating to women workers forbids a woman 
worker to begin or finish work at any time 



between 12.30 a.m. and 6 a.m. She may, 
however, work until 1.30 a.m. if free trans- 
portation to her home is furnished by the 
employer. No change was made in any of 
these provisions in the revision of the 
orders. 

As noted above, the general increase 
provided for by Orders 1 and 2 was from 
S24 to S26 in the province's eight cities— 
Regina, Saskatoon, Moose Jaw, Prince 
Albert, North Battleford, Swift Current, 
Weyburn and Yorkton — and in the towns 
of Canora, Estevan, Humboldt, Kamsack, 
Lloydminster, Melfort, Melville, Nipawin 
and Shaunavon. The increase in the full- 
time minimum set by Orders 3 and 4 for 
the remainder of the province was from 
$21.50 to $24.50. 

For long-distance truckers who regularly 
travel in the course of their duties to two 
or more cities, towns or villages at least 
10 miles apart the increase allowed was 
five cents an hour. Their former minimum 
was 2£ cents a mile or 70 cents an hour. 



1190 



Janitors and caretakers in residential 
buildings must now receive at least $33 a 
week, an increase of $2.50 a week over 
their former minimum of $30.50. 

In the lumbering and logging industry, 
which includes river driving, rafting, boom- 
ing and cutting and any factory in con- 
nection with these operations, the increase 
in the general minimum rate was from 65 
to 70 cents an hour. Cooks, cookees, bull 
cooks and watchmen were granted a $10 
increase, from $125 to $135 a month. If 
meals and lodging are furnished, the 
employer may deduct not more than $1.60 
a day from the employee's wages (formerly 
$1.50). 

Persons employed in amusement places 
are now subject to a minimum rate of 
$26, an increase of $2 over their former 
rate. 

Certain other increases were also pro- 
vided for. The minimum rates for 
messengers on foot or bicycle in the cities 
and larger towns were raised from $15 to 
$16 a week or from 45 to 50 cents an 
hour if they work part-time. Elsewhere 
in the province they must now receive $14 
instead of $13 a week and 45 cents an hour 
instead of 40 cents for part-time work. 
The minimum rate for full-time employees 
who drive horse-drawn or motor vehicles 
was increased from $27 to $29 a week and 
for part-time employees from 65 to 70 
cents an hour. 

As before, the orders provide that a 
part-time worker must receive at least 
three hours' pay at his minimum rate for 
each occasion on which he is asked to 
report for duty whether or not he is 
required to work for three hours. Janitors 
and caretakers (other than those employed 
in residential buildings, who are under 
Order No. 6) and students employed out- 
side school hours must be paid the 
minimum part-time rate but are not 
subject to the three-hour minimum appli- 
cable to other part-time workers. Part- 
time workers in amusement places in any 
part of the province other than the cities 
are not subject to the three-hour minimum. 

A change in the provisions of the orders 
dealing with payment for eight specified 
public holidays (New Year's Day, Good 
Friday, Victoria Day, Dominion Day, 
Labour Day, Thanksgiving Day, Remem- 
brance Day and Christmas Day) makes it 
clear that, when Christmas Day and New 
Year's Day fall on Sunday, the following 
day is to be observed as a holiday and 
paid for according to the requirements laid 
down in the orders. Similarly, when the 
Monday following Remembrance Day is 



declared a holiday, the holiday provisions 
apply to the Monday and not to November 
11. The change is in line with a 1953 
amendment to the Act. 

A provision formerly contained in Order 
No. 8 covering places of amusement and 
left out in the 1952 revision was again 
added to the Order. It permits the Chair- 
man of the Minimum Wage Board to 
exempt an employer from the requirement 
that all employees be at least 16 years 
of age. 

Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act 

New Revision of Orders 

The extension of the coverage of the 
Minimum Wage Act and therefore of the 
Hours of Work Act, since its application 
is the same, made necessary the revision 
of the orders under the Hours of Work 
Act. These orders, last revised on March 
1, 1952 (L.G., 1952, p. 465) grant complete 
or partial exemption from the requirement 
laid down by the Act, that time and one- 
half the regular rate must be paid for work 
done after eight hours in a day or after 44 
hours in a week. One order grants com- 
plete exemption from the Act to certain 
groups. Others relax the overtime require- 
ment by permitting a 48-hour week to be 
worked before overtime is payable or by 
allowing the 44-hour week to be averaged 
over a period of time, usually a month. 

Of the eleven 1952 orders, eight were 
re-issued without change. These apply to 
oil truck drivers; garages and service 
stations ; poultry processing plants, 
creameries and stock yards; public trans- 
portation in Regina; skating rinks in 
Saskatoon; swimming pools in Regina; 
chartered accountants ; and newspaper work. 

The order removing certain groups from 
the Act (including doctors and lawyers, 
seasonal workers, delivery men, caretakers, 
and long distance truckers) was revised to 
add further exemptions and to remove 
from the list workers in five specified 
summer resorts. 

The two remaining orders were revised 
and one new order covering offices was 
issued, bringing the total number of new 
orders to 12. (A thirteenth order repeals 
the 1952 orders.) These three set out 
overtime requirements for the smaller 
centres of the province and for the first 
time include places under 300 in population. 

The new orders, all effective on June 1,. 
were gazetted May 1, with the exception 
of O.C. 1019/53, which was gazetted May 
22. The orders are as follows: — 

O.C. 857/53 — As before, grants com- 
plete exemption from the Act for doctors 



1191 



and internes, lawyers and law students, 
country cream pick-up drivers whose wages 
are not less than $150 per month, retail 
milk and bread salesmen, employees 
delivering carbonated beverages to retail 
outlets, highway and pipeline construction 
workers, airport construction workers, 
workers in the logging industry (except 
office employees and workers in sawmills 
and planing mills), employees in fish- 
filleting plants, long-distance truckers, and 
janitors in buildings used for residential 
purposes. Newly exempted from the Act 
are: (1) any occupation, other than office 
work, in connection with the construction 
of any irrigation project under the Water 
Rights Act; (2) any occupation, other than 
office work, in connection with the geo- 
physical and seismographical industry; and 
(3) the occupation of a cook, cookee, bull 
cook or watchman in the logging industry. 
Employees in the summer resorts of Carlyle 
Lake, Kenosee Lake, Katepwe, Regina 
Beach, and Waskesiu are no longer exempt. 

O.C. 858/53 — Authorizes an arrange- 
ment by which weekly hours of oil-truck 
drivers in excess of 44 during the busy 
season may be offset by any lesser number 
of hours than 44 worked in the slack season, 
and provides for payment of overtime on 
a yearly basis. 

O.C. 859/53 — Permits a nine-hour day 
and 48-hour week in garages and service 
stations in cities, without payment of 
overtime. 

O.C. 860/53 — Permits a nine-hour day, 
without payment of overtime, and permits 
the 44-hour week to be averaged over a 
month for workers in creameries in cities, 
in poultry processing plants in centres of 
more than 3,500 population, and in stock- 
yards. 

O.C. 861/53— Permits employees in any 
occupation in connection with public trans- 
portation in Regina to work nine hours in 
a day and 192 hours in a month without 
overtime. After these limits, time and one- 
half must be paid. 

O.C. 862/53— Permits the 44-hour week 
to be averaged over a month between 
November 1 and March 31 of each year 
for employees of the Saskatoon Play- 
grounds Association engaged in maintaining 
or assisting in maintaining skating rinks. 

O.C. 863/53 — Permits employees of 
swimming pools operated by the City of 
Regina to work up to 88 hours in a two- 
week period, without payment of overtime, 
between May 15 and September 15 in any 
year. 

O.C. 864/53— Exempts chartered 
accountants and students in accountancy 



from the overtime requirements of time 
and one-half after 44 hours in a week 
while they are employed in any city, town 
or village in which there is no office of a 
practising public accountant. 

O.C. 1019/53 — Permits employees in 
any place of employment in the nine larger 
towns and 131 other towns and villages of 
300 and more population, except those 
employed in factories, shops and offices, to 
work up to 48 hours a week before over- 
time must be paid. This provision, 
unchanged from the previous order, applies 
for one year (June 1, 1953 to May 31, 1954) 
in the above-mentioned places. The same 
provision now applies for the first time and 
for an indefinite period to areas with fewer 
than 300 inhabitants. 

O.C. 866/53 — Permits the 44-hour week 
to be averaged over a month for editorial 
writers, reporters, advertising men and 
supervisors of delivery boys employed by 
daily newspapers in cities. 

O.C. 867/53 — Permits employees in 
shops in cities with fewer than 10,000 
persons, in the nine larger towns and in 
48 other listed towns and villages (with 
more than 500 persons) to work up to 11 
hours on one day of the week, without 
payment of overtime, provided that over- 
time is payable after eight hours on other 
days and after 44 hours in a week. Permits 
shop employees in 83 smaller towns and 
villages (for the period between June 1, 
1953 and May 31, 1954) and in places with 
fewer than 300 persons (for an indefinite 
period) to work up to 48 hours in a week 
before overtime must be paid. The provi- 
sions of the order are new only with respect 
to the areas with less than 300 population. 

O.C. 868/53 — Permits office employees 
in places with less than 500 inhabitants to 
work a 48-hour week, after which over- 
time must be paid. The provision applies 
from June 1, 1953 to May 31, 1954 in 83 
listed towns and villages, with between 300 
and 500 inhabitants. It applies indefinitely 
to office employees in places under 300 
population which were not previously 
covered by hours of work legislation. 

In summary, the position regarding over- 
time under the Saskatchewan Hours of 
Work Act and orders is as follows: over- 
time at the rate of time and one-half the 
regular rate is payable after a 44-hour week 
in all workplaces in cities (except garages, 
service stations, and other workplaces 
governed by special orders), in factories 
everywhere in the province, and in shops 
and offices in centres with more than 500 
population. A 48-hour week, after which 
overtime must be paid, is permitted else- 
where. 



1192 



Unemployment Insurance 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Claims for unemployment insurance benefit declined substantially in 
May, statistics* reveal. Decreases were recorded 



in every province 



Initial and renewal claims for unem- 
ployment insurance benefit declined sub- 
stantially in May, with decreases recorded 
in every province. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
monthly report on the operation of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act shows that 
during May 71,476 initial and renewal 
claims for benefit were received in local 
offices across Canada. This represents a 
decline of 39 per cent from the 117,171 
claims recorded for April. The most 
significant decreases occurred in Quebec 
(19,000) and in Ontario (10,000). The 
May 1952, total was 83,806. 

Ordinary claimants on the live unem- 
ployment register on May 31 declined 
during the month by about 34 per cent. 
On that date 143,083 ordinary claimants 
(109,001 males and 34,082 females) were 
on the live register, compared with 215,242 
(179,024 males and 36,218 females) on 
April 30, and 143,490 (104,897 males and 
38,593 females) on May 31, 1952. While 
this month's figure of ordinary claims 
stands at approximately the same level as 
at one year ago, it represents a relatively 
reduced volume when related to the 
insured population. Insured population 
estimates for May 1 are not yet available 
but at April 1 this year the insured popula- 
tions was estimated at 3,278,000, a six-per- 
cent increase over the 3,090,240 estimated 
for April 1, 1952. Other claimants on the 
live register on May 31 were: 17,819 short- 
time, 3,262 temporary lay-off and residual 
of 356 supplementary benefit claimants 
(postal claimants in Newfoundland and 
Quebec). 

Adjudication centres disposed of 81,828 
initial and renewal claims during the 
month. Entitlement to benefit was granted 
in 57,635 cases. Claims disallowed num- 
bered 13,375, while disqualifications were 
imposed in 17,117 cases (including 6,299 on 
revised and supplementary benefit claims). 
Chief reasons for disqualification were: 
"not unemployed", 5,420 cases (for 64 per 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



'See Tables E-l to E-6 at end of book. 



cent of these cases the duration of the 
disqualification period was six days or 
less) ; "voluntarily left employment without 
just cause", 4,698 cases; "not capable of 
and not available for work", 1,752 cases. 

Beneficiaries who began receipt of benefit 
during May totalled 60,514, compared with 
83,659 during April and 58,360 during May 
1952. 

A total of $12,195,255 was paid during 
May in compensation for 3,919,260 days 
of proven unemployment, in comparison 
with $16,389,294 and 5,225,796 days during 
April and $10,374,007 and 3,875,281 days 
during May 1952. 

During the week May 30-June 5, a total 
of 125,558 beneficiaries received $2,248,673 
in compensation for 726,684 unemployed 
days, compared with 196,315 beneficiaries 
who were paid $3,634,010 in compensation 
for 1,159,164 days of unemployment during 
the last week of April and 132,022 bene- 
ficiaries who received $1,987,922 in com- 
pensation for 748,592 unemployed days 
during the week May 31-June 6, 1952. 

The average daily rate of benefit for the 
week under review was $3.09, compared 
with $3.14 last month and $2.66 for the 
same week last year. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
for May show that insurance books have 
been issued to 3,688,164 employees who 
have made contributions to the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance fund at one time or 
another since April 1, 1953. 

At May 31, employers registered num- 
bered 246,973, a decrease of 513 since 
April 30. 



1193 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Digests of two selected decisions rendered by the Umpire 



Decision CUB 906, February 18, 1953 

Held: (1) That, in the case of a claimant 
who voluntarily left full-time employment 
in "A" to move with her husband to "B" 
where she registered for part-time work 
only because she could find no one to look 
after her child in the afternoons, the insur- 
ance officer would have been justified in 
relation to the application of Section 
27(l)(b) of the Act, in granting her a little 
time in order to ascertain whether or not 
there was some, likelihood of her finding 
part-time employment in "B" which is one 
of the large cities oj Canada and a thriving 
business centre. 

(2) That, as she had not yet succeeded in 
finding the kind of employment she desired 
when her appeal from the decision of the 
insurance officer disqualifying her under 
Section 27(l)(b) of the Act was heard by 
a court of referees two months later, she 
should have then been considered as not 
available for work within the meaning of 
the Act. 

Material Facts of Case — The claimant, 
married, 29 years of age, was employed in 
"A" (a city in Ontario) by a pottery 
manufacturer as a shipper from 1948 to 
August 28, 1952. Her rate of pay at the 
time of separation was $35 a week. 

On October 6, 1952, she filed an initial 
application for benefit at the Commis- 
sion's office in "B" (a city in Alberta) 
and stated that she had voluntarily left 
her employment in "A" to move to "B" 
where her husband, a member of the 
armed forces, had been posted. 

On October 14, 1952, the claimant stated 
to the local office that, as she had a small 
son who was attending kindergarten in the 
mornings and having no one to look after 
him in the afternoons, she would be avail- 
able for work from Monday to Saturday 
from 8:00 a.m. until noon; and that in her 
last employment she had worked one and 
a half years part-time and the last two 
years full-time. 

The insurance officer disqualified her 
from the receipt of benefit for an indefinite 
period as from October 14, 1952, because 
he considered that she was not available 
for work within the meaning of Section 
27(l)(b) of the Act. 



The claimant appealed to a court of 
referees, before which she appeared on 
November 5, 1952, and which unanimously 
allowed her appeal on the grounds that, 
inasmuch as during the four years of her 
last employment she had worked on a 
part-time basis for one and a half years, 
she had proved her availability for work 
and it could not be rightly contended that 
there were no reasonable prospects of part- 
time employment for her. The court 
suggested to the claimant, however, that 
she should broaden her registration and 
not limit her employment to that of a 
shipper, because a point would soon be 
reached where it could be held that she 
was not available for work at all. 

The insurance officer appealed to the 
Umpire, contending that the court, in 
allowing the claimant's appeal, had 
disregarded the principle laid down in 
CU-B 594. 

Conclusions — Paragraph 3 of decision 
CU-B 594, referred to by the insurance 
officer in his appeal to me, reads as 
follows: — 

It is my firm opinion that unless there 
are special circumstances such as being 
the breadwinner of the family and there 
are reasonable opportunities of part-time 
work in the district, a married woman 
cannot voluntarily leave full-time employ- 
ment, register in her usual occupation for 
part-time work only, and be considered as 
available for work within the meaning of 
the Act. 

In the present case the claimant volun- 
tarily left full-time employment in "A" 
not because she wanted part-time work 
but because she wished to follow her 
husband who had been posted to another 
city. In her previous place of residence 
she had been able to make arrangements 
for someone to look after her child while 
she was at work whereas the circumstances 
were now different as, being a stranger in 
"B", she did not know of anyone who 
would take care of him in the afternoon 
during which period of the day he did not 
attend kindergarten. 

Without discussing the merit of her 
action in voluntarily leaving her employ- 
ment in "A" when she had no prospect of 
work in "B", I feel that the circumstances 
of the case in relation to the application 



1194 



of Section 27(1) (b) of the Act were of a 
kind which come within the exceptions 
contemplated in the above-quoted principle 
and that therefore the insurance officer 
would have been justified in granting her 
a little time in order to ascertain whether 
or not there was some likelihood of her 
finding part-time employment in "B", which 
is one of the large cities of Canada and 
a thriving business centre. 

As it turned out, the claimant had not 
succeeded in finding employment suitable 
to her at the time her case was heard by 
the court of referees and the court should 
have considered that if she had proved 
her availability for work up until then she 
could no longer do so. 

For those reasons the claimant is 
disqualified from the receipt of benefit 
as from the date that this decision is 
communicated to her and until she proves 
that she is available for work within the 
meaning of the Act. 

Decision CUB 907, February 18, 1953 

Held: That a claimant who decided to 
change her occupation from that of seam- 
stress to that of office worker and for that 
reason voluntarily left her employment and 
was taking a business course during the 
normal working hours was not available for 
work within the meaning of the Act. 

Material Facts of Case — The claimant, 
single, 22 years of age, filed an initial 
application for benefit on November 13, 
1952, and stated that she had been 
employed as a seamstress by a clothing 
manufacturer from 1949 to September 6, 
1952, when she voluntarily left because she 
had to sew heavy coats on a machine and 
found the work too heavy. She stated also 
that she had commenced taking a business 
course on September 9, 1952. 

The insurance officer disqualified her 
from the receipt of benefit for an indefinite 
period as from November 13, 1952, because 
while attending a business course, she 



could not be considered as being avail- 
able for work within the meaning of 
Section 27(1) (b) of the Act. 

In her appeal to a court of referees she 
pointed out that the heavy work that she 
had to do at the clothing factory began 
to have an adverse effect on her health 
and, not wanting to have a nervous break- 
down, as had had one of the girls who 
was doing similar work, she decided to 
leave and look for lighter work; that as 
she lacked training and experience in the 
kind of work she desired, i.e., store or 
office work, she decided to take a business 
course; she stated also that she was under 
the impression that as a trainee she was 
entitled to unemployment insurance benefit. 

The court of referees by a unanimous 
finding disallowed her appeal. 

The claimant applied to the chairman 
for leave to appeal to the Umpire which 
was granted. 

Conclusions — In order to be entitled to 
unemployment insurance benefit a claimant, 
besides fulfilling all the other requirements 
of the Act, must prove that he is avail- 
able for work. This means that he must 
establish to the satisfaction of the adjudi- 
cating authorities that he is looking for 
work and willing to accept immediately any 
offer of suitable employment. 

(In view of the circumstances of the 
case) the fact that the claimant is attend- 
ing a business course during the normal 
working hours precludes her from fulfilling 
that condition and for that reason she was 
rightly disqualified from the receipt of 
benefit. 

It is true that the Act recognizes that a 
claimant may attend a course of instruc- 
tion or training during the normal working 
hours and still prove his availability for 
work but then he must be directed to that 
course by the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission (Section 29(2) ). 

The unanimous finding of the court of 
referees is therefore upheld and the appeal 
is dismissed. 



Racketeering on N.Y. Waterfront 

(Continued from page 1144) 
work may not be available receive a sliding 
scale of payments from a fund composed 
of levies on all waterfront employers. 

This levy, states Waverley, averages 
between 12 and 15 per cent of the total 
pierside labour costs each year. The idle 



workers are eligible for the subsistence 
wage if they appear at board offices twice 
a day seeking employment. According to 
the Port Chairman, this system has done 
away entirely with the "casual work 
system" which was similar to the "shape-up" 
practised in New York. 



1195 



Labour Conditions 

in Federal t*overiiiiieiit Con tracts 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 172 wage schedules for inclusion in 
contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and its Crown 
corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, repair or 
demolition. 

In the same period, a total of 117 contracts in these categories was awarded. Particulars 
of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading provide 
that:— 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included in 
the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the 
work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no employee shall be discriminated against because of his race, national origin, colour 
or religion, nor because the employee has made a complaint with respect to such discrimina- 
tion.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equipment awarded during June are set out 
below: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Agriculture 2 $ 59,345 . 00 

Defence Construction (1951 ) Ltd 1 31,950.00 

Defence Construction (1951) Ltd. 

(Building and Maintenance) 4 71,969.75 

Post Office 14 103,032 . 19 

Public Works 8 73,208.00 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: — 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen, and if there is no current rate, then a 
fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, or if 
there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair and 
reasonable hours; 

(d) no employee shall be discriminated against because of his race, national origin, colour 
or religion, nor because the employee has made a complaint with respect to such discrimina- 
tion.) 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable 'in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



1196 



Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 



Tregothic Marsh N S: 



Department ot Agriculture 

Hennesse}^ & Spicer, construction of dyke. 



Central Mortgage and 

St John's Nfld: L G Rawding Construc- 
tion Ltd, landscaping & hard surfacing of 
driveways; Terminal Construction Co Ltd, 
landscaping; Richard Conway, *exterior 
painting. Greenwood N S: L G Rawding 
Construction Ltd, *landscaping; Atlantic 
Paving Co Ltd, surfacing of walks & 
drives. Aylmer P Q: S Granger & Sons, 
installation of water tanks; Edgar Milot 
Inc, *exterior painting. Hull P Q: Edgar 
Milot Inc, *exterior painting. Montreal 
P Q: Planned Renovators Co, *painting of 
garages. Nitro P Q: Marquis Construction 
Engr, exterior finishing of houses in cedar 
grain shingles; Planned Renovators Co, 
exterior painting. Arnprior Ont: Edgar 
Milot Inc, *exterior painting. Barriefield 
Ont: Borgstrom Bros Ltd, landscaping. 
Chesley Ont: J Hartsema, exterior paint- 
ing. Cobourg Ont: H J MacFarland Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of ground 
services. Downsview Ont: Ainsworth Elec- 
tric Co Ltd, installation of electrical 
distribution system. Ottawa Ont: H 
Presley Painting & Decorating Ltd, 



Housing Corporation 

exterior painting. Pembroke Ont: Edgar 
Milot Inc, ^exterior painting. Port Arthur 
Ont: Bilodeau & Heath Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of houses. Prescott Ont: Robert D 
Markey Construction Co, *landscaping. 
Renfrew Ont: Gordon James & Son, land- 
scaping; Edgar Milot Inc, *exterior paint- 
ing. Rockcliffe Ont: Terminal Construction 
Co Ltd, landscaping. Sault Ste Marie Ont: 
EPA Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of houses. Uplands Ont: Borgstrom Bros 
Ltd, landscaping. Moose Jaw Sask: Ralph 
Ashton, exterior painting. Cold Lake Alta: 
Baynes Manning Ltd, installation of sewer 
& water services. Lethbridge Alta: Bill 
Hopps & Co Ltd, exterior painting. Comox 
B C: Williams & Crothers Ltd, paving of 
streets & driveways; J W Chilcott, land- 
scaping. Courtenay B C: Dominion Paint 
Co, *exterior painting. Port Alberni B C: 
C Schattenkirk, *exterior painting. Van- 
couver B C: Holland Landscapers, land- 
scaping. Victoria B C: C Schattenkirk, 
exterior painting. 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 



Bedford N S: Cameron Contracting Ltd, 
construction of central power plant bldg. 
St Hubert P Q: Kelly Lumber & Con- 
struction Ltd, extension of watermains, 
sewers & storm drains. Ville la Salle P Q: 
L Gordon Tarlton Ltd, construction of 
administration bldg. Petawawa Ont: 
Storms Contracting Ltd, improvements to 
water works. Picton Ont: H J McFarland 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of roads 
& storm sewers. Winnipeg Man: Simmons 
Construction Co, site preparation & pav- 

Building and 
Grosse He P Q: J A Y Bouchard Inc, 
repairs to pre-isolation bldg, Defence 
Research Laboratory. Hamilton Ont: 
Barclay Construction Ltd, construction of 
temporary accommodation bldg, HMCS 
"Star". Trenton Ont: Robertson Construc- 
tion & Engineering Co Ltd, installation of 



ing; Peter Leitch Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of warehouses. Regina Sask: 
Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of reserve division bldgs. Claresholm Alta: 
Oland Construction Ltd, construction of 
chapel. Penhold Alta: Burns & Dutton 
Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of chapels. Comox B C : Smith Bros 
& Wilson, residual construction to com- 
plete radio station. Esquimalt B C : Hume 
& Rumble Ltd, construction of pole line 
& outdoor sub-station. 

Maintenance 
additional floor in bldg, RCAF Station. 
Gimli Man: Wallace & Wallace, construc- 
tion of roofs on reservoirs, RCAF Station. 
Cold Lake Alta: Bird Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of VHF/DF bldg, RCAF 
Station; Bird Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of canteen bldg, RCAF Station. 



National Harbours Board 

Halifax Harbour N S: The Canada Gunite Co Ltd, reconditioning concrete piling. 
Montreal Harbour P Q: Marine Industries Ltd, dredging Canadian Vickers' Sinking 
Basin. 



1197 



Department of 

Catalina Nfld: J P Porter Co Ltd, 
*dredging. Fortune Nfld: McNamara Con- 
struction Co Ltd, *dredging. Chester N S: 
J P Porter Company Ltd, *dredging. 
Grand Etang N S: R A Douglas Ltd, 
repairs to piers. Little Harbour N S: 
Alex Mclsaac, breakwater reconstruction. 
Livingstones Cove N S: F W Digdon & 
Sons Ltd, *dredging. Yarmouth N S: 
Standard Dredging Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Cape Tormentine N B : L G & M H Smith 
Ltd, wharf repairs. New Mills N B: 
Diamond Construction Co Ltd, ^dredging. 
Richibucto N B: Fred Warman & Co Ltd, 
alterations & repairs, public bldg. St 
Mary's (Shippigan Is) N B: Roger 
LeBlanc, *dredging. Carleton P Q: Andre 
Lacroix, wharf enlargement. Cloridorme 
P Q: Gulf Maritime Construction Ltd, 
wharf extension. Entry Island M I, P Q: 
Capt Edgar Jourdain, wharf extension. 
Old Harry M I, P Q: Gulf Maritime Con- 
struction Co Ltd, wharf extension. Pointe 
Jaune P Q: Marcel Cauvier & J E Keays, 
wharf extension. Ste Anne de Bellevue 
P Q: Leeds Construction Ltd, installation 
of elevator, Military Hospital. Ste Anne 
de Sorel P Q: Lucien Lachapelle, *dredg- 
ing. St Ignace de Loyola P Q: Royal- 
mount Construction Ltd, wharf improve- 
ments. St Laurent P Q: Edouard Leger, 
interior alterations, Postal Station "0". 
St Maurice de L'Echourie (Grant Ruis- 
seau) P Q: Marcel Cauvier & J E Keays, 
wharf extension. Barrie Ont: Bertram 
Bros, alterations for Air Filter Centre, 
RCAF Station. Burlington Ont : McNamara 
Construction Co Ltd, repairs to break- 
water. Kingston Ont: Dominion Bridge Co 
Ltd, replacing existing wood deck on 
bascule span of LaSalle Causeway. 
Kingston Ont: C D Cole Electric Co Ltd, 
fluorescent lighting installation. Hamilton 
Ont: Norman Stewart, alterations to public 
bldg. Oshawa Ont: Trans-Northern Engi- 
neer & Sales Co Ltd, temporary postal 



Public Works 

accommodation. Ottawa Ont: Wilfrid D 
St Cyr, repairs & alterations to plumbing 
& ventilation systems, Parliament Bldgs; 
A Lanctot Construction Co, roof shelter 
for generator units, Booth St; W O Pick- 
thorne & Son Ltd, installation of security 
lighting, Royal Canadian Mint; William 
D'Aoust, supply & erection of shelving, 
Canadian Bank Note Bldg; Automatic 
Sprinkler Co of Canada, installation of 
sprinkler system, Elgin Annex bldg; Edge 
Ltd, installation of soot disposal system, 
central heating plant, Tunney's Pasture; 
Montflex Inc, linoleum flooring, Temporary 
Bldgs Nos 6 & 9; William D'Aoust, alter- 
ations to Mortimer Bldg; Stanley G 
Brookes, construction of new transformer 
room, 35 George St. Prescott, Ont: Thos 
L Grooms, alterations to public bldg. 
Ridgeway Ont: Smith Bros Construction 
Co Ltd, erection of public bldg. Scarboro 
Ont: Eric Reilly Construction Ltd, erosion 
protection work, National Research 
Council. Windsor Ont: The Foundation Co 
of Canada Ltd, construction of Sandwich, 
Windsor, Amhertsburg Rlwy Bldg. Regina 
Sask: Olynyk Construction Ltd, construc- 
tion of drainage & sewerage systems. 
Edmonton Alta: McKenzie Electric, elec- 
trical work, Mercantile Bldg. Hartley Bay 
B C: Skeena River Piledriving Co, con- 
struction of float & approach. Port Alberni 
B C: Pacific Piledriving Co Ltd, ' float 
renewal. Quathiaski Cove B C: F Gagne 
& Son, wharf repairs & improvements. 
Sardis B C: Ricketts-Sewell Electric Ltd, 
installation of electrical distribution system, 
Coqualeetza Indian Hospital. Sturdies Bay 
B C: Victoria Piledriving Co Ltd, wharf 
repairs & improvements. Sumas to Hope 
B C: Fraser River Dredging Co, *dredg- 
ing, Fraser River; Cecil Carey, *dredging, 
Fraser River. Victoria B C : Canada Paint 
& Contracting Co, alterations to Belmont 
Bldg. 



Department 

Port aux Basques Nfld: M R Chappell, 
construction of transit shed. Indian Point 
P E I: Wallace Noye, Allison Raynor, 
James Noye, William Noye, renewal of 
protection wall on lighthouse pier. Seal 
Island N S: L E Armstrong & P E Arm- 
strong, construction of dwelling. Forest- 
ville P Q: North Shore Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of hardsurface runway at 
airport. Mont Joli P Q: Montcalm Con- 
struction Inc, installation of airport lighting 
facilities. Killarney Ont: N A McDougall, 



of Transport 

construction of dwelling. Malton Ont: 
H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, addi- 
tional airport development. Mississagi 
Strait Lightstation Ont: Thomas Prestage, 
construction of dwelling. Port Weller Ont: 
Gordon H Stewart, construction of dwell- 
ing. St Catharines Ont: R A Blyth, 
painting of bridge over Welland Canal. 
Embarras Alta: Yukon Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of single men's barracks. 
150 Mile House B C : Malmquist & Vaupel 
Ltd, construction of dwellings. 



1198 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, July 2, 1953 

The consumer price index rose half a 
point — 0-4 per cent — between June 1 and 
July 2. It was the second consecutive rise 
following six consecutive declines. 

At July 2 the index stood at 115-4; on 
June 1 it was 114-9. 

The half-point rise was largely due to 
seasonal increases in eggs and fresh fruits 
and vegetables, which were the principal 
factors advancing the food index from 111-4 
to 112-7. Among other food items, beef 
was relatively unchanged; fresh pork was 
lower in price while cured pork products 
were higher; fractional increases were 
recorded for flour and bread, and similar 
decreases for cheese and butter. 

An increase in the clothing index from 
110-1 to 110-3 was mainly attributable to 
higher quotations for knitting yarns, over- 
alls and workshirts. The household opera- 
tion component advanced from 116-6 to 
117-0, reflecting increases in coal, gas and 
household help in a number of centres. 
The shelter index increased from 123-6 to 
123-9 following advances in both the rent 
and home-ownership sub-groups. 

In the other commodities and services 
group, higher quotations for newspaper 
subscriptions and drugs outweighed a 
decrease in personal care items; the index 
moved from 115-1 to 115-2. 



The index one year earlier (July 2, 1952) 
was 116-1; group indexes were: food 116-0, 
shelter 120-6, clothing 111-7, household 
operation 115-9, and other commodities and 
services 115-6. 

Cost-of Living Index, July 2, 1953 

The cost-of-living index (1935-39 = 100) 
rose from 184-8 to 186-0 between June 1 
and July 2. At July 2, 1952, it was 188-0. 

Group indexes at July 2 (June 1 figures 
in parentheses) were: food 229-2 (225-7), 
rent 152-9 (152-5), fuel and light 153-5 
(152-6), clothing 206-5 (206-4), home 
furnishings and services 196-0 (196-2) and 
miscellaneous 149-2 (149-0). 

Group indexes one year earlier (July 2, 
1952) were: food 239-5, rent 147-9, fuel and 
light 149-8, clothing 209-1, home furnishings 
and services 196-7 and miscellaneous 147-4. 

City Cost-of-Living Indexes, June 1, 1953 

Mainly because of increases in food prices 
and rent, cost-of-living indexes advanced in 
each of the nine regional cities between 
May 1 and June 1, 1953. 

Prices of fresh and cured pork were 
substantially higher in all nine cities. Beef, 
eggs and fresh fruits and vegetables were 
generally firmer. Butter prices were mostly 
lower. 



*See Tables F-l to F-6 at end of book. 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1949 



Inde 


l!<9=190 












Indei 1949- 


120 
110 

100 






v". 

food y^ 


SHELTER ] ^S* 








i 


OTAL fs/* 
fw/T 


Jf H00SEH01 
K 


OPERATION 






.....; i-...t>. 


» Mr 


/ OTHER COMMODITY 
f 


CLOTHING 
S AND SERVICES 


(•.MUBuT 






1 


I 


1 


1 


I 


, 1 , ' 



1199 



Rents moved up in six cities but were 
unchanged in the remaining three. 

Slight increases in clothing prices were 
reported in six centres. Clothing indexes 
for Winnipeg and Saskatoon remained 
unchanged while a small drop was recorded 
for Toronto. 

Changes in the other three component 
group indexes were small and scattered 
throughout the nine cities. Among the 
more important changes were decreases in 
refrigerator prices in Halifax, Saint John, 
Montreal, Winnipeg and Edmonton; in- 
creases in laundry rates in Saint John and 
Montreal; and a seasonal decrease in coal 
prices in Vancouver. 

Composite city cost-of-living index point 
changes between May 1 and June 1 were: 
Montreal +1-8 to 190-1, Toronto +1-3 to 
182-2, Saskatoon +1-2 to 183-4, Edmonton 
+1-2 to 177-8, Halifax +0-8 to 173-4, 
Saint John +0-8 to 181-0, Winnipeg +0-8 
to 177-2, St. John's +0-1 to 101-2* and 
Vancouver +0-1 to 187-6. 

Wholesale Prices, June 1953 

Wholesale prices moved up 0-7 per cent 
between May and June but were still 2-1 
per cent below those a year earlier. The 
higher prices in June, compared with May, 
were concentrated mainly in animal 
products, although advances were noted in 
five other major groups. 



*Index on base June 1951=100. 



The animal product prices index advanced 
from 239-1 to 247-5 as a result of sharp 
increases in pork coupled with lesser in- 
creases for other livestock, fresh meats, eggs 
and unmanufactured leather. 

In the non-metallic group, advances in 
crude petroleum, sulphur, imported anth- 
racite coal and lime were responsible for 
a rise in the index from 173-9 to 176-4. 

Fibres, textiles and textile products index 
climbed from 241-2 to 241-7 as advances 
in worsted yarns, wool cloth and imported 
raw wool outweighed decreases in raw 
cotton, rayon fabrics, domestic raw wool 
and carpets. 

Slight increases in paint materials and 
inorganic chemicals were reflected in a 
change in the chemical products group 
index from 176-2 to 176-4. 

The non-ferrous metals index advanced 
from 168-1 to 168-6 as a result of higher 
quotations for lead overbalancing declines 
for tin and copper ingots. 

The vegetable products index remained 
unchanged at 197-4 as increases in milled 
cereals, coffee, cocoa, potatoes, fresh fruits 
and molasses balanced losses for grains, 
livestock feeds, vegetable oils, rubber, 
unmanufactured tobacco and dried fruits. 

Iron and its products registered a further 
small decline for the second month; the 
index dropped from 221-2. to 220-6 because 
of continued weakness in steel scrap, which 
outweighed advances in castings and 
forgings and certain rolling mill products. 



COST-OF-LIVING INDEX FROM JANUARY 1946 




1200 



Canadian farm product prices at terminal Prices of residential building materials 

markets recorded a further advance in were slightly firmer in June ; the composite 

June, the index rising to 219*3 from 216-9 index advanced to 284-1 from 282-8 in 

in May. May. 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, June, 1953* 

Time lost in industrial disputes resulting 
in work stoppages in the first six months 
of 1953 has been substantially below the 
idleness in the same period in 1952. The 
number of stoppages was down and there 
was a sharp decline in the number of 
workers involved. 

In June 1953, the time loss was some- 
what higher than in the previous month. 
No great amount of loss was shown by 
any one stoppage but four disputes with 
the greatest loss were: flour, cereal and 
feed mill workers at Peterborough, Ont., 
and Saskatoon, Sask.; salmon fishermen, 
seiners and gillnetters in British Columbia 
waters; yarns and carpet factory workers 
at Guelph, Ont; and shoe factory workers 
at Preston, Ont. 

Wages and related questions were the 
central issues in 24 of the 31 stoppages, 
causing more than 86 per cent of the total 
loss. Of the other disputes, three arose 
over union questions, three over causes 
affecting working conditions and one over 
dismissal of a worker. 

Preliminary figures for June 1953, show 
31 strikes and lockouts, involving 6,452 
workers, with a time loss of 57,346 man- 
working days, compared with 30 strikes and 
lockouts in May 1953, with 4,748 involved 
and a loss of 36,127 days. In June 1952, 
there were 42 strikes and lockouts with 
59,706 workers involved and a loss of 
717,845 days. 



For the first six months of 1953 prelim- 
inarly figures show 85 strikes and lockouts, 
involving 19,447 workers and a loss of 
210,438 days. In the same period in 1952 
there were 121 strikes and lockouts, with 
88,620 workers involved and a loss of 
1,329,153 days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada, the 
time lost in June 1953, was 0-07 per cent 
of the estimated working time; 0-04 per 
cent in May 1953; 0-87 per cent in June 
1952; 0-04 per cent for the first six months 
of 1953; and 0-27 per cent for the first six 
months of 1952. 

Of the 31 stoppages in June 1953, four 
were settled in favour of the workers, three 
in favour of the employers, six were com- 
promise settlements and two were indefinite 
in result, work being resumed pending final 
settlement. At the end of the month 16 
stoppages were recorded as unterminated. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in another paragraph nor 
does it include strikes and lockouts about 
which information has been received indi- 
cating that employment conditions are no 
longer affected but which the unions con- 
cerned have not declared terminated. Strikes 
and lockouts of this nature still in progress 
are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg, Man., 
which began in November 8, 1945, and at 
Ottawa and Hamilton, Ont., and Edmonton, 
Alta., on May 30, 1946; and waitresses at 
Timmins, Ont., on May 23, 1952.) 



Great Britain and Other Countries 



The latest available information as to 
strikes and lockouts in various countries is 
given in the Labour Gazette from month to 
month. Statistics given in the annual 
review and in this article are taken, as far 
as possible, from the government publica- 
tions of the countries concerned or from 
the International Labour Office Year Book 
of Labour Statistics. 



"See Tables G-l and G-2 at end of book. 



Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

The British Ministry of Labour Gazette 
publishes statistics dealing with disputes 
involving stoppages of work and gives some 
details of the more important ones. 

The number of work stoppages beginning 
in April 1953, was 107 and 14 were still in 
progress from the previous month, making 
a total of 121 during the month. In all 



1201 



stoppages of work in progress, 20,400 
workers were involved and a time loss of 
76,000 working days caused. 

Of the 107 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work which began in April, six, directly- 
involving 800 workers, arose over demands 
for advances in wages, and 44, directly 
involving 7,300 workers, over other wage 
questions; two, directly involving 800 
workers, over questions as to working hours ; 
14, directly involving 3,100 workers, over 
questions respecting the employment of 
particular classes or persons; 40, directly 
involving 1,600 workers, over other ques- 
tions respecting working arrangements; and 
one, directly involving 1,800 workers, was 
in support of workers involved in another 
dispute. 

Ceylon 

In 1952 there were 75 strikes directly 
involving 11,523 workers and causing a 
time loss of 56,404 man-working days. 



Japan 

For 1952 there were 590 industrial 
disputes resulting in work stoppages. These 
directly involved 1,623,610 workers result- 
ing in a time loss of 5,013,744 man-working 
days. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for May 1953, show 
525 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month in which 270,000 workers were 
involved. The time loss for all work 
stoppages in progress during the month was 
3,000,000 man-days. Corresponding figures 
for April 1953, are 500 work stoppages 
involving 275,000 workers and a time loss 
of 2,500,000 days. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed, free of 
charge, by making application to the 
Librarian, Department of Labour, Ottawa. 
Students must apply through the library 
of their institution. Applications for loans 
should give the number (numeral) of the 
publication desired and the month in 
which it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 60. 
Accidents 

1. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Hazards in operating Bakery Machines. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1952. Pp. 22. 

2. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Mr. Manager, Guard Your Investment in 
Manpower. Washington, G.P.O., 1953. 
Pp. 12. This pamphlet is about taking 
proper precautions for installing safe- 
guards for machinery. 

Arbitration, Industrial 

3. Backman, Jules. Economic Data 
utilized in Wage Arbitration. Philadel- 
phia, University of Pennsylvania Press for 
the Labor Relations Council of the 
Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, 
1952. Pp. 56. 



4. Freidin, Jesse. Labor Arbitration and 
the Courts.. Philadelphia, University of 
Pennsylvania Press for the Labor Rela- 
tions Council of the Wharton School of 
Finance and Commerce, 1952. Pp. 58. 

5. Handsaker, Morrison. The Submis- 
sion Agreement in Contract Arbitration, 
by Morrison and Marjorie Handsaker. 
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania 
Press for the Labor Relations Council of 
the Wharton School of Finance and 
Commerce, 1952. Pp. 101. 

6. Kennedy, Van Dusen. Arbitration in 
the San Francisco Hotel and Restaurant 
Industries. Philadelphia, University of 
Pennsylvania Press for the Labor Rela- 
tions Council of the Wharton School of 
Finance and Commerce, 1952. Pp. 113. 

7. Kuhn, Alfred. Arbitration in Transit ; 
an Evaluation of Wage Criteria. Philadel- 
phia, University of Pennsylvania Press for 
the Labor Relations Council of the 
Wharton School of Finance and Com- 
merce, 1952. Pp. 203. 

8. Simkin, William E. Acceptability as 
a Factor in Arbitration under an Existing 
Agreement. Philadelphia, University of 
Pennsylvania Press for the Labor Relations 
Council of the Wharton School of Finance 
and Commerce, 1952. Pp. 67. 



1202 



9. Skilton, Robert Henry. Industrial 
Discipline and the Arbitration Process. 
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania 
Press for the Labor Relations Council of 
the Wharton School of Finance and 
Commerce, 1952. Pp. 76. 

10. Tripp, Louis Reed. Wage-Reopening 
Arbitration. Philadelphia, University of 
Pennsylvania Press for the Labor Rela- 
tions Council of the Wharton School of 
Finance and Commerce, 1952. Pp. 108. 

11. Witte, Edwin Emil. Historical 
Survey ,oj Labor Arbitration. Philadel- 
phia, University of Pennsylvania Press for 
Labor Relations Council of the Wharton 
School of Finance and Commerce, 1952. 
Pp. 64. 

Arbitration, Industrial — Railroad 
Employees 

12. Before the Board of Conciliation. 
Request for: 1. A Wage Increase of Forty- 
Five Cents per Hour, 2. Incorporation of 
a Cost of Living Bonus, 3. The Union Shop, 
4- Check-off of Union Dues, 5. Elimination 
of the Emergency Clause. Brief filed on 
Behalf of Seventeen Associated Railway 
Unions representing N on-Operating 
Employees, September 1952. Prepared by 
Alfred Stenger. Montreal, 1952. Pp. 114. 
—Appendix. Montreal, 1952. Pp. 52. — 
Rebuttal filed on Behalf of Seventeen 
Associated Railway Unions representing 
Non-Operating Employees. October 1952. 
Montreal, 1952. Pp. 27. 

Biographies 

13. Calmer, Alan. Labor Agitator; the 
Story of Albert R. Parsons. Haymarket 
drawings by Mitchell Siporin. New York, 
International Publishers, cl937, Pp. 126. 
Parsons was involved in the Haymarket 
Square Riot in Chicago in 1886. 

14. Williams, Francis. Ernest Bevin, 
Portrait of a Great Englishman. With a 
foreword by the Rt. Hon. Clement Attlee. 
London, Hutchinson, 1952. Pp. 288. 

Collective Bargaining 

15. Kerr, Clark. Collective Bargaining 
in Postwar Germany. Berkeley, University 
of California, 1952. Pp. 324-342. 

16. Labor - Management Conference, 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 
4th, 1952. What's Wrong with Collective 
Bargaining. New Brunswick, N.J., Institute 
of Management and Labor Relations, 
Rutgers University, 1952. Pp. 72. 

Economic Conditions 

17. Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States of America. Committee 



on Economic Policy. Free Markets and 
Free Men; Report. Washington, cl953. 
Pp. 26. 

18. U.S. President, 1945-1953 

(Truman). Economic Report of the 
President transmitted to Congress, January 
1953. Washington, 1953. Pp. 218. 

Efficiency, Industrial 

19. California Personnel Management 
Association. Research Division. Work 
Simplification — The Consultive Approach to 
Methods Improvement. A stenographic 
brief of an address given before the 
California Personnel Management Associa- 
tion and the Personnel Section of the 
Western Management Association, by 
Allan H. Mogensen. Berkeley, 1951. 
Pp. 16. 

20. Weinlein, Tony. The Boss buys a 
Stop Watch. More Building Service 
Workers have been Time-Studied since 
Gilbert hatched His Formula. (In Report 
to Locals, Research Publication, Building 
Service Employees' International Union. 
March 1952. V. 7, No. 3. Pp. 1-4.) The 
Gilbert Formula was devised for the more 
efficient cleaning of office buildings. 

21. Woods (J.D.) & Gordon Limited, 
Toronto. What is Industrial Engineering? 
Toronto, n.d. Pp. 74. 

Employment Management 

22. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to boost Quality. 
Washington, cl953. Pp. 12. 

23. California Personnel Management 
Association. Research Division. Organ- 
ization & Control of the Personnel Depart- 
ment. A special paper prepared for the 
California Personnel Management Associa- 
tion and the Personnel Section of the 
Western Management Association, by L. R. 
Gaiennie, Berkeley, 1952. Pp. 10. 

24. Yoder, Dale. Employment-Relations 
Functions and Budgets, by Dale Yoder and 
Lenore N. Wilson. New York, American 
Management Association, cl952. Pp. 11. 

Government Ownership 

25. Great Britain. Parliament. House 
of Commons. Select Committee on 
Nationalized Industries. Report from the 
Select Committee on Nationalized Indus- 
tries Together with the Proceedings of the 
Committee, Minutes of Evidence and 
Appendices. London, H.M.S.O., 1952. 
Pp. 140. 

26. Haynes, William Warren. National- 
ization in Practice: the British Coal 
Industry. Boston, Division of Research, 
Graduate School of Business Administra- 
tion, Harvard University, 1953. Pp. 413. 



1203 



Industrial Relations 

27. Leek, John Halvor. Government 
and Labor in the United States. New 
York, Rinehart, 1952. Pp. 336. 

28. McGill University, Montreal. Indus- 
trial Relations Centre. Fourth Annual 
Conference, April 21 and 22, 1952. Mont- 
real, 1952. Pp. 92. Contents.— The 
expanding Canadian economy, by Dr. O. J. 
Firestone. — Morale and motivation in a 
changing economy by Dr. Eugene Jacobson. 
— Trends in labor-Management relations, by 
Dr. J. R. Coleman. — Neutral participation 
in industrial disputes, by Dr. A. H. Myers. 
— Men, work and welfare in an expanding 
economy, by Dr. F. Cyril James. 

Industry 

29. American Management Association. 

Corporate Finance and Taxation . . . New 
York, cl938. Pp. 36. 

30. Great Britain. Central Statistical 
Office. The Index of Industrial Produc- 
tion. London, H.M.S.O., 1952. Pp. 54. 

International Agencies 

31. Turner, Arthur C. Bulwark of the 
West ; Implications and Problems of NATO. 
Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1953. Pp. 106. 

32. "World Peace Foundation, Boston. 
The United Nations at work: Basic Docu- 
ments. Boston, 1947. Pp. 147. 

Labour Laws and Legislation 

33. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Legislation Branch. Provincial Labour 
Standards concerning Child Labour, Holi- 
days, Hours of Work, Minimum Wages, 
Weekly Rest-Day and Workmen's Com- 
pensation. Ottawa, 1952. Pp. 25. 

34. Japan. Laws, Statutes, Etc. Japan 
Labor Code. Tokyo, Ministry of Labor, 
1953. Pp. 781. 

Labour Unions 

35. International Federation of 
Christian Trade Unions. Survey of the 
Earlier Congresses of the I.F.C.T.U. and 
the Development of the International 
Christian Trade Union Movement. Utrecht, 
1952. Pp. 8. 

36. Lipset, Seymour Martin. Democracy 
in Private Government; a Case Study of 
the International Typographical Union. 
Berkeley, 1952. Pp. 48-65. 

37. Luyt, R. E. Trade Unionism in 
African Colonies. Johannesburg, South 
African Institute of Race Relations, 1949. 
Pp. 42. 

38. Pugh, (Sir) Arthur. Men of Steel, 
by One of Them; a Chronicle of Eighty- 
Eight Years of Trade Unionism in the 



British Iron and Steel Industry. London, 
Iron and Steel Trades Confederation, 1951. 
Pp. 624. 

39. Rose, Arnold Marshall. Union 
Solidarity: The Internal Cohesion of a 
Labor Union. Minneapolis, University of 
Minnesota Press, 1952. Pp. 209. 

Labouring Classes 

40. Hardy, Frank J. Power without 
Glory; a Novel in Three Parts, by Frank 
J. Hardy, "Ross Franklyn." 4th ed. 
Melbourne, Realist Print, and Pub. Co., 

1951. Pp. 669. This novel concerns an 
opportunistic Australian sports promoter 
who used the Australian Labour Party and 
trade unions for his own use. 

41. Hong Kong. Labour Department. 
Annual Report . . . 1950/51. Hong Kong, 

1952. 1 Pamphlet. 

42. Labour Party (Great Britain). The 
Socialist International. Foreword by 
Morgan Phillips. London, 1953. Pp. 20. 

Management 

43. American Management Association. 

Operating under Decentralized Manage- 
ment. New Goals in Economic and Labor 
Policies. New York, 1949. Pp. 31. 

44. American Management Association. 
Organization Controls and Executive Com- 
pensation. New York, cl948. Pp. 54. 

45. American Management Association. 
Problems and Policies of Decentralized 
Management. New York, cl952. Pp. 28. 

Occupations 

46. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Forge 
Shop Occupations. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 
1952. Pp. 16. 

47. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Employment Outlook in Printing Occu- 
pations. A reprint from the 1951 Occupa- 
tional Outlook Handbook. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 299-330, 

Older Workers 

48. Conference on the Problem of 
Making a Living While Growing Old, 
Philadelphia, 1952. Proceedings of 
the Joint Conference on the Problem 
of Making a Living While Grow- 
ing Old, May 22, 23, 1952, Benjamin 
Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia. Sponsored 
jointly by Temple University School of 
Business and Public Administration Bureau 
of Economic and Business Research and 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Labor and Industry Bureau of 
Employment Security. Philadelphia, 
Temple University, 1952. Pp. 168. 

49. U.S. Bureau of Employment 
Security. Workers are Young Longer; a 
Report of the Findings and Implications 



1204 



of the Public Employment Service Studies 
of Older Workers in Five Cities. Wash- 
ington, 1952. 1 Volume. 

Productivity of Labour 

50. Anglo-American Council on Produc- 
tivity. Final Report of the Council. 
London, 1952. Pp. 40. 

51. British Productivity Council. Fruit 
and Vegetable Storage and P re-Packaging. 
Report of a visit to the U.S.A. in 1951 by 
a Specialist Team on fruit and vegetable 
storage and pre-packaging. London, 1953. 
Pp. 64. 

52. British Productivity Council. In- 
spection in Industry. Report of a visit to 
the U.S.A. in 1951 of a Specialist Team on 
inspection methods in industry. London, 
1953. Pp. 74. 

53. British Productivity Council. Plant 
Maintenance. Report of a visit to the 
U.S.A. in 1952 of a Specialist Team on 
plant maintenance. London, 1952. Pp. 70. 

54. British Productivity Council. Plastics 
Moidding. Report of a Productivity Team 
representing the British plastics moulding 
industry which visited the United States 
of America in 1952. London, 1953. Pp. 80. 

Profit-Sharing 

55. Profit-Sharing Research Founda- 
tion, Long Island City, New York. 

Profit Sharing in practice: Report on Visits 
to Profit-Sharing Establishments, 1951-1952, 
by P. A. Knowlton, director of research. 
Long Island City, N.Y., 1952. Pp. 65. 

56. Profit-Sharing Research Founda- 
tion, Long Island City, New York. 
Studies in Profit Sharing: 1. Discontinued 
Plans; 2. Plan Changes, by P. A. Knowlton, 
director of research. Long Island City, 
N.Y, 1952. Pp. 32. 

Social Security 

57. Hall, Mary Penelope. The Social 
Services of Modern England. London, 
Routledge & K. Paul, 1952. Pp. 332. 

58. U.S. Social Security Administration. 
Division of Research and Statistics. 
Social Security Financing, by Ida C. 
Merriam. Washington, G.P.O., 1953. 
Pp. 204. 

Wages and Hours 

59. Printing Industry Parity Committee 
for Montreal and District. Distribution 
of Employees according to Wage Rates 



paid Period: May 1952, Zone 1, Journey- 
men and experienced Bindery Girls. 
Montreal, 1952. Pp. 7. 

60. Quebec (City) Universite Laval. 
Ecole des Sciences Sociales. Departe- 
ment des Relations Industrielles. 
Salaires et Prix. Quebec, 1952. 12 Parts. 

61. Reder, Melvin Warren. The Theory 
of Union Wage Policy. Berkeley, Uni- 
versity of California, 1952. Pp. 34-45. 

62. U.S. Department of Commerce. 
Office of Business Economics. Incomes 
of Physicians, Dentists, and Lawyers, 19J.9- 
51. Washington, G.P.O., 1952. Pp. 5-7. 

Zinc Industry and Trade 

63. American Zinc Institute. A Review 
of the Zinc Industry in 1952. New York. 
1 Pamphlet. 

64. U.S. Bureau of Mines. Materials 
Survey, Zinc, 1950, compiled for the 
Materials Office, National Security 
Resources Board, by the U.S. Dept. of the 
Interior, Bureau of Mines with the co- 
operation of Geological Survey. Wash- 
ington, 1951. 1 Volume. 

Miscellaneous 

65. Ashworth, William. Contracts and 
Finance. London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 309. 

66. Bott, George J. Statement of 
George J. Bott, General Counsel, National 
Labor Relations Board before the Com- 
mittee on Education and Labor of the 
House of Representatives, February 25,, 1953. 
Washington, National Labor Relations 
Board, 1953. Pp. 25. 

67. Canada. Geographical Bureau. An 
Introduction to the Geography of New- 
foundland, by B. V. Outsell. Ottawa, 1949. 
Pp. 85. 

68. International Labour Office. An 
Introduction to Co-operative Practice. 
Geneva, 1952. Pp. 50. 

69. Investor's Reader. Atoms and In- 
dustry. New York, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, 
Fenner & Bean, 1953. Pp. 40. 

70. Littledale, Harold A. Mastering 
Your Disability. New York, Rinehart, 1952. 
Pp. 224. 

71. Mansergh, Nicholas. The Common- 
wealth in Asia. Toronto, Canadian Insti- 
tute of International Affairs, 1953. Pp. 16. 

72. Payne, Stanley Le Baron. The Art 
of asking Questions. Princeton, Princeton 
University Press, 1951. Pp. 249. 



4,722 Disabled Persons Receiving Ontario Pensions 

At the end of its first year in force, pensions under the Ontario Disabled Persons' 
Allowances Act were being paid to 4,722 persons, it was announced in Toronto by Welfare 
Minister Goodfellow. The Act came into effect July 1, 1952 (L.G., Aug. 1952, p. 1092). 



1205 



Labour Statistics 



Page 
A— Labour Force 

D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 

Table A-l — Estimated Distribution of Canadian Manpower 1207 

Table A-2 — Persons Looking for Work in Canada 1207 

Table A-3— Regional Distributions, Week Ended May 16, 1953 1208 

Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Table A-4— Distribution of All Immigrants by Region 1208 

Table A-5 — Distribution of Workers Entering Canada by Occupations 1209 

B— Labour Income 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics Monthly Estimates of Labour Income 
Table B-l— Estimates of Labour Income 1209 

C— Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Employment and Payrolls 

Table C-l — Employment Index Numbers by Provinces 1210 

Table C-2— Employment, Payrolls and Weekly Wages and Salaries 1210 

Table C-3— Summary of Employment, Payrolls and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries 1211 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Man- Hours and Hourly Earnings 

Table C-4 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing 1212 

Table C-5 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing by Provinces and Cities 1212 

Table C-6 — Hours and Earnings by Industry 1213 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 
Table C-7— Real Earnings in Manufacturing 1214 

D— Employment Service Statistics 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table D-l — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants as at First of Month 1215 

Table D-2— Unfilled Vacancies by Industry and by Sex 1216 

Table D-3 — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants by Occupation and by Sex 1217 

Table D-4 — Activities of National Employment Service Offices 1218 

Table D-5 — Applications and Placements Since 1943 1223 

E— Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment Insurance Commission and Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
Report on the Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Table E-l — Number Receiving Benefit with Amount Paid 1223 

Table E-2 — Persons Signing the Live Unemployment Register by Number of Days Continu- 
ously on the Register 1224 

Table E-3 — Claims for Benefit by Provinces and Disposal of Claims 1224 

Table E-4— Claimants Not Entitled to Benefit with Reasons for Non-Entitlement 1225 

Table E-5 — Estimates of the Insured Population 1225 

Table E-6 — Unemployment Insurance Fund 1226 

F— Prices 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table F-l— Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada 1227 

Table F-la— Consumer Price Index Numbers, Canada 1228 

Table F-2— Index Numbers of the Cost of Living for Nine Cities of Canada 1229 

Table F-3— Index Numbers of Staple Food Items 1229 

Table F-4— Retail Prices of Staple Foods and Coal by Cities 1230 

Table F-5 — Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada and Other Countries 1234 

Table F-6 — Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada 1235 

G— Strikes and Lockouts 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table G-l— Strikes and Lockouts in Canada by Month 1236 

Table G-2 — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada During June 1237 

1206 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l.— ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN MANPOWER 

(Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey- 



Week Ended May 16, 1953 



Total 



Males 



Females 



Week Ended April 18, 1953 



Total 



Males 



Females 



Total civilian noninstitutional population 

A. Civilian labour force 

Persons at work 

35 hours or more 

Less than 35 hours 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a) Laid off for part of the week 

(b) on short time 

(c) lost job during the week 

(d) found job during the week 

(e) bad weather 

(f) illness 

(g) industrial dispute 

(h) vacation 

(i) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons with jobs not at work 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a) laid off for full week 

(b) bad weather 

(c) illness 

(d) industrial dispute ,. . 

(e) vacation 

(f) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs and seeking work 0) 

B. Persons not in the labour force 

(a) permanently unable or too old to work 

(b) keeping house 

(c) going to school 

(d) retired or voluntarily idle 

(e) other 



10,006 
5,321 
5,108 
4,720 
388 
177 

25 

* 

20 
* 20 
24 
73 
211 
99 
96 
11 

54 
20 



114 

4,685 

181 

3,316 

663 

509 

16 



4,995 
4,151 
3,969 
3,767 
202 
130 

19 



102 

844 

115 

* 

334 

383 

10 



5,011 



170 

139 

95:] 

ISO 

47 



10 
24 
139 
19 
18 



12 

3,841 

66 

3,314 

329 

126 



10,002 
5,241 
4,941 
4,645 
296 
104 



16 
192 
135 
131 

27 



165 

4,761 

175 

3,338 

681 

547 

20 



4,993 
4,097 
3,834 
3,674 
160 



20 



14 
72 
112 
109 
24 
i 

* 50 
13 
14 



151 
896 

• 117 

346 

419 

12 



5,009 

1,144 

1,107 

971 

136 

16 



120 
23 
22 



14 

3,865 

58 

3,336 

335 

128 



U> Included here are only those who did not work during the entire survey week and were reported looking for work. 
For all those who were reported as seeking work during the survey week, see Table A-2. 
* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended May 16, 1953 


Week Ended April 18, 1953 





Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 




124 

114 
36 

38 

27 

10 

* 

* 

10 

* 
* 


113 
105 

* 


11 

* 
* 
* 


176 

165 
46 
62 
42 

10 

• 

^ 11 


158 
151 

• 


18 




14 
















7-12 months 




13-18 months 








Worked 


* 




* 




* 







Less than 10,000. 



1207 



TABLE A-3.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS, WEEK ENDED MAY 16, 1953 

(Estimates in thousands) 



Canada 



Nfld. 



P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Man. 

Sask. 
Alta. 



B.C. 



The Labour Force 

Both Sexes 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Males... 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

All ages 

14-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-44 years 

45-64 years 

65 years and over 

Persons with Jobs 

All status groups 

Males 

Females 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Paid workers 

Males 

Females 

Persons without Jobs and Seeking Work 
Both Sexes 

Persons not in the Labour Force 

Both sexes 

Males 

Females 



5,321 

892 

4,429 

4,151 

843 
3,308 

1,170 
49 

1,121 

5,231 

498 

734 

2,461 

1,414 

214 



5,207 
4,049 
1,158 

887 
4,320 

3,902 
2,870 
1,032 



108 

100 



20 



108 

14 
18 

50 

23 



103 
83 
20 



101 



65 
341 

327 
62 

265 

79 
76 



39 
55 

184 
108 
20 



1,512 

212 

1,300 

1,177 
207 
970 

335 

330 

1,512 
179 
240 
697 
355 
41 



1,903 

219 

1,684 

1,453 

208 

1,245 

450 

11 

439 

1,903 
152 
241 
886 
540 
84 



390 
311 

79 

64 
326 

285 
216 



1,469 

1,139 

330 

211 
1,258 

1,139 
835 
304 



1,876 

1,429 

447 

218 
1,658 

1,510 

1,102 

408 



960 
372 

588 

773 
347 
426 

187 
25 
162 



130 
435 
259 
47 



949 
764 
185 

371 

578 

533 

384 
149 



432 
22 
410 

333 

17 

316 

99 



432 
25 
50 
209 
129 
19 



420 

323 

97 



351 
266 

85 



43 



27 



4,685 

844 

3,841 



130 
35 



438 

87 

351 



1,306 

215 

1,091 



1,541 

252 

1,289 



838 
153 
685 



432 
102 
330 



Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-l.— DISTRIBUTION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 













B.C. 


Canada 


Adult 


Month 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Total 


Males 


1949— Total 


2,777 


18,005 


48,607 


17,904 


7,924 


95,217 


39,044 


1950— Total 


2,198 


13,575 


39,041 


12,975 


6,123 


73,912 


30,700 


1951— Total 


3,928 


46,033 


104,842 


25, 165 


14,423 


194,391 


95,818 


1952— Total 


4,531 


35,318 


86,059 


23,560 


15,030 


164,498 


66,083 


1952— Jan.-May 


2,065 


18,173 


44,270 


10,673 


6,907 


82,088 


37,786 


1953— Jan.-May 


1,912 


11,099 


30,982 


10,901 


5,066 


59,960 


24,727 



1208 



TABLE A-5.— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


c 

11 
11 


"3 

9 

5 


§ 1 

'■3 cS 

03 o 

M 

2 I 


T3 
C 

is 
fe s 
fig 
a| 

o.S 


1 
> 
a; 

OS 


"3 

a 

"3 

fee 


S3 

.2 o 


.13 
bd c 
C cS c 

111 
1-3? 

CS 03 O 


to 

03 
b 
3 
O 


co 

03 

6 


to 

03 

O 

la 
o 

H 


1951— Total 


4,001 
7,054 

2,685 

3,644 


5,317 
6,900 

3,083 

2,371 








25,890 
16,971 

9,572 

7,955 








5,402 
1,526 

793 

382 


114,786 


1952— Total 














85,029 


1952— Jan. -May 

1953— Jan.-May 














46,060 


698 


1,276 


4,342 


281 


9,282 


2,439 


32,670 



Due to changes in occupational classifications, comparisons with earlier periods can not be made for all groups. 
Where possible, comparisons are indicated in the above table. 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 



Manu- 
facturing 



Construc- 



Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 



Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 



Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 



Total 



1 943 — Average . . . 
1944 — Average. . . 
1945 — Average . . . 
1946 — Average . . . 
1947 — Average. . . 
1948 — Average . . . 
11949— Average. . 
1950— Average. . . 
1951 — Average. . . 
1952— Average . . . 

1950— December . 

1951 — January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December . 

1952 — January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December . 

1953 — January. . . 
February . . 

March 

April 



168 
171 
156 
147 
177 
203 
214 
231 
270 



251 

249 
252 
257 
263 
266 
273 
273 
277 
282 
280 
280 
286 

279 
284 
290 
291 
292 
292 
294 
304 
312 
314 
318 
322 

317 
322 
325 
326 



95 
100 
114 
134 
154 
169 
180 
208 
230 

193 

189 
190 
193 
199 
205 
211 
212 
214 
217 
219 
223 
222 

215 
216 
218 
222 
227 
231 
234 
234 
236 
239 
242 
245 

247* 
235 
236 
253* 



78 
83 
90 
103 
114 
131 
147 
156 
178 
197 

162 

164 
162 
175 
171 
177 
179 
179 
180 
182 
188 
191 
188 

188 
193 
193 
193 
197 
200- 
201 
197 
198 
202 
202 
205 



207 
213 
213 



399 
412 
413 
444 
518 
597 
647 
693 
806 
895 

746 

734 
733 
750 
765 
794 
818 
820 
832 
847 
858 
867 



839 
849 
852 
852 
875 
885 
901 
919 
931 
946 
952 
942 



924 



t Includes Newfoundland, since 1949. 



Includes retroactive wage payment to railway employees. 



1209 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 



TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT INDEX NUMBERS BY PROVINCES 

(Average calendar year 1939 = 100.) (The latest figures are subject to revision.) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At May 1, employers in the 

principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,403,162. 



Year and Month 






£8 

Zee 






a 



■^ s 

'Co 

mo 



1947— Average 

1948 — Average 

1949 — Average 

1950 — Average 

1951 — Average 

1952 — Average 

Jan. 1, 1952 

Feb. 1, 1952 

Mar. 1, 1952 

Apr. 1, 1952 

May 1, 1952 

June 1, 1952 

July 1, 1952 

Aug. 1, 1952 

Sept. 1, 1952 

Oct. 1, 1952 

Nov. 1, 1952 

Dec. 1, 1952 

Jan. 1, 1953 

Feb. 1, 1953 

Mar. 1, 1953 

Apr. 1, 1953 

May 1, 1953 

Percentage Distribution of Employees of Re- 
porting Establishments at May 1, 1953. 



146-5 
161-0 
157-0 
173-1 
176-8 
193-4 
175-2 
183-4 
160-6 
213-4 
175-6 
191-7 
199-4 
207-9 
209-2 
205-4 
199-8 
199-0 
184-4 
176-5 
167-6 
168-0 
177-6 



137-2 
148-4 
149-0 
142-5 
149-4 
155-0 
149-2 
150-9 
146-7 
148-9 
146-2 
151-5 
160-6 
160-4 
163-8 
163-6 
160-2 
158-0 
154-5 
151-1 
146-7 
145-5 
146-5 



172-7 
174-2 
165-6 
169-9 
180-5 
181-3 
190-7 
186-3 
185-3 



192 

167 

174 

ITS 

172 

1S3 

186 

177-1 

180-9 

178-9 

167-3 

164-3 

161-3 

159-1 



150-9 
156-2 
154-3 
155-0 
168-5 
175-0 
171-7 
169-0 
169-6 
166-4 
164-2 
170-9 
177-3 
183-5 
179-3 
182-1 
182-8 
183-1 
175-6 
171-3 
170-6 
169-1 
171-9 



163-9 
171-2 
173-1 
177-7 
191-0 
193-8 
190-3 
187-6 
187-5 
187-6 
188-3 
191-6 
196-5 
195-9 
198-3 
200-7 
200-4 
200-7 
198-2 
195-7 
195-4 
196-0 
197-0 



156-0 
162-0 
166 

168 
173 
176 
173 



167-8 
168-8 
170-9 
176-6 
179-2 
182-7 
182-7 
183-0 
182-6 
183-9 
177-9 
173-3 
170-9 
171-5 
174-8 



135-8 
139-0 
139-7 
140-8 
148-1 
155-7 
152-1 
142-4 
141-7 
142-0 
147-3 
158-5 
162-3 
166-1 
164-2 
162-4 
164-2 



158-9 
168-9 
180-3 
188-5 
202-6 
217-9 
206-0 
201-7 
201-8 
201-6 
207-0 
214-1 
222-4 
231-5 
235-3 
230-7 
231-3 
231-6 
226-6 
219.3 
221-3 
219-3 
223-3 



174-1 
181-6 
179-3 
180-7 
190-3 
191-3 
186-4 
179-9 
183-9 
188-6 
192-7 
195-1 
171-2 
183-9 
201-9 
206-3 
205-2 
200-8 
190-7 
181-1 
183-1 
187-5 
190-8 



100-0 



0-2 



3-4 2-3 29-0 43-6 5-2 2-3 5-0 



Note:— The percentage distribution given above shows the proportion of employees in the indicated province, to 
the'total number of employees reported in Canada by the firms making returns at the latest date. 

TABLE C-2.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1939 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 









Industrial Composite 1 


Manufacturing 




Year and Month 


Index Numbers 


Average 

weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 




Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


1939- 


-Ave 

-Ave 
-Ave 
-Ave 
-Ave 
-Ave 
-Ave 




100-0 

158-3 

165-0 
165-5 
168-0 
180-2 
184-7 
181-0 
177-8 
178-0 
177-9 
177-4 
182-5 
185-5 
188-8 
190-6 
192-6 
192-3 
192-2 
187-0 
182-5 
182-0 
182-0 
184-0 


100-0 

245-2 
282-9 
303-7 
321-8 
381-3 
426-1 
388-8 
402-9 
409-0 
411-5 
410-6 
420-2 
426-3 
433-3 
442-7 
452-2 
455-8 
459-5 
428-7 
441-1 
445-0 
444-4 
450-8 


100-0 

154-4 
170-9 
183-3 
191-3 
211-6 
230-9 
215-1 
226-9 
230-2 
231-7 
231-8 
230-7 
230-2 
229-9 
232-7 
235-2 
237-4 
239-4 
229-6 
242-0 
244-9 
244-6 
245-3 


$ 23.44 

36.19 
40.06 
42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
50.42 
53.19 
53.95 
54.32 
54.34 
54.08 
53.96 
53.89 
54.55 
55.12 
55.65 
56.12 
53.81 
56.72 
57.40 
57.33 
• 57.51 


100-0 

171-0 
176-0 
175-9 
177-5 
190-0 
192-4 
183-6 
185-2 
187-3 
188-3 
188-7 
190-9 
191-4 
194-1 
198-5 
200-8 
199-8 
199-6 
196-3 
197-6 
199-5 
201-1 
201-5 


100-0 

272-7 
314-1 
339-2 
360-2 
427-6 
474-0 
417-8 
449-9 
458-0 
467-2 
468-4 
470-1 
470- 1 
474-6 
490-9 
503-0 
505-7 
512-2 
473-2 
510-3 
518-7 
524-5 
525-7 


100-0 

159-5 
178-5 
192-9 
202-8 
224-9 
246-2 
227-4 
242-9 
244-5 
248-1 
248-1 
246-2 
245-5 
244-4 
247-3 
250-5 
253-0 
256-5 
241-0 
258-1 
260-0 
260-8 
260-8 


$ 22.79 


1947- 




36.34 


1948- 




40.67 


1949- 




43.97 


1950- 




46.21 


1951- 




51.25 


1952- 




56.11 




1952 


51.82 


Feb. 




1952 


55.36 




1952 


55.73 


Apr. 
May 


1952 


56.55 


1952 


56.55 


1952 


56.10 


July 


1952 


55.95 


Aug. 
Sept. 


1952 


55.71 


1952 


56.36 


Oct. 


1952 


57.09 




1952 


57.66 


Dec. 


1952 


58.46 




1953 


54.93 


Feb. 


1953 


58.83 




1953 


59.25 




1953 


59.44 


May 


1953 


59.44 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging) (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells. (3) Manufacturing. 
(4) Construction. (5) Transportation, storage and communication. (6) Public utility operation. (7) Trade. (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recre- 
ational service). 



1210 



TABLE C-3.— AREA AND INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS 
AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1939 = 100) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 







Index Numbers (1939 


= 100) 




Average Wee 
Wages and Sa 


kly 


Area and Industry 


Employment 


Payrolls 






May 1 
1953 


Apr. 1 
1953 


May 1 
1952 


May 1 
1953 


Apr. 1 
1953 


May 1 
1952 


May 1 

1953 


Apr. 1 
1953 


Mav 1 
1952 


(a) Provinces 


177-6 
146-5 
159-1 
171-9 
197-0 
174-8 
152-5 
223-3 
190-8 

184 

109-8 
206-7 
165-3 
166-4 
168-7 
164-9 
173-8 
189-3 
188-7 
193-8 
307-6 
314-4 
243-4 
210-0 
208-4 
191-0 
167-4 
184-8 
185-1 
204-7 
311-2 
247-5 
260-4 
237-6 
176-6 
177-9 
199-0 
307-7 
230-0 
200-5 
231-9 

93-0 
120-5 
201-5 
264-4 
161-0 
175-0 

183-1 
195-4 
181-0 
182-6 
190-7 

184-0 


168-0 
145-5 
161-3 
169-1 
196-0 
171-5 
147-7 
219-3 
187-5 

182 

110-6 
215-5 
186-0 
162-3 
169-6 
157-9 
172-4 
187-2 
188-7 
191-0 
308-1 
305-6 
243-2 
209-1 
207-9 
193-3 
165-0 
183-9 
182-7 
202-8 
313-3 
243-8 
256-3 
231-1 
174-3 
175-1 
190-6 
295-9 
228-8 
200-8 
229-3 

123-9 
120-6 
201-1 
263-3 
160-9 
156-8 

176-7 
192-4 
180-1 
182-5 
189-3 

182-0 


175-6 
146-2 
167-4 
164-2 
188-3 
170-9 
147-3 
207-0 
192-7 

177 4 

111-7 
209-9 
170-6 
153-8 
170-4 
171-1 
184-7 
177-7 
187-1 
196-1 
251-3 
269-5 
238-1 
196-0 
202-5 
211-4 
152-9 
170-6 
174-2 
189-1 
311-6 
234-1 
238-2 
226-2 
171-3 
164-6 
189-0 
257-2 
219-8 
202-4 
223-7 

123-1 
122-4 
188-7 
243-3 
153-5 
174-2 

181-1 
188-4 
173-2 
178-3 
183-7 

177-4 


406-1 
337-4 
386-1 
440-1 
480-0 
374-1 
340-8 
513-8 
467-7 

450 8 

292-6 
415-1 
345-7 
419-2 
409-4 
435-9 
474-8 
461-3 
417-9 
547-7 
876-0 
924-5 
663-2 
499-3 
533-2 
532-0 
441-0 
478-6 
432-5 
474-0 
803-1 
618-8 
629-9 
565-7 
374-7 
391-0 
443-6 
770-4 
495-1 
472-1 
546-7 

321-2 
284-0 
525-7 
696-8 
402-9 
556-5 

392-5 
429-5 
402-5 
327-4 
420-9 

450-8 


384-9 
332-2 
394-5 
435-4 
475-7 
363-6 
327-3 
498-2 
451-7 

414-4 

278-6 
439-3 
384-6 
407-2 
418-4 
423-3 
477-1 
454-7 
417-3 
548-8 
888-6 
897-8 
659-7 
494-4 
532-6 
527-8 
435-2 
476-8 
427-3 
465-4 
812-7 
618-3 
629-2 
535-7 
367-6 
383-8 
423-6 
723-1 
487-9 
466-3 
537-7 

428-6 
280-7 
524-5 
694-9 
402-1 
509-5 

372-2 
425-1 
396-3 
325-0 
415-1 

444-4 


364-6 
324-9 
383-8 
401-0 
432-2 
342-6 
307-8 
441-6 
444-5 

410-6 

294-9 
399-9 
342-5 
359-8 
392-9 
422-5 
460-5 
409-8 
391-1 
538-3 
675-0 
701-7 
622-1 
439-6 
490-0 
588-8 
376-7 
416-0 
389-0 
416-0 
756-7 
554-8 
575-3 
505-5 
343-2 
344-7 
396-9 
562-9 
451-6 
455-0 
501-6 

400-8 
276-1 
468-4 
608-2 
368-0 
512-9 

358-9 
395-6 
363-9 
304-3 
376-1 

410-6 


$ 

45.52 
49.38 
49.35 
54.51 
59.71 
55.06 
54.12 
58.52 
63.72 

57.51 

59.56 
47.20 
44.80 
46.94 
47.15 
52.90 
52.30 
55.68 
51.22 
59.70 
67.22 
71.03 
66.86 
60.06 
61.88 
57.87 
54.15 
54.97 
70.14 
54.79 
71.44 
69.61 
64.14 
60.77 
51.80 
50.06 
49.32 
58.98 
55.50 
59.06 
56.51 

59.81 
68.02 
59.44 
64.04 
54.57 
59.77 

61.32 
64.73 
48.58 
52.17 
37.05 

57.51 


$ 

45.61 

48.97 
49.72 
54.83 
59.48 
54.52 
53.64 
57.78 
62.64 

57.33 

56.31 
47.90 
44.30 
46.74 
47.95 
53.65 
52.97 
55.51 
51.14 
60.71 
68.08 
70.97 
66.55 
59.73 
61.97 
56.72 
54.18 
55.03 
70.23 
54.29 
71.81 
70.59 
65.10 
59.17 
51.48 
49.94 
49.18 
57.56 
54.99 
58.25 
56.20 

59.89 
67.19 
59.44 
64.12 
54.51 
61.07 

60.26 
65.05 
48.06 
51.84 
36.80 

57.33 


$ 
41.32 




47.62 




46.53 




52.00 




56.27 




51.57 




50.66 




54.27 




59.97 


CANADA 


54.34 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 


59.01 




44.62 




43.02 




43.60 




44.74 




49.40 




47.73 




52.73 


Ottawa— Hull 


48.42 




57.98 




63.53 




62.75 




64.12 


Toronto 

Hamilton 


56.66 
58.59 
57.83 


Gait 


50.55 




51.81 




67.09 




52.09 




67.32 


Windsor 


66.07 


Sault Ste. Marie 


64.20 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


56.81 




48.87 




47.42 


Saskatoon 


46.60 
51.48 


Calgary 


52.88 


Vancouver 


56.37 




53.74 


(c) Industries 


56.38 


Mining 


65.09 


Manufacturing 


56.55 


Durable Goods * 


60.73 




52.28 


Construction 


55 35 


Transportation, storage, communi- 
cation 


56.70 




61.82 


Trade 


45.91 


Service 2 


49.65 
34.22 


Industrial composite 


54.34 



1 Includes wood products, iron and steel products, transportation equipment, non-ferrous metal products, electrical 
apparatus and supplies and non-metallic mineral products. The non-durable group includes the remaining manufacturing 
industries. 

2 Mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants and business and recreational services. 



1211 



76944— S 



Tables C-4 to C-6 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables Ol to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available, whereas Tables C-l t« 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly earnings, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



All Manufactures 



Average 
Hours 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



Durable Goods 



Average 
Hours 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



Non-Durable Goods 



Average 
Hours 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



1945- 
1946- 

1947- 
1948- 
1949- 
1950- 
1951— 
1952- 

*Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec. 

"Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
Mav 



-Average . 
-Average . 
-Average. 
-Average. 
-Average. 
•Average . 
-Average . 
-Average . 



, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1952. 

, 1953. 

, 1953. 

, 1953. 

, 1953. 

, 1953. 



No. 

44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 

38-1 
41-6 
41-7 
42-1 
41-9 
41-3 
41-3 
41-1 
41-6 
42-1 
42-1 
42-5 

38-3 
41-9 
42-1 
42-1 
41-9 



cts. 

69-4 
700 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 

127-1 
127-1 
127-8 
129-0 
129-4 
129-7 
128-6 
128-9 
129-5 
129-9 
131-0 
132-1 

134-0 

134-2 
134-4 
134-9 
135-6 



30.74 
29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 

48.43 
52.87 
53.29 
54.31 
54.22 
53.57 
53.11 
52.98 
53.87 
54.69 
55.15 
56.14 

51.32 
56.23 
56.58 
56.79 
56.82 



No. 

44-7 
42-8 
42-7 
42-3 
42-5 
42-5 
42-0 
41-6 

38-3 
41-9 
41-8 
42-3 
42-1 
41-4 
41-4 
41-1 
41-8 
42-2 
42-1 
42-6 

38-5 
41-9 
42-4 
42-3 
42-2 



cts. 

76-7 
76-4 
87-2 
98-4 
106-5 
112-0 
125-8 
139-8 

136-4 
137-5 
138-4 
139-6 
139-5 
139-6 
138-3 
139-4 
141-2 
141-8 
142-6 
143-6 

144-5 
145-7 
146-3 
146-7 
146-9 



34.28 
32-70 
37.23 
41.62 
45.26 
47.60 
52.84 
58.16 

52.24 
57.61 
57.85 
59.05 
58.73 
57.79 
57.26 
57.29 
59.02 
59.84 
60.03 
61.17 

55.63 
61.05 
62.03 
62.05 
61.99 



No. 

43-7 
42-6 
42-3 
42-0 
42-0 
42-2 
41-7 
41-3 

37-9 
41-2 
41-5 
41-8 
41-6 



41-3 
41-2 
41-1 
41-4 
42-0 
42-1 
42-2 



38-2 
41-8 
41-7 
41-8 
41-5 



cts. 

60-7 
63-8 
73-4 
840 
90-6 
95-2 
107-2 
117-4 

116-8 
115-7 
116-0 
116-9 
117-8 
118-4 
117-9 
117-5 
116-8 
117-0 
118-4 
119-3 

121-8 
120-8 
120-7 
121-3 
122-4 



26.53 
27.18 
31.05 
35.28 
38.05 
40.17 
44.70 
48.49 

44.27 
47.67 
48.14 
48.86 
49-00 
48.90 
48.57 
48.29 
48.36 
49.14 
49.85 
50.34 

46.53 
50.49 
50.33 
50.70 
50.80 



•The averages at these dates were affected by loss of working time at the year-end holidays in the case of January 1 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

AND CITIES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




Mav 1, 
1953 


Apr. 1, 
1953 


May 1. 
1952 


Mav 1, 
1953 


Apr. 1, 
1953 


May 1, 
1952 




42-8 
42-0 
42-5 
43-3 
41-5 
40-9 
40-8 
40-6 
38-4 

42-3 
41-0 
40-4 
43-0 
40-6 
38-2 


42-2 
41-7 
42-3 
43-6 
41-7 
40-9 
41-3 
40-4 
38-1 

42-6 
41-1 
40-8 
43-7 
40-6 
37-7 


43-0 
42-6 
43-7 
43-5 
41-2 
40-9 
41-1 
40-4 
38-6 

42-7 
40-7 
39-8 
42-2 
40-6 
38-0 


131-6 
121-5 
120-5 
121-1 
143-6 
131-1 
134-3 
139-5 
164-6 

127-7 
143-4 
155-5 
164-8 
130-0 
1610 


130-2 

121-1 
119-4 
120-6 
143-0 
130- 1 
135-0 
137-5 
163-9 

127-4 
142-7 
155-8 
1651 
128-8 
160-4 


124-6 




115-4 




114-3 




115-2 




137-6 




121-6 




129-4 




130-3 




157-8 




120-5 


Toronto 


136-1 




148-2 




159-3 




120- 1 




154-9 







1212 



TABLE C-6.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

•Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

*Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

•Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 

* Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

•Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



Average Hours 



May 1 Apr. 1 May 1 
1953 1953 1952 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



May 1 Apr. 1 May 1 
1953 1953 1952 



cts. 

153 

156 
133 

171 
153 

149 
165 
143 
135 

116 
143 
103 
127 
102 
140 
134 
144 
95 
92 
107 
110 
101 
108 
95 
94 
100 
95 
120 
128 
109 
103 
150 
160 
119 
157 
152 
162 
160 
135 
134 
149 
144 
169 
142 
156 
154 
169 
156 
157 
146 
150 
141 
142 
162 
142 
156 
133 
124 
129 
181 
137 
112 
157 
111 
146 
122 
142 
157 
106 
134 
78 
77 
75 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



May 1 Apr. 1 May 1 
1953 1953 1952 



65.06 

69.42 

61.67 

74.21 

58.29 

55.24 

70.09 

61.33 

56 82 

48.31 

58.05 

40.68 

52.02 

45.44 

58.51 

55.47 

59.99 

39.61 

37 

45.15 

43.02 

44.41 

49.50 

37.43 

37.69 

36.14 

39.21 

50.81 

53.36 

47 

45.23 

65.83 

71.35 

50.42 

63.55 

63.63 

64.79 

66.48 

58.17 

56.28 

64.46 

61.90 

67 

58.30 

66.87 

67.05 

74.11 

66.17 

64.77 

63.55 

62.48 

60.01 

59.95 

66.87 

59.32 

65.02 

58.52 

55.92 

58.79 

76.45 

58.19 

46.40 

65.01 

46.55 

61.99 

50.80 

59.22 

63.90 

43.61 

60.57 

32.96 

33.38 

31.35 



63.79 

69.08 

61.24 

73.81 

54.45 

49.64 

73.09 

61.26 

56.79 

48.60 

59.39 

42.10 

53.76 

45.43 

57.87 

49.80 

60.14 

39.87 

38.58 

45. 

44.27 

45.13 

49.51 

38 

38.18 

38.48 

39.48 

50.52 

53.11 

47.11 

45.58 

65.31 

70.74 

50.13 

63.35 

63.56 

62.01 

65.18 

58.70 

55.48 

64.80 

62 

68.66 

58.26 

67.24 

70.09 

75.51 

66.36 

63.15 

62.15 

61.92 

58. 

59.60 

66.34 

59.61 

66.52 

59.01 

55.95 

59.17 

73.45 

56.94 

45.92 

64.80 

45.73 

62.05 

50.70 

60.40 

63.35 

47.91 

60.03 

32.73 

32.90 

31.54 



62.46 

65.28 
60.17 
68.87 
59.02 
56.44 
69.56 
57.86 
54.22 
47.22 
59.52 
37.41 
53.78 
43.39 
57.08 
52.74 
55.87 
37.19 
36.00 
42.48 
37.76 
42.97 
47.29 
35.40 
34.96 
35.75 
36.29 
48.76 
51.69 
44.53 
42.74 
62.91 
68.43 
45.60 
58.67 
60.89 
64.84 
63.86 
54.91 
53.30 
60.15 
59.43 
65.01 
54.78 
62.03 
65.57 
68.34 
63.60 
57.25 
59.85 
60.36 
55.67 
57.49 
65.54 
56.62 
61.90 
55.45 
53.55 
55.02 
71.11 
56.05 
43.40 
63.68 
43.41 
58.73 
49.00 
54.95 
59.67 
41.82 
57.85 
31.76 
32.02 
30.22 



'Durable manufactured goods industries. 



76944— 8i 



1213 



TABLE C- 



7.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 



Source: Hours Worked and Hourly and Weekly Wages, D.B.S. Real Wages computed by the Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of Labour 



Date 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 

Earnings 
(W.E.) 



Index Numbers (A v. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 
Price 
Index- 



Average 

ReaWeekly 

Earnings 



Monthly Average 1945. . 
Monthly Average 1946. . , 
Monthly Average 1947. . 
Monthly Average 1948. . . 
Monthly Average 1949. . 
Monthly Average 1950. . 
Monthly Average 1951 . . 
Monthly Average 1952. . 

Week Preceding: 

May 1,1952... 

June 1,1952... 

July 1,1952... 

August 1,1952... 
September 1, 1952... 
October 1,1952... 
November 1, 1952... 
December 1, 1952... 

January 1, 1953... 

February 1,1953... 

March 1,1953... 

April 1,1953... 

May 1, 1953C) 



44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-5 
42-1 
41-7 



41-7 
41-3 
41-3 
41-1 
41-6 
421 
42-1 
42-5 

42-2" 
41-9 
42-1 
42-1 
41-9 



69-4 
70-0 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 



129-4 
129-7 
128-6 
128-9 
129-5 
129-9 
131-0 
132-1 

134-0 
134-2 
134-4 
134-9 
135-6 



30-71 
29-87 
34-13 
38-53 
41-71 
44-03 
49-15 
53-88 



53-96 
53-57 
53-11 
52-98 
53-87 
54-69 
55 15 
5614 

56-55 
56-23 
56-58 
56-79 
56-82 



73-6 
71-6 
81-8 
92-4 
100-0 
105-6 
117-8 
129-2 



129-4 

128-4 



127- 
127- 

129 
131 
132 
134 



135-6 
134-8 
135-7 
136-2 
136-2 



750 
77-5 

84-8 
97-0 
100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 



115-9 
116-0 
116-1 
116-0 
116-1 
116-0 
116-1 
115-8 

115-7 
115-5 
114-6 
114-4 
114-9 



98-1 
92-4 
96-5 
95-3 
100-0 
102-6 
103-6 
110-9 



111-6 
110-7 
109-6 
109-5 
111-3 
113-0 
113-9 
116-1 

117-2 
116-7 
118-4 
119-1 
118-5 



Note:— Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100). 

*Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures are: January 1, 1953, 38-3 hours, $51.32. 
(*> Latest figures subject to revision. 



1214 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 



Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular 
statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These 
statistics are compiled from two different 
reporting forms, UIC 751: statistical report 
on employment operations by industry, and 
UIC 757: inventory of registrations and 
vacancies by occupation. The data on 
applicants and vacancies in these two 
reporting forms are not identical. 

Form UIC 751: This form provides a 
cumulative total for each month of all 
vacancies notified by employers, applications 
made by workers, and referrals and place- 
ments made by the National Employment 
Service. Also reported are the number of 
vacancies unfilled and applications on file 
at the beginning and end of each reporting 
period. Because the purpose of these data 
is to give an indication of the volume of 
work performed in various local National 
Employment Service offices, all vacancies 
and applications are counted, even if the 
vacancy is not to be filled until some future 
date (deferred vacancy) or the application 
is from a person who already has a job 
and wants to find a more suitable one. 

Form UIC 757: This form provides a 
count of the number of jobs available and 
applications on file at the end of business 
on a specified day. Excluded from the data 
on unfilled vacancies are orders from 
employers not to be filled until some future 
date. The data on job applications from 
workers exclude those people known to be 
already employed, those known to be regis- 



tered at more than one local office (the 
registration is counted by the "home" office), 
and registrations from workers who will not 
be available until some specified future date. 

From January 24, 1952, to December 24, 
1952, inclusive, unemployment insurance 
claimants on temporary mass lay-offs were 
not registered for employment and thus were 
not included in the statistics reported on 
form UIC 751 and form UIC 757. A 
temporary mass lay-off was defined as a 
lay-off either for a determinate or indeter- 
minate period which affected 50 or more 
workers and where the workers^ affected, so 
far as was known, were returning to work 
with the same employer. Commencing 15 
days after the date of such a lay-off, 
claimants still on the live insurance register 
were registered for employment on their next 
visit to the office and henceforth were 
counted in both statistical reporting forms. 
This procedure is no longer in effect, as all 
workers on temporary mass lay-offs now are 
registered f